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Preventive Effect of Modified Citrus Pectin against Aluminium Induced Neurotoxicity
Aluminium (Al) is a powerful neurotoxin and has been associated with various cognitive
disorders. Al causes extensive damage to the nervous system by accelerating oxidative damage
to biomolecules like lipid, protein and nucleic acids. Natural antioxidants, which alleviate the
oxidative stress or induce the cellular antioxidant milieu would most probably treat and/or
protect against Al poisoning. Modified citrus pectin (MCP) is a complex polysaccharide
obtained from the inner peel pulp of citrus fruit. MCP is known with antioxidant, immune
modulator and cancer preventive properties. It has the ability to bind toxic heavy metals and
excrete them while not disturbing the essential minerals in healthy humans. The present study
investigated the neuroprotective effect of MCP against Al induced oxidative stress and DNA
damage in the brain cerebral cortex of Swiss albino mice. The study was conducted on a control
and three experimental groups with a total number of 24 mice. All applications were carried out
orally in a period of 30 days. Group I (control) was administered physiological salin (% 0.9);
group II was administered AlCl2 (34 mg/kg/day); group III was administered MCP (50
mg/kg/day); group IV was administered AlCl2 (34 mg/kg/day) and MCP (50 mg/kg/day) with
2 hour intervals respectively. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase,
glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholine esterase activities, total glutathione level and lipid
peroxidation were measured. Histopathological changes were investigated. DNA damage was
determined by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). The findings manifested that MCP could
alleviate the changes in endogenous antioxidants, prevent lipid peroxidation, tissue damage and
functional defects in neuronal signaling resulted from Al toxicity. Besides, DNA damage can
be decreased effectively with the application of MCP.