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Human Reproduction
Reproduction – is the formation of
new individuals.
 The reproductive system
produces, stores, and
releases specialized sex
cells called gametes.
These specialized cells
are make it possible for
the fusion of sperm and
egg to form a zygote.
 Puberty – is a period of
rapid growth and sexual
maturation during which
the reproductive system
becomes fully functional.
Female Reproductive System
 Ovaries – two almond
sized structures
where the egg cell is
produced.
 Follicle – a cluster of
cells that surround,
protect, and nourish a
developing egg cell.
 Oviduct (fallopian
tube) – narrow tube
which serves as the
passageway to the
uterus.
Female Reproductive System
 Uterus – a hollow,
muscular organ
with thick walls.
 Cervix – connects
the vagina and
uterus.
 Vagina – is a
flexible, thin walled
organ which is
responsible the
receiving the penis
and sperm during
intercourse.
Ovarian Cycle
 During the ovarian
cycle, an egg
develops and is
released from the
ovary.
 Ovulation – When
a follicle has fully
matured, its egg is
released in a
process called
ovulation.
Ovarian Cycle
 When Estrogen
levels are low, the
pituitary gland
releases FSH which
causes a follicle to
mature.
 A sudden rush of
FSH and LH cause
the follicle to
release a egg.
Menstrual Cycle
 The menstrual cycle is
controlled by
hormones that are
controlled by negative
feedback mechanisms.
 Estrogen and
progesterone are
released by the ovary
and cause the lining of
the uterus
(endometrium) to
thicken.
 If fertilization does not
occur, less estrogen in
the blood cause the
Fertilization
Fertilization
 Fertilization must occur within the
first 48 hours of ovulation.
 As soon as fertilization occurs, a
zygote is formed.
 As the embryo travels down the
fallopian tube, it divides by the
process of mitosis (cleavage).
 Implantation occurs on Day 8 or 9
after fertilization.
Male Reproductive System
 Testes – area in which
sperm is made.
 Scrotum – sac like
structure that holds the
testis.
 Epididymis- a long thin
coiled tube in which
sperm complete there
development and are
stored.
 Semen – fluids that are
released with sperm
that aid in its survival.
 Vas Deferens – a tube
that brings sperm from
the epididymis out
through the urethra.
Sperm Cells
 A sperm cell
consists of
 a head, which
contains a nucleus.
 Midpiece, which
contains millions of
mitochondria.
 Tail which is used
for movement.
Release of Sperm
 Glands lining the reproductive tract –
including the seminal vesicles, the
prostate, and the bulborethral gland
produce nutrient rich fluid called
seminal fluid.
 Approximately 2.5 million sperm are
found in one drop of semen! Why so
many?