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Malawi Government
ISTANBUL PROGRAMME OF ACTION
REPORT OF IMPLEMENTATION
National Focal Point for Least Developed Countries
Ministry of Economic Planning and Development
P.O Box 30136
Capital City
Lilongwe 3
Malawi.
12th October, 2012
1
PROGRESS REPORT ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE
ISTANBUL PROGRAMME OF ACTION FOR MALAWI
1.0
INTRODUCTION
The Istanbul Programme of Action (IPoA) for Least Developed
Countries (LDCs), for the decade 2011-2020, provides a specific set of goals
and targets in eight key priority areas namely: (1) Productive Capacity; (2)
Agriculture, Food Security and Rural Development; (3) Trade; (4)
Commodities; (5) Human and Social Development; (6) Multiple Crisis and
other Emerging Challenges; (7) Mobilizing Financial Resources for
Development and Capacity Building; and (8) Good governance at all levels.
The commitments undertaken and the actions identified in the IPoA, if fully
and effectively implemented, will improve the difficult social and economic
conditions faced by LDCs including Malawi.
Despite the efforts of the Government of Malawi and the Development
Partners, Malawi is still an LDC and is ranked 171 out of 187 countries on the
2011 Human Development Index (HDI). Efforts to reduce poverty and meet
the MDGs are facing a number of challenges including insufficient resources.
According to the 2012 Malawi Millennium Development Goals Report, Malawi
is likely to meet only four of the eight MGD goals. the goals likely to be met
are those relating to (i) Reducing child mortality; (ii) Combating HIV and
AIDS, Malaria and other diseases; (iii) Ensuring Environmental Sustainability;
and (iv) Develop Global Partnership for Development. Malawi is, however,
facing difficulties in attaining the goals relating to (i) Eradicating Extreme
Poverty and Hunger; (ii) Achieving Universal Primary Education; (iii)
Promoting Gender and Empower Women; and (iv) Improving Maternal
Health. In order to fast-track attainment of the MGD Goals on which Malawi is
lagging behind, Government is developing an MDG Acceleration Framework.
Malawi is aware that poverty reduction and empowerment of the local
population depends on increased resources, strengthened national policies
and institutions, and on protecting the most vulnerable. It is against this
background that Malawi is committed to implementing the Istanbul
Programme of Action.
2.0 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ISTANBUL PROGRAMME OF ACTION
The Government of Malawi is implementing the IPoA through the
Malawi Growth and Development Strategy II (MGDS II) whose key priority
areas are linked with the IPoA critical areas as indicated in Annex 1 below.
The MGDS II has a five-year implementation period (2011-2016). It is an
overarching medium term development strategy designed to attain Malawi’s
long term aspiration of becoming a middle income economy by the year 2020
as it has been articulated in the Vision 2020. The main objective of the MGDS
II is to reduce poverty through sustainable economic growth and
infrastructure development.
2
Formulation of MGDS II was very consultative to ensure ownership and
effective implementation. In this regard, various stakeholder including the
three arms of the Government (the Executive, Parliament and Judiciary); civil
society and faith based organisations; the private sector and the general
public are actively participating in the implementation of the MGDS II.
Government of Malawi is leading the implementation through technical
consolidation and its coordinated national budget.
MGDS II identifies 6 thematic areas namely: Sustainable Economic
Growth; Social Development; Social Support and Disaster Risk Management;
Infrastructure Development; Improved Governance and Cross Cutting issues.
In addition, the MGDS II has nine key priority areas drawn from the six
themes and these are: (1) Agriculture and Food Security; (2) Transport
Infrastructure; (3) Energy, Industrial Development, Mining and Tourism; (4)
Education, Science and Technology; (5) Public health, Sanitation, Malaria and
HIV and AIDS Management; (6) Integrated Rural Development; (7) Green
Belt Irrigation and Water Development; (8) Child Development, Youth
Development and Empowerment; and (9) Climate Change, Natural Resources
and Environmental Management. Successful implementation of these Themes
and Key Priority Areas is expected spur economic growth in Malawi and
contribute to poverty reduction.
In view of this, the Malawi Government is using the existing structures
to implement the Istanbul Programme of Action (IPOA). As already noted, the
MGDS II has incorporated the IPOA’s eight priority areas; thereby simplifying
its implementation. The Ministry of Economic Planning and Development,
which is coordinating implementation of the IPoA in Malawi, has also
developed an implementation plan to ensure that IPoA activities are
implemented in a coordinated and systematic manner. The implementation
plan has clearly outlined the activities that need to be implemented in the
short, medium and long terms. This is important because the success of some
activities will depend on effective implementation of other activities hence the
need to properly sequence these activities.
2.1
Malawi’s Experiences
In 2001, Malawi started implementing the Brussels Programme of
Action (BPoA), which was a ten year programme for the LDCs i.e. 2001-2010.
The BPoA contained multiple sets of actions and commitments including
social, economic, political and environmental issues. It was anticipated that
successful implementation of these pillars would achieve the ultimate goal of
accelerated and sustained poverty reduction as a means of attaining
sustainable development of the LDCs. In addition, the BPoA was seen as
framework for partnership based on mutual commitments by LDCs and their
development partners in order to accelerate LDCs’ economic growth and
development and end their marginalisation in the global economy.
3
From the Malawi’s perspective, BPoA was a very good programme for
LDCs but it faced a number of critical challenges in delivering on many of the
intended goals. The following are some of the key challenges that
compromised achievement of its objectives:




3.1
The BPOA did not set mid-term targets hence it was not possible to
assess the achievements quantitatively in the absence of such
targets;
Facilitating implementation of the BPOA was a challenge due to lack
of budgetary item in support of coordination activities.
Dearth of statistics and statistical capacity to engage in proper
monitoring and reporting on national implementation of the BPOA;
and
Lack or delay of fulfillment of commitments by Development
Partners on overseas development aid, debt relief, trade and
technology transfer to enable LDCs to achieve the goals of the
BPoA.
Lessons Learned
Addressing the above challenges when implementing the IPoA will be
critical in achieving its goals. In view of this, Malawi draws the following
lessons from the implementation of the BPoA and the initial implementation of
the Istanbul Programme of Action:
i) National contact points should be supported to raise the profile of
the IPoA at the country level. Political support is very important and
implementation of the IPoA should be clear to the country
leadership for it to get the necessary support.
ii) There is need for active participation of all stakeholders in the
implementation process of the IPoA. In this case, it is important to
undertake consultations with various stakeholders on how the POA
should be implemented. This would improve ownership and ensure
effective implementation.
iii) Since the IPOA is a ten-year programme, there is need to prioritise
implementation of activities because the success of future activities
will depend on the outcome of the initial activities.
iv) There is need to develop monitoring indicators and targets with
clear timelines. These indicators and targets will act as benchmarks
on which performance can be assessed. In the current framework,
the IPoA don’t have the monitoring tools and it would be difficult to
measure progress.
v) Development Partners should fulfil their commitments especially on
remitting the required development assistance. It should be noted
that without resources, implementation of the IPoA will not be
possible.
4
3.0 CONCLUSION
Malawi has welcomed the Istanbul Programme of Action (IPoA) and
has already mainstreamed it into its national development agenda, which is
the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy II (MGDS II). The country has
also developed an implementation plan for the IPOA. It has been noted,
however, that active involvement of all stakeholders is critical for the
successful implementation of the programme. In particular, fulfillment of the
commitments by the Development Partners will go a long way in ensuring the
success of the IPoA.
ANNEX 1: LINKAGES BETWEEN THE IPOA AND THE MGDS
IPOA
PRIORITY MGDS II PRIORITY
AREA
AND THEMES
A. Productive
Capacity
i.
AREAS COMMENT
Infrastructure
Key priority area 3: Transport Objective is to improve transport
Infrastructure and Nsanje World infrastructure through improved
Inland Port infrastructure
road, rail and water transport
infrastructure
ii. Energy
Key priority area 2: Energy, It is aimed at generating and
Industrial Development, Mining and distributing sufficient amount of
Tourism.
energy to meet national socio
economic demands.
iii. Science,
Key priority area number four: The goal is to enhance access to
Technology and
Education, Science and technology quality and relevant education and
Innovation
to enhance the contribution of
research, science and technology to
national
productivity
and
competitiveness.
iv. Private Sector
Theme 1, Sub-theme 4: Private In order to develop and promote a
Development
Sector Development, Industry and conducive environment that will
Trade
enhance inclusive private sector
growth and competitiveness.
B.
Agriculture, Theme 1, Sub-theme 1: Agriculture The goal of this is to increase
Food Security and Productivity and diversification.
agricultural productivity and
Rural
diversification.
Development
C. Trade
Theme 1, Sub-theme four: Private Malawi wants to develop and
Sector Development, Industry and promote a conducive environment
Trade
that will enhance inclusive private
sector growth and competitive.
D. Human and
Social
Development
i. Education
Training
ii. Population
Primary health
and Key priority area 4: Education,
Science and Technology.
and Theme 2, Sub-theme 1: Population
and Key priority area 5: Public
Health and Sanitation, Malaria and
5
The aim is to improve access to
quality and relevant education
The goal is to manage population
growth
for
sustainable
socio
economic development. The other
HIV and AIDS management
goal is to control and prevent
occurrence and spread of diseases.
iii.
Youth Key priority area 8: Youth This seeks to enhance effective
Development
Development and Empowerment.
youth participation in economic
activities.
iv.
Water
and Key priority area 5: Public Health The goal is to ensure use of
Sanitation
and Sanitation, Malaria and HIV improved sanitation facilities and
and AIDS management
adoption of safe hygiene practices.
Key priority area 7: Green Belt The goal is to improve access to
Irrigation and Water Development
water through an integrated water
management
v. Gender Equality Theme 6, Sub-theme 1: Gender
Under this theme, the goal is to
and Empowerment
reduce gender inequalities and
of Women
enhance participation for all gender
groups
in
socio
economic
development.
vi. Social Protection
Theme 3: Social Support and The goal of the theme is to improve
Disaster Risk Management
resilience and quality of life for the
poor to move out of poverty and
vulnerability.
E. Good
Theme 5: Improved governance in The goal to promote transparency
Governance at all
three areas i.e. economic
and accountability at all levels.
level
governance, corporate governance
and Democratic governance.
F. Multiple crises
and other
emerging
challenges
i. Economic shocks
Theme 5, Sub-theme 1: Economic
Governance
ii. Climate change
and environmental
sustainability
Key priority area 9: Climate
Change, Natural Resources and
Environmental Management.
iii. Disaster risk
reduction
Theme 3: Social Support and
Disaster Risk Management.
6
The goal is to sustain and accelerate
the positive economic growth within
a stable macroeconomic
environment
The goal is to enhance resilience to
climate change risks and impacts
The goal is to reduce social,
economic and environmental impact
of disasters.
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