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Earth Science
Geology, the Environment,
and the Universe
Consultant
Douglas Fisher, Ph.D.
About the Consultant
Douglas Fisher, Ph.D., is a Professor in the Department of Teacher
Education at San Diego State University. He is the recipient of an International Reading Association Celebrate Literacy Award as well as a Christa
McAuliffe award for Excellence in Teacher Education. He has published
numerous articles on reading and literacy, differentiated instruction, and
curriculum design as well as books, such as Improving Adolescent Literacy:
Strategies at Work and Responsive Curriculum Design in Secondary Schools:
Meeting the Diverse Needs of Students. He has taught a variety of courses in
SDSU’s teacher credentialing program as well as graduate-level courses on
English language development and literacy. He also has taught classes in
English, writing, and literacy development to secondary school students.
Copyright © by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to reproduce the
material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided
to students, teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with Earth Science:
Geology, the Environment, and the Universe. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior
written permission of the publisher.
Send all inquiries to:
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
8787 Orion Place
Columbus, Ohio 43240-4027
ISBN 0-07-872830-4
Printed in the United States of America
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 047
08 07 06
Using Your
Science Notebook ................................v
Note-Taking Tips ..............................vii
Chapter 1 Preview ..............................1
Chapter 9 Preview ..............................89
Section 1-1 ............................................2
Section 1-2 ............................................5
Section 1-3 ............................................8
Chapter 1 Wrap-Up ........................12
Chapter 10 Preview........................101
Chapter 2 Preview ..............................13
Section 2-1 ..........................................14
Section 2-2 ..........................................17
Section 2-3 ..........................................20
Chapter 2 Wrap-Up ..........................24
Chapter 3 Preview ..............................25
Section 3-1 ..........................................26
Section 3-2 ..........................................29
Section 3-3 ..........................................32
Chapter 3 Wrap-Up ..........................36
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 4 Preview ..............................37
Section 4-1 ..........................................38
Section 4-2 ..........................................41
Chapter 4 Wrap-Up ..........................44
Section 9-1 ..........................................90
Section 9-2 ..........................................93
Section 9-3 ..........................................96
Chapter 9 Wrap-Up........................100
Section 10-1......................................102
Section 10-2......................................105
Section 10-3......................................108
Chapter 10 Wrap-Up ....................112
Chapter 11 Preview........................113
Section 11-1......................................114
Section 11-2......................................117
Section 11-3......................................120
Chapter 11 Wrap-Up ....................124
Chapter 12 Preview........................125
Section 12-1......................................126
Section 12-2......................................129
Section 12-3......................................132
Section 12-4......................................135
Chapter 12 Wrap-Up ....................138
Chapter 13 Preview........................139
Section 5-1 ..........................................46
Section 5-2 ..........................................49
Chapter 5 Wrap-Up ..........................52
Section 13-1......................................140
Section 13-2......................................143
Section 13-3......................................146
Section 13-4......................................149
Chapter 13 Wrap-Up ................152
Chapter 6 Preview ..............................53
Chapter 14 Preview........................153
Section 6-1 ..........................................54
Section 6-2 ..........................................57
Section 6-3 ..........................................60
Chapter 6 Wrap-Up ....................64
Section 14-1......................................154
Section 14-2......................................157
Section 14-3......................................160
Section 14-4......................................163
Chapter 14 Wrap-Up ....................166
Chapter 5 Preview ..............................45
Chapter 7 Preview ..............................65
Section 7-1 ..........................................66
Section 7-2 ..........................................69
Section 7-3 ..........................................72
Chapter 7 Wrap-Up ..........................76
Chapter 8 Preview ..............................77
Section 8-1 ..........................................78
Section 8-2 ..........................................81
Section 8-3 ..........................................84
Chapter 8 Wrap-Up ..........................88
Chapter 15 Preview........................167
Section 15-1......................................168
Section 15-2......................................171
Section 15-3......................................174
Chapter 15 Wrap-Up ....................178
Chapter 16 Preview........................179
Section 16-1......................................180
Section 16-2......................................183
Chapter 16 Wrap-Up ....................186
Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
iii
Section 17-1......................................188
Section 17-2......................................191
Section 17-3......................................194
Section 17-4......................................197
Chapter 17 Wrap-Up ....................200
Chapter 18 Preview........................201
Section 18-1......................................202
Section 18-2......................................205
Section 18-3......................................208
Chapter 18 Wrap-Up ....................212
Chapter 19 Preview........................213
Section 19-1......................................214
Section 19-2......................................217
Section 19-3......................................220
Section 19-4......................................223
Chapter 19 Wrap-Up ....................226
Chapter 20 Preview........................227
Section 20-1......................................228
Section 20-2......................................231
Section 20-3......................................234
Chapter 20 Wrap-Up ....................238
Chapter 21 Preview........................239
Section 21-1......................................240
Section 21-2......................................243
Section 21-3......................................246
Section 21-4......................................249
Chapter 21 Wrap-Up ....................252
Chapter 22 Preview........................253
Section 22-1......................................254
Section 22-2......................................257
Section 22-3......................................260
Section 22-4......................................263
Chapter 22 Wrap-Up ....................266
Chapter 23 Preview........................267
Section 23-1......................................268
Section 23-2......................................271
Section 23-3......................................275
Chapter 23 Wrap-Up ....................278
Chapter 24 Preview........................279
Section 24-1......................................280
Section 24-2......................................283
Section 24-3......................................286
iv
Table of Contents
Section 24-4......................................289
Chapter 24 Wrap-Up ....................292
Chapter 25 Preview........................293
Section 25-1......................................294
Section 25-2......................................297
Section 25-3......................................300
Section 25-4......................................303
Chapter 25 Wrap-Up ....................306
Chapter 26 Preview........................307
Section 26-1......................................308
Section 26-2......................................311
Section 26-3......................................314
Chapter 26 Wrap-Up ....................318
Chapter 27 Preview........................319
Section 27-1......................................320
Section 27-2......................................323
Section 27-3......................................326
Section 27-4......................................329
Chapter 27 Wrap-Up ....................332
Chapter 28 Preview........................333
Section 28-1......................................334
Section 28-2......................................337
Section 28-3......................................340
Chapter 28 Wrap-Up ....................344
Chapter 29 Preview........................345
Section 29-1......................................346
Section 29-2......................................349
Section 29-3......................................352
Section 29-4......................................355
Chapter 29 Wrap-Up ....................358
Chapter 30 Preview........................359
Section 30-1......................................360
Section 30-2......................................364
Section 30-3......................................367
Chapter 30 Wrap-Up ....................370
Chapter 31 Preview........................371
Section 31-1......................................372
Section 31-2......................................375
Section 31-3......................................378
Chapter 31 Wrap-Up ....................382
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 17 Preview........................187
Using Your Science Notebook
This note-taking guide is designed to
help you succeed in learning science
content. Each chapter includes:
Date
Name
Activit y
Volcanic w
to list
” column
hat I Know e questions you
use the “W
thre
r,
t
te
lis
ap
en
ch
n.
e
es. Th
u read th
ut” colum
t volcano
Before yo
to Find O
ow abou
t I Want
gs you kn
the “W ha
three thin
lcanoes in
W
vo
t
ou
nd Out
have ab
ant to Fi
What I W
K
ow
What I Kn
.
le entries 1.
Previe
Chapter
Note taking
tools based on the
Cornell Note-Taking
System.
reasonab
cept all
1. Ac
2.
2.
3.
3.
K-W-L Charts
help you assess what you
already know about a
concept and identify what
you would like to
find out.
rd your
and reco
ovement
magma m
to model
d
di
u
yo
b
scover y La
out the Di
beaker.
nal.
Think ab
tered the
ience jour
hen it en
in this sc
d water w
response
ll rise.
the colore
efore wi
to
er
th
ed
d
en
an
what happ
ld water
Describe
an the co
urnal
Science Jo
e th
less dens
water is
The hot
ce?
rth’s surfa
neath Ea
magma be
riment.
the expe
t water in
e the ho
ht this be
Earth lik
of
How mig
ce
rfa
to the su
ma rises
Hot mag
ppens to
what ha
similar to
ter at the
e hot wa
ased th
u had rele
surface of
the cold
ed if yo
.
e further
d not ris
p. It coul
at the to
y
ad
re
was al
cause it
moved be
not have
It would
Activity
Volcanic
ve happen
t would ha
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Infer wha
water.
201
Name
Date
Volcanic Activity
Section 18.1 Magma
Main Idea
Science Journals
help you assess
what you have learned
in the Discovery Lab.
Details
Scan Section 1 of your text. Use the checklist below as a guide.
• Read all section titles.
• Read all bold words.
• Read all tables and graphs.
• Look at all the pictures and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about volcanoes.
Write three facts you discovered about magma.
1. Student answers may vary. Accept all reasonable answers.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
magma
Use the text to define the following term.
a mixture of molten rock, suspended mineral grains, and
dissolved gases deep beneath Earth’s crust
New
Vocabulary
Vocabulary
helps you understand
information better.
viscosity
Use the text to define the following term.
Viscosity is the internal resistance to flow.
Show your understanding of the word by writing a definition of
your own.
Student answers will vary. Possible answer: Viscosity is
measure of how easily a liquid flows.
Academic
Vocabulary
factor
Define the following term.
any of the circumstances or conditions that bring about a result;
element that makes a thing what it is
202
Section 18.1 Magma
Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
v
Date
Name
ma
18.1 Mag
Section
ed)
(continu
Details
Main Idea
ma
How Mag s
Form
Use with
page 472.
List three
factors tha
t af fect the
a.
n of magm
for matio
perature
1. tem
essure
2. pr
table
ter
ate in the
ble. Indic
or
lete the ta
increase
ng point
-1 to comp
and melti
Figure 18
e,
e
ur
yz
al
ess
An
rature, pr
s.
pe
on
tem
iti
nd
Point
whether
of the co
Melting bite
for each
ture
decrease
of Wet Al
Tempera
Pressure
creases
3. wa
Increases
Increases
Writing activities
help you understand the
information being presented
and make connections
between the concepts and
the real-world.
De
Increasing
low
Depth Be
Increases
rface
eases
Earth’s Su
s Decr
Decrease
ing
as
cre
De
low
Depth Be rface
rock
Earth’s Su
of a wet
lting point
een the me
ount of
same am
nship betw
the
tio
r
la
de
re
ble
the
a possi
rock un
Illustrate
the same
d marking
y piece of
ometer an
and a dr
g a therm
lting
lower me
ck.
by sketchin
ck has a
pressure
type of ro
ro
t
ch
ea
we
e
e for
te that th
temperatur
ld indica
art shou
Student
y rock.
an the dr
point th
-
ain
tion, expl
g expedi
oil-drillin
.
eer on an 18.1 in your text
the engin
tivity
lcanic Ac
Section 18.2 Intrusive
Activity
Main Idea
203
Sill
Graphic Organizers
help you summarize
information in a
visual format.
• is a few
centimeters
to hundreds of
meters thick
• is parallel to the
rocks it intrudes
Plutons and
Tectonics
Use with page 478.
Date
Volcanic Activity
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column, write
down the answers you discovered as you worked through the chapter.
K
What I Wanted to Find Out
W
What I Learned
Details
Compare a sill and a
dike. Place each chara
cteristic below in the
Venn diagram to show
whether it is a characterist
ic of a sill, a dike,
or both.
• cuts across preexisting
rocks
• is parallel to the rocks
it intrudes
• is a few centimeters
to hundreds of meters
thick
• many are coarse graine
d
• is a few centimeters
to several meters wide
• is a pluton
Vo
Name
Date
(continued)
Both
Dike
• is a pluton
• many are
coarse grained
• is a few
centimeters to
several meters
wide
• cuts across
preexisting
rocks
Sequence the four steps
involved in forming batho
liths from
mountain-building proce
sses. The first step has been
completed for you.
Two continental plates
converge,
forcing continental crust
into the mantle.
OR
Two oceanic plates conve
rge and
one plate is subducted
into the mantle.
The crust or plate melts
into magma.
Magma intrudes into
overlying rocks.
The magma cols to form
batholiths.
Volcanic Activity
1. Accept all reasonable entries. 1.
Review
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of
each section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
After reading this chapter, list three things you have learned
about volcanic activity.
Student answers will vary. Accept all reasonable answers.
212
vi
Chapter Wrap-Up
Using Your Science Notebook
The Chapter Wrap-Up
helps you assess
what you have learned in
the chapter and prepare
for chapter tests.
207
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
to
e graph
ale on th
h such
of the sh
e a grap
g point
might us
the meltin
up
how you
k
loo
I would
answer:
Possible
oil.
h of the
the dept
ate
tim
es
S
Name
re
IZ E If you were
e in Figu
Y N T H ES
as the on
Note-Taking Tips
Your notes are a reminder of what you learned in class. Taking good
notes can help you succeed in science. The following tips will help you
take better classroom notes.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
• Before class, ask what your teacher will be discussing in class. Review
mentally what you already know about the concept.
• Be an active listener. Focus on what your teacher is saying. Listen
for important concepts. Pay attention to words, examples, and/or
diagrams you teacher emphasizes.
• Write your notes as clear and concise as possible. The following
symbols and abbreviations may be helpful in your note-taking.
Word or
Phrase
for example
Symbol or
Abbreviation
e.g.
Word or
Phrase
and
Symbol or
Abbreviation
+
such as
i.e.
approximately
with
w/
therefore
without
w/o
versus
vs
• Use a symbol such as a star ( ) or an asterisk (*) to emphasis important concepts. Place a question mark (?) next to anything that you do
not understand.
• Ask questions and participate in class discussion.
• Draw and label pictures or diagrams to help clarify a concept.
• When working out an example, write what you are doing to solve the
problem next to each step. Be sure to use your own words.
• Review you notes as soon as possible after class. During this time,
organize and summarize new concepts and clarify misunderstandings.
Note-Taking Don’ts
•
•
•
•
Don’t write every word. Concentrate on the main ideas and concepts.
Don’t use someone else’s notes as they may not make sense.
Don’t doodle. It distracts you from listening actively.
Don’t lose focus or you will become lost in your note-taking.
Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
vii
Name
Date
The Nature of Science
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about science. Then list three questions you
have about science in the “What I Want to Find Out” column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Describe at least three ways people use Earth science. You may find examples in the news, in
the chapter, or think of examples in daily life.
The Nature of Science
1
Name
Date
The Nature of Science
Section 1.1 Earth Science
Main Idea
Details
Skim Section 1 of your text. Write three questions that come to
mind from reading the headings and the illustration captions.
1.
2.
3.
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
astronomy
meteorology
geology
oceanography
lithosphere
asthenosphere
hydrosphere
atmosphere
biosphere
Academic
Vocabulary
interact
2
Section 1.1 Earth Science
Define the following term.
Name
Date
Section 1.1 Earth Science
Main Idea
The Scope of
Earth Science
(continued)
Details
Organize information about the topics each kind of scientist
studies in the table below.
Use with pages 6–7.
Type of Scientist
Topics Studied
Astronomer
Meteorologist
Geologist
Oceanographer
Classify the subspecialties of Earth Science by writing them under
the appropriate areas of specialization. Use Table 1-1 to help you.
You may write a subspecialty more than once.
Earth Science
Meteorology
hydrology
Geology
geochemistry
Oceanography
Astronomy
ecology
Identify two recent events from the news that would be of interest
to an Earth scientist, state what kind of scientist they would most
interest, and classify the events under the appropriate subspecialties
listed above.
The Nature of Science
3
Name
Date
Section 1.1 Earth Science
Main Idea
Earth’s Systems
Use with pages 8–9.
Earth Science
in Your
Everyday Life
Use with page 10.
(continued)
Details
Draw a diagram to help you understand and remember Earth’s four
main systems. Label each system.
List something from each of Earth’s systems that humans use.
Lithosphere:
Hydrosphere:
Atmosphere:
Biosphere:
S YNTHESIZE
Identify one way that humans have changed each of Earth’s
systems.
Lithosphere:
Hydrosphere:
Atmosphere:
Biosphere:
4
Section 1.1 Earth Science
Name
Date
The Nature of Science
Section 1.2 Methods of Scientists
Main Idea
Details
Skim Section 2. Using what you already know and what you learn
from skimming the section, describe how scientists use mathematics in
their work.
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
hypothesis
independent variable
dependent variable
control
Le Système
Internationale d’Unités
(SI)
scientific notation
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
evaluate
The Nature of Science
5
Name
Date
Section 1.2 Methods of Scientists
Main Idea
The Nature of
Scientific
Investigations
(continued)
Details
Sequence the steps of the scientific method by completing the flow
chart below. Use Figure 1–6 to help you. Then draw arrows to show
the order.
Use with page 11.
1.
1.
2. Determine how the
2.
variables will be controlled and measured.
3.
3.
4. State a hypothesis and
make a prediction.
4.
1.
1.
2. Re-evaluate the hypothesis.
3.
2. Look for trends in the
data.
3.
Experimentation
Use with page 12.
Compare independent and dependent variables by completing the
following sentences.
The
experimenter. A(n)
if the
6
Section 1.2 Methods of Scientists
is a factor that is manipulated by the
is a factor that can change
is changed.
Name
Date
Section 1.2 Methods of Scientists
Main Idea
Safety in the
Science
Classroom
Use with page 13.
(continued)
Details
Summarize in five words or less the safety rules given in Table 1-2.
Important Safety Rules
1.
6.
2.
7.
3.
8.
4.
9.
5.
10.
Design symbols to help you remember two lab safety rules from
Table 1-2. Give reasons why you chose each symbol.
Rule:
Symbol:
Reason:
Rule:
Symbol:
Reason:
The Nature of Science
7
Name
Date
Section 1.2 Methods of Scientists
Main Idea
Measurement
Use with pages 14–16.
(continued)
Details
Organize the concepts of measurement by completing the table.
Quantity
represented
What is measured
SI Unit
Abbreviation
The amount of
matter in an object
milliliter
mL
Length
m
N
Average vibrations
of the particles that
make up material
degrees
Celsius
°C
The amount of space
occupied by an object
cubic meter
m3
degrees
Kelvin
K
Temperature
Amount of surface
included within
a set of boundaries
cm2
Time
S
A measure of the
amount of matter that
occupies a given space
Scientific
Notation
Use with page 16.
g/cm3
Summarize scientific notation by completing this table with words
from the list.
• after
• before
• negative
• positive
Numbers Greater than 1
Zeroes are
the number.
Numbers Less than 1
Zeroes are
the number.
Exponent is
Exponent is
.
Example: 90 000 000 000 S YNTHESIZE
.
Example: 0.0000000001 1 1010
Explain what a scientist should do if some data from an experiment confirms a hypothesis and some data does not. Could the scientist ignore the
data that didn’t fit the hypotheses? Why or why not?
8
Section 1.2 Methods of Scientists
Name
Date
The Nature of Science
Section 1.3 Communicating in Science
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 3 of your text. Use the checklist as a guide.
• Read all section titles.
• Read all bold words.
• Read all tables and graphs.
• Look at all the pictures and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about communicating in
science.
Write three facts you discovered about how scientists communicate.
1.
2.
3.
New
Vocabulary
Write a paragraph that explains the difference between a theory
and a law in science.
theory
law
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
communicate
The Nature of Science
9
Name
Date
Section 1.3 Communicating in Science
Main Idea
(continued)
Details
Communicating
Results
Create an outline of the information under the heading
“Communicating Results.”
Use with pages 17–18.
I. Communicate data and results to others so they can:
A.
B.
C.
II. Ways scientific results are communicated
A.
B.
Identify the parts of this graph.
1. Highlight the title of the graph below.
2. Label the axis where the dependent variable is plotted
“Dependent.”
3. Label the axis where the independent variable is plotted
“Independent.”
4. Circle the labels that tell what units each
variable is expressed in.
800
Gas Volume vs. Temperature
Gas volume (cm3)
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Temperature (K)
10
Section 1.3 Communicating in Science
Name
Date
Section 1.3 Communicating in Science
Main Idea
Models
Use with page 18.
(continued)
Details
Summarize the information under the heading “Models” by
completing the sentences below.
1. A scientific model is
.
Theories and
Laws
Use with page 19.
2. A model should be
.
3. Models can change when
.
Compare and contrast theories and laws. Place each statement in
the Venn diagram to show whether it is true for theories, laws, or
both.
• Based on observations
• Can change with the discovery of new data
• Describes a natural phenomenon
• May not explain what it describes
• Used to explain scientific laws
Theories
Laws
Both
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Suppose you are a doctor who has discovered a cure for a fatal disease. What method would you use to communicate your
discovery to the world? Why would you choose that method?
The Nature of Science
11
Name
Date
The Nature of Science
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through the
chapter.
K
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
W
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of each
section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
below.
1.
2.
3.
12
Chapter Wrap-Up
Write the main idea of each section of this chapter on the lines
Name
Date
Mapping Our World
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about maps. Then list three questions you
have about maps in the “What I Want to Find Out” column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think about the Discovery Lab you did to make and use a map and record your response in
this science journal. Which did you find more helpful, the verbal directions or the map?
Explain your answer. What kind of information did you include in your map? What details
would you add to your map?
Mapping Our World
13
Name
Date
Mapping Our World
Section 2.1 Latitude and Longitude
Main Idea
Details
Skim Section 1 of your text. Write three questions that come to
mind from reading the headings and the illustration captions.
1.
2.
3.
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
cartography
Use the terms to label the figure below.
equator
line of latitude
line of longitude
prime meridian
180°
International Date Line
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
parallel
14
Section 2.1 Latitude and Longitude
0°
Name
Date
Section 2.1 Latitude and Longitude
Main Idea
Latitude
Use with pages 27–28.
(continued)
Details
Organize information about latitude by completing this graphic
organizer. Use Figure 2-1 and other information in your text.
They run
to the
equator.
Distances are in
degrees
or
of the equator.
Lines
of
Latitude
The
The poles
are at
latitude.
is at 0° latitude.
Summarize the information about degrees of latitude by
completing the table.
Degrees of Latitude
Symbol
Actual Distance
Degree
Longitude
Use with page 29.
Complete each sentence to help you remember information about
longitude.
Lines of longitude are also known as
distance in degrees
or
. Longitude is
of the prime meridian. The
is the reference point for meridians. It represents °
longitude. The prime meridian goes through
Points west of the prime meridian are numbered from ° to
.
°
west longitude. Points east of the prime meridian are numbered
from 0° to 180°
.
Mapping Our World
15
Name
Date
Section 2.1 Latitude and Longitude
Main Idea
Use with pages 27–28.
(continued)
Details
Compare and contrast information about latitude and longitude.
Place each statement in the Venn diagram to show whether it is true
for latitude, longitude, or both. Two statements have already been
written in for you.
• Lines are parallel.
• Lines converge at a point.
• Lines form circles.
• Lines form semicircles.
• Degrees cover consistent distances.
• Degrees do not cover consistent distances.
• Necessary to precisely locate positions on Earth
Longitude
Latitude
Both
• Lines converge
at a point.
Time Zones
Use with page 31.
• Lines form
circles.
Analyze the figure below showing U.S. time zones. Assume that it is
9:00 in the Mountain time zone. Draw the hands on the other clocks
to show the time it would be in each of the other U.S. time zones.
Alaska
Standard Time
Pacific
11 12 1
10
2
9
3
8
4
7
6
Mountain
11 12 1
10
2
5
9
3
8
9
4
7
6
AK
3
8
5
4
7
6
5
11 12 1
10
2
9
ID
NV
9
8
4
6
4
7
6
5
AZ
NM
SD
KS
OK
TX
6
5
VT
3
8
4
7
MN
CO
3
8
5
NE
UT
9
ND
WY
CA
11 12 1
10
2
3
7
MT
OR
Eastern
11 12 1
10
2
WA
Hawaii-Aleutian
Standard Time
Central
11 12 1
10
2
NY
WI
MI
PA
OH
IL IN
WV VA
MO
KY
NC
TN
SC
AR
GA
MS AL
LA
FL
IA
NH
ME
MA
RI
NJ CT
DE
MD
HI
S YNTHESIZE
Write the instructions you would give a classmate to locate the
point 27°18N, 19°2E on a globe.
16
Section 2.1 Latitude and Longitude
Name
Date
Mapping Our World
Section 2.2 Types of Maps
Main Idea
Details
Skim Section 2 of your text. List the three map projections
mentioned in the headings and illustration captions.
1.
2.
3.
New
Vocabulary
In the left column, write the terms defined below.
a map made by projecting points and lines onto a piece of paper
that touches a globe at a single point
a map that has parallel lines of latitude and longitude
a map that shows changes in elevation of Earth’s surface
a map made by projecting points and lines from a globe onto a cone
the ratio between distances on a map and actual distances on the
surface of Earth
the difference in elevation between two side-by-side contour lines
on a map
a table that explains what the symbols on a map represent
a line on a map that connects points of equal elevation
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
distort
Mapping Our World
17
Name
Date
Section 2.2 Types of Maps
Main Idea
Mercator
Projections
(continued)
Details
Complete the table to organize information about Mercator
projections.
Mercator Projections
Use with page 32.
Made by
Advantages
Disadvantages
Uses
Conic Projections
Use with page 32.
Organize information about conic projections by filling in the
graphic organizer.
Made by:
Advantages:
Conic
Projections
Disadvantages:
Gnomonic
Projections
Use with page 33.
Complete the following sentences to help you understand gnomonic
projections.
Gnomonic projections are made by
The advantage of these projections
The disadvantage of gnomonic projections is
They are used by
18
Uses:
Section 2.2 Types of Maps
Name
Date
Section 2.2 Types of Maps
Main Idea
Topographic
Maps
Use with pages 33–34.
(continued)
Details
Assess your understanding of topographic maps. Write two
questions that might appear on a quiz. Then write the answers.
Question: Why can contour lines on a map never cross?
Answer:
Question:
Answer:
Map Legends
Use with page 35.
Map Scales
Create symbols for a map legend in the spaces below. Include
symbols for four features in your house, school, or neighborhood.
Summarize information about map scales by completing the table.
Use with pages 35–36.
Type of Scale
Expressed as
Example
Verbal scale
Graphic scale
Fractional scale
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Explain which type of map you would
probably find in each of the following places and why: a car; a hiker’s backpack; a sailboat.
Mapping Our World
19
Name
Date
Mapping Our World
Section 2.3 Remote Sensing
Main Idea
Details
Predict what you will learn about in Section 3. Read the title of
the section and the first paragraph after the section title. Then write
what you think this section will be about.
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
remote sensing
electromagnetic
spectrum
frequency
Landsat satellite
Topex/Poseidon
satellite
Global positioning
system
sonar
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
transmit
20
Section 2.3 Remote Sensing
Name
Date
Section 2.3 Remote Sensing
Main Idea
The
Electromagnetic
Spectrum
Use with pages 37-38.
(continued)
Details
Describe the electromagnetic spectrum by completing the statements
below.
• frequency
• gamma waves
• radio wave
• speed
• speed of light
• wavelength
• 300 000 km/s is the
• three factors that describe electromagnetic waves are
, and
,
• type of wave with the highest frequency:
• type of wave with the greatest wavelength:
Create a diagram of the electromagnetic spectrum using Figure 2-14
in your text for reference. In the space below, draw an electromagnetic wave. Show how the wave is different in different parts of the
spectrum. Label the parts of the spectrum.
Radio waves
Topex/Poseidon
Satellite
Use with page 39.
Infrared radiation
Visible
light
Model a Topex/Poseidon satellite by drawing a diagram. Use
Figure 2-16 in your text for
reference. Draw and label
your diagram showing
how these satellites map
the ocean floor.
Mapping Our World
21
Name
Date
Section 2.3 Remote Sensing
Main Idea
Landsat and
Topex/Poseidon
Satellites
The Global
Positioning
System and Sea
Beam
Use with pages 38-41.
(continued)
Details
Distinguish between the remote sensing methods discussed in this
chapter by completing the table below.
Type of Satellite
Kind of Waves
Where Waves
are Emitted
Landsat satellite
TOPEX/POSEIDEN
satellite
Global Positioning
System
Sea Beam
Organize information about Sea Beam technology by completing
the graphic organizer below.
Sea Beam
Used to
Used for
and
and by
,
Uses sound
waves, or
S YNTHESIZE
Predict which satellite mentioned in this section will be used the
most in the future. Describe how your chosen satellite works and compare its advantages and
disadvantages with other satellites to explain your answer.
22
Section 2.3 Remote Sensing
Name
Date
Tie-It-All-Together
S YNTHESIZE
Think about what you have learned in this chapter about maps.
In the space below, design a map of your classroom.
Create a map legend to represent lights, electrical outlets, books, and other objects.
Try to make your map as accurate as possible.
Be sure to include a scale.
Mapping Our World
23
Name
Date
Mapping Our World
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the "What I Wanted to Find Out" column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the "What I Learned" column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through the
chapter. Use this checklist to help you study.
W
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
L
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of
each section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
about maps.
24
Chapter Wrap-Up
After reading this chapter, list three things you have learned
Name
Date
Matter and Atomic Structure
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about matter and atomic structure. Then list
three questions you have about matter and atomic structures in the
“What I Want to Find Out” column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think about the Discovery Lab you did to identify one substance added to breakfast cereals
and record your response in this science journal.
Describe what you see on the end of the pencil stirrer. Study the cereal box to determine
what the substance on the end of the magnet might be.
Matter and Atomic Structure
25
Name
Date
Matter and Atomic Structure
Section 3.1 What are elements?
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 1 of your text. Use the checklist below as a guide.
• Read all headings.
• Read all bold words.
• Read all tables and graphs.
• Look at all the pictures and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about elements.
Review
Vocabulary
Write one thing you would like to learn about elements.
New
Vocabulary
In the left margin, write the terms defined below.
a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by
physical or chemical means
the smallest particle of an element that has all of the characteristics
of that element
the center of an atom, made up of protons and neutrons
a particle that has mass and a positive electrical charge
a particle with about the same mass as a proton but with no
electrical charge
the number of protons in an atom’s nucleus
the combined number of protons and neutrons in an atom
a particle with little mass and a negative electric charge
an area in an atom where an electron is most likely to be found
an electron in the outermost energy level of an atom
atoms of the same element with different mass numbers
the average mass numbers of the isotopes of an element
the spontaneous process through which unstable nuclei emit radiation
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
consist
26
Section 3.1 What are elements?
Name
Date
Section 3.1 What are elements?
Main Idea
Elements
Use with pages 53–54.
Elements Are
Made of Atoms
Use with page 54.
Details
Describe elements by completing the prompts below.
An element is a
. There are
elements that occur naturally in the universe. A chemical symbol is
a
.
.
Organize information about the structure of atoms by writing the
letter for each statement in the correct area of the diagram. Some
letters will be used more than once.
a. consists of protons, neutrons, and electrons
b. determines the atomic number
c. has exactly the same number of protons and electrons
d. has little mass
e. has mass
f. has negative charge
g. has no charge
h. has positive charge
i. helps determine the mass number
j. is found in an energy level around the nucleus
k. is made up of protons and neutrons
Atom
Nucleus
Proton
Electron
Neutron
Matter and Atomic Structure
27
Name
Date
Section 3.1 What are elements?
Main Idea
Electrons in
Energy Levels
Use with page 56.
Details
Draw the figures below to help you understand isotopes and energy
levels in atoms. Use Figure 3-2 and information from your book to
help you.
1. Draw a chlorine-35 atom.
2. Label the nucleus with the
number of protons and
neutrons inside.
3. Circle the valence energy
level.
e–
e–
Isotopes
Use with page 57.
e–
e–
e–
e–
17 protons
18 neutrons
e–
e–
e–
e–
e–
e–
e–
e–
e–
e–
e–
1. Draw a chlorine-37 atom.
2. Label the nucleus with the
number of protons and
neutrons inside.
3. Circle the valence energy
level.
e–
e–
e–
e–
e–
e–
e–
17 protons
20 neutrons
e–
e–
e–
e–
e–
e–
e–
e–
e–
e–
e–
Name the relationship of the two atoms you drew above.
State if the two atoms would have the same properties, or not.
What elements
are most
abundant?
Use with page 58.
Analyze the circle graphs in Figure 3-4 in your text. Write the
chemical symbols for elements that match the following descriptions.
the 3 most common elements in Earth’s crust
the most abundant element in the universe
the element that makes up 5.0% of Earth’s crust
4 elements that are common both in the universe and in the earth’s
crust
S YNTHESIZE
Make a concept map to organize facts you have learned in this
section about elements.
28
Section 3.1 What are elements?
Name
Date
Matter and Atomic Structure
Section 3.2 How Atoms Combine
Main Idea
Details
Scan the objectives and the main headings for Section 2 of your
text. Write three questions that come to mind.
1.
2.
3.
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
compound
chemical bond
covalent bond
molecule
ion
ionic bond
chemical reaction
solution
acid
base
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
formula
Matter and Atomic Structure
29
Name
Date
Section 3.2 How Atoms Combine
Main Idea
(continued)
Details
Compounds
Use with pages 60–62.
Organize information about compounds by completing the graphic
organizer below.
Compounds
Substances composed of
.
that are
Chemical Bond
The forces that
.
are
Covalent Bonds
Covalent bonds are created when atoms
.
Molecule
A molecule is
.
Polar Bonds
Polar bonds are covalent bonds in which
.
Ions
Use with page 62.
Organize information about the formation of ions by completing
the flow chart below.
Ions
If energy level
is less than half
full, an atom
tends to lose
electrons to
become
a
Metallic Bonds
Use with page 64.
30
If energy level
is exactly half
full an atom
may
or
electrons
to form either
Create a drawing to help you
understand metallic bonds. Label
positive ions with plus signs and
electrons with minus signs.
Section 3.2 How Atoms Combine
If energy level
is
, an
atom tends to
become
a
Name
Date
Section 3.2 How Atoms Combine (continued)
Main Idea
Chemical
Reactions
Details
Identify the meaning of symbols in a chemical formula by writing
the meaning in words below each symbol.
Use with page 64.
Mixtures and
Solutions
+
2H2
O2
2H2O
Summarize information about mixtures and solutions by completing the graphic organizer below. Answers may vary for examples.
Use with pages 65–66.
Example:
Homogeneous
mixtures
(or
)
gases
Example:
Mixtures
Example:
Example:
mixtures
Label the pH scale to help you understand and remember pH. Write
under the acidic and the base parts of the scale two facts about and
an example of each.
Distilled water
pH 7
Tomato
pH 4
Lemon
pH 2
0
Milk
pH 6
1
2
3
4
More acidic
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
5
Household ammonia
pH 11
Antacid
pH 10
6
7
13
14
Matter and Atomic Structure
31
Neutral
8
9
Drain cleaner
pH 13
10
11
12
More basic
Compare and contrast chemical
equations and algebraic equations.
Name
Date
Matter and Atomic Structure
Section 3.3 States of Matter
Main Idea
Details
Predict what you will learn about in Section 3. Read the title and
the first paragraph of the section. Then write what you think this
section will be about.
Review
Vocabulary
Use the text to define the following term.
scientific law
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
crystalline structure
glass
evaporation
sublimation
plasma
condensation
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
consist
32
Section 3.3 States of Matter
Name
Date
Section 3.3 States of Matter
Main Idea
(continued)
Details
Solids
Organize information about solids by completing the table below.
Use with pages 67–68.
Solids
Definition
• Solids are
Particles in solids
• can be
, or
.
• Solids have definite
and
Crystalline Solids
• Particles are arranged
•
• Most solid substances on
Earth are
• are arranged
Glasses
• Have no regular internal
patterns
• Are made up of
arranged
• Form when
into a regular
pattern.
Liquids
Describe the behavior of particles as a solid becomes a liquid.
Use with page 68.
Gases
Use with page 68.
Organize information about gases by completing the graphic
organizer below. Accept all reasonable responses.
particles evaporate
when
How gases
form
sublimation is when
particles move
Gases
have
shape or
volume
Characteristics
of gases
gases
to
fill space
Matter and Atomic Structure
33
Name
Date
Section 3.3 States of Matter
Main Idea
Plasma
(continued)
Details
Describe how plasma forms.
Use with page 69.
List three places where plasma is found.
1.
Changes of State
3.
Label the diagram with the processes that occur when water
changes state. Write “sublimation,” “evaporation,” “condensation,”
and “freezing.” Discuss the transfer of thermal energy for the
various state changes in this diagram.
Me
Fre
g
Subli
ing
Solid
ez
ion
at
n
lti
m
Use with page 69.
2.
Gas
Liquid
Cond
ensation
Evaporation
Conservation of
Matter and
Energy
Restate the law of conservation of matter and the law of conservation of energy in your own words.
Conservation of matter:
Use with page 69.
Conservation of energy:
S YNTHESIZE
Compare and Contrast the arrangement and behavior of particles
in the solid, liquid, gas, and plasma phases. Write a paragraph or make a concept map.
34
Section 3.3 States of Matter
Name
Date
Tie-It-All-Together
Describe an electron in each of the following situations:
S YNTHESIZE
a. a valence electron on a free atom of an element
b. participating in an ionic bond
c. part of a polar covalent bond
d. conducting electricity through a metal
e. part of a block of ice that melts to liquid water and then evaporates to water vapor
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Matter and Atomic Structure
35
Name
Date
Matter and Atomic Structure
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through the
chapter.
K
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
W
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of
each section
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
matter.
36
Chapter Wrap-Up
After reading this chapter, list three things you have learned about
Name
Date
Minerals
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about minerals. Then list three questions you
have about minerals in the “What I Want to Find Out” column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think about the Discovery Lab you did to observe mineral shapes and record your response
in this science journal.
Compare and contrast the shapes of the samples of halite and quartz.
What might account for the differences you observed?
Describe some other physical properties of your mineral samples.
Minerals
37
Name
Date
Minerals
Section 4.1 What is a mineral?
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 1 of your text. Use the checklist below as a guide.
• Read all headings.
• Read all bold words.
• Read all tables and graphs.
• Look at all the pictures and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about minerals.
Write one thing you would like to learn about minerals.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
crystalline structure
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
mineral
crystal
magma
silicate
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
occur
38
Section 4.1 What is a mineral?
Name
Date
Section 4.1 What is a mineral?
Main Idea
Mineral
Characteristics
Use with pages 78–79.
(continued)
Details
Define minerals by completing the chart below. Rewrite each part
of the definition in your own words.
A mineral
is naturally occurring and inorganic
So,
is not a mineral.
is a solid with a specific composition
So,
is not a
mineral.
has a definite crystalline structure
Label the six major crystal systems shown below.
Minerals from
Magma
Use with page 80.
Describe how magma forms minerals by completing the flow chart
below.
Magma is
When magma is forced upward
If the magma reaches
Earth’s surface before
crystallizing,
If the magma crystallizes
in Earth’s heated interior
Minerals
39
Name
Date
Section 4.1 What is a mineral?
Main Idea
Minerals from
Solution
(contnued)
Details
Describe the two ways minerals can form from a solution.
Use with page 80.
Draw three ways that silica tetrahedrons can combine. Circle the
diagram that shows how mica, which splits easily into sheets, would
bond.
Mineral Groups
Compare three different mineral groups that oxygen plays a part in.
Use with page 82.
oxides
ex
feldspar
oxygen
plus
ex
ex
calcite
S YNTHESIZE
40
Compare and contrast minerals and elements.
Section 4.1 What is a mineral?
Name
Date
Minerals
Section 4.2 Identifying Minerals
Main Idea
Details
Predict what you will learn in Section 2. Read the title of the section.
Write three ways that you might be able to identify a mineral.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
element
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
luster
streak
hardness
cleavage
fracture
specific gravity
ore
gem
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
trace
Minerals
41
Name
Date
Section 4.2 Identifying Minerals
Main Idea
Mineral
Identification
Use with pages 84–87.
(continued)
Details
Organize information about mineral identification by completing
the outline below.
I. Color
A. Caused by
B. Milky appearance can be due to
.
.
II.
A. Caused by
.
B. Described as
or
.
III.
A. Defined as
B. Described as
.
,
,
,
,
, or
.
IV.
A. Defined as
.
B. Used only if
.
V.
A. Defined as
B. Measured according to
.
.
VI.
A. Determined by
1. A mineral has cleavage if
.
.
2. A mineral has fracture if
.
VII.
A. Density is a ratio of
.
B. Density is useful because
.
C. Specific gravity, is ratio of
.
42
Section 4.2 Identifying Minerals
Name
Date
Section 4.2 Identifying Minerals
Main Idea
(continued)
Details
Special
Properties
Use with page 88.
Mineral Uses
Use with pages 89–90.
Gems
Organize information about four minerals that can be identified by
their special properties. The first one has been done for you.
Mineral
Iceland spar
Special property
double refraction
Create a concept map to summarize information on ores. Include
the definition, uses, processing methods, and examples.
Identify why gems are more valuable than other kinds of minerals.
Use with page 90.
S YNTHESIZE
Describe what factors would have to change for a mineral to be
considered an ore.
Minerals
43
Name
Date
Minerals
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through the
chapter.
W
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
L
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of each
section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
about minerals.
44
Chapter Wrap-Up
After reading this chapter, list three things you have learned
Name
Date
Igneous Rocks
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about igneous rocks. Then list three questions
you have about igneous rocks in the “What I Want to Find Out”
column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think about the Discovery Lab you did to identify minerals in a sample of rock and record
your response in this science journal.
How many different minerals did you observe in the rock?
What minerals can you identify?
Describe the sizes and shapes of the minerals.
Do you see any evidence that these minerals crystallized from molten rock? Explain.
Igneous Rocks
45
Name
Date
Igneous Rocks
Section 5.1 What are igneous rocks?
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 1 of your text. Use the checklist below as a guide.
• Read all headings.
• Read all bold words.
• Read all tables and graphs.
• Look at all the pictures and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about igneous rocks.
Hypothesize how igneous rocks are formed.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
radioactivity
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
igneous rock
lava
extrusive
intrusive
partial melting
fractional
crystallization
Bowen’s reaction series
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
convert
46
5.1 What are igneous rocks?
Name
Date
Section 5.1 What are igneous rocks?
Main Idea
Types of Igneous
Rocks
Use with page 99.
(continued)
Details
Summarize information about intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks
by writing each statement in the correct area of the Venn diagram.
• Granite is an example
• Coarse-grained
• Fine-grained
• Form above the surface
• Rhyolite is an example
• Cool quickly
• Formed by crystallization of
• Form beneath the surface
magma
• Cool slowly
Intrusive
Extrusive
Igneous
Rocks
Composition and
Origins of Magma
Use with pages 100–102.
Organize information about the composition and formation of
magma by completing the outline and the concept web below.
I. Composition of magma
A. Magma is
.
B. The elements in magma are
.
1. The most abundant compound in magma is
C. Magmas are classified as
,
, and
.
.
1. Their classification depends on
.
II.
increases with
This is known as the
content
As this increases, the
melting point
Factors in the
formation of
magma
increases with
which increases
content
Different
have different
melting points.
Igneous Rocks
47
Name
Date
Section 5.1 What are igneous rocks?
Main Idea
How Rocks Melt
Use with page 102.
Bowen’s
Reaction Series
Use with page 104.
(continued)
Details
Summarize how the composition of the melted material in magma
changes as it melts and cools. How is partial melting the opposite
of fractional crystallization?
Draw the figure showing Bowen’s reaction series. Add the following
labels to your drawing in the correct locations.
Basaltic (low-silica)
Calcium-rich
Rhyolitic (high-silica)
Simultaneous crystallization
Sodium-rich
Continuous reaction series of
Continuous reaction series
plagioclase feldspar
of Fe-Mg minerals
S YNTHESIZE
Compare and contrast the changes that are represented in the
left and right branches of Bowen’s reaction series.
48
5.1 What are igneous rocks?
Name
Date
Igneous Rocks
Section 5.2 Classifying Igneous Rocks
Main Idea
Details
Preview what you will be learning in Section 2. Read the title
of the section and the first paragraph on page 107. Write three
characteristics that geologists use to classify igneous rocks.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
magma
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
felsic
mafic
ultramafic
porphyritic
pegmatite
kimberlite
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
complex
Igneous Rocks
49
Name
Date
Section 5.2 Classifying Igneous Rocks
Main Idea
Mineral
Composition
(continued)
Details
Interpret the diagram to list the components of each rock.
1. basalt:
Use with page 107.
2. obsidian:
3. peridotite:
4. diorite:
5. pegmatite:
Table 5-2 Classification of Igneous Rocks
Extrusive
Falsic
Intermediate
Obsidian
Mafic
Ultramafic
Texture
Basaltic glass
Glassy
(non-crystalline)
Fine-grained
Intrusive
Rhyolite
Andesite
Basalt
Granite
Diorite
Gabbro
Peri- DunCoarse-grained
dotite ite
Very
coarse-grained
Pegmatite
100%
Mineral composition
(percentage by volume)
Potassium feldspar
(pink to white)
75%
Quartz
(clear to white)
Plagioclase feldspar
(white to gray)
50%
Biotite (black)
Pyroxene
(green)
25%
Amphibole
(black)
Olivine
(green)
0%
Grain Size
Use with page 109.
50
Describe the conditions that cause igneous rocks to form large
grains or no visible grains.
Section 5.2 Classifying Igneous Rocks
Name
Date
Section 5.2 Classifying Igneous Rocks
Main Idea
Texture
Use with page 109.
(continued)
Details
Explain how igneous rocks form mineral grains of different shapes
by completing the paragraphs below.
Mineral grains can have interlocking edges because
.
Well-shaped crystals can form during
.
When this happens,
.
Rocks with a porphyritic texture can form when
. This could happen
because
.
Igneous Rocks as
Resources
Use with page 111.
List two characteristics of igneous rocks that make them good
building materials.
1.
2.
Ore Deposits
Use with page 111.
Organize the steps in the formation of deposits in veins.
The fluid from which
magma crystallizes
The fluid fills
contains high levels
The fluid solidifies to form
of
containing
.
.
metals such as
,
,
,
, and
rare elements such as
and
.
S YNTHESIZE
Identify the characteristic of igneous rocks that you could use to
quickly determine whether a rock is extrusive or intrusive. Explain how this characteristic develops.
Igneous Rocks
51
Name
Date
Igneous Rocks
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the "What I Wanted to Find Out" column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the "What I Learned" column, write
down the answers you discovered as you worked through the chapter.
W
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
L
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of each
section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
Hypothesize how N. L. Bowen learned how magma cools in the
reaction series. Do you think he performed experiments in a laboratory? Did he make
observations in the field? Explain your answer.
52
Chapter Wrap-Up
Name
Date
Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.
Then list three questions you have about them in the “What I Want
to Find Out” column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think of the Discovery Lab you did to model sediment layering and record your responses in
this Science Journal.
What type of particles settled out first?
What type of particles form the topmost layers?
How is this activity related to the layering that occurs in sedimentary rocks?
Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks
53
Name
Date
Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks
Section 6.1 Formation of Sedimentary Rocks
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 1 of your text. Use the checklist below as a guide.
• Read all headings.
• Read all bold words.
• Read all tables and graphs.
• Look at all the pictures and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about sedimentary rocks.
Write three questions that come to mind about how sedimentary
rocks form.
1.
2.
Review
Vocabulary
3.
Use your text to define the following term.
igneous rock
New
Vocabulary
In the left margin, write the terms defined below.
pieces of solid material that have been deposited on Earth’s surface
by wind, water, ice, gravity, or chemical precipitation
a type of sediment consisting of rock and mineral fragments
produced by weathering
when sediments are laid down on the ground or sink to the bottoms
of bodies of water
physical and chemical processes that transform sediments into
sedimentary rocks
when mineral growth cements sediment grains together into
rock
bedding in which the particle sizes become progressively heavier
and coarser towards the bottom layers
bedding formed when inclined layers of sediment move forward
across a horizontal surface
horizontal layering in sedimentary rocks
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
transport
54
Section 6.1 Formation of Sedimentary Rocks
Name
Date
Section 6.1 Formation of Sedimentary Rocks
Main Idea
Weathering
Use with page 121.
(continued)
Details
Describe how weathering produces sediments by completing the
concept map below.
Weathering
Produces
sediments
Occurs when
occurs through
Physical
processes
Minerals in
rock are chemically
. Rock
fragments break off
Erosion and
Transport
Use with page 123.
Minerals in
rock are chemically
.
Draw pictures to help you understand erosion. Use Figure 6-2 to
help you. In the top part of each box, draw a picture of one of
the four main causes of erosion: wind, moving water, gravity, and
glaciers. In the bottom half, draw a picture of the kind of sediments
that form from each cause of erosion: layered sediments, wellsorted sand, or unsorted piles.
Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks
55
Name
Date
Section 6.1 Formation of Sedimentary Rocks
Main Idea
Lithification
(continued)
Details
Compare lithification of sand and silt. Describe cementation.
Use with page 125.
Describe the features of sedimentary rock.
Bedding
Features of
Sedimentary
Rock
Use with pages 126–127.
Graded bedding
Cross-bedding
Small sedimentary features
Fossils
S YNTHESIZE
A certain sedimentary formation contains two layers. The bottom layer is made up of jumbled, unsorted material. The top layer made up of fine,
well-sorted sand. Describe how this formation might have been created.
56
Section 6.1 Formation of Sedimentary Rocks
Name
Date
Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks
Section 6.2 Types of Sedimentary Rocks
Main Idea
Details
Scan the objectives for Section 2 in your text. Write three questions
that come to mind.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
clastic
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
clastic sedimentary
rock
porosity
evaporite
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
feature
Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks
57
Name
Date
Section 6.2 Types of Sedimentary Rocks
Main Idea
Clastic
Sedimentary
Rocks
(continued)
Details
Organize information about the three types of clastic sedimentary
rocks.
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
Coarse-grained
Use with pages 128–129.
Type of fragments:
Types of rock formed:
Formed by:
Medium-grained
Type of fragments:
Type of rock formed:
Formed by:
Fine-grained
Type of fragments:
Type of rock formed:
Chemical
Sedimentary
Rocks
Compare the porosity of medium-grained clastics and fine-grained
clastics. Explain the movement of oil and water through each type
of rock.
Medium-grained clastics
Use with page 130.
Fine-grained clastics
Sequence the steps in the formation of sedimentary rocks from
evaporation. The first one has been completed for you.
1
58
Thick layers of evaporites can accumulate as evaporation
removes freshwater.
Water evaporates and leaves behind dissolved minerals.
Minerals are dissolved and carried into lakes and oceans by
chemical weathering.
Layers of chemical sedimentary rocks called evaporites form.
The concentration of minerals reaches the saturation point.
Crystal grains precipitate out of the solution and settle on the
bottom.
Section 6.2 Types of Sedimentary Rocks
Name
Date
Section 6.2 Types of Sedimentary Rocks
Main Idea
Use with page 131.
(continued)
Details
Summarize what you read about organic sedimentary rocks by
completing this table.
Organic Sedimentary Rocks
Importance of
Sedimentary
Rocks
Use with page 132.
What forms them
Where they form
How limestone forms
How coal forms
Organize information about why sedimentary rocks are important
by filling in the graphic organizer.
Provide
information
about
Sedimentary
Rocks
Provide
resources
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
A company wants to drill a new oil
well. They know that a layer of oil-containing shale is located beneath a thick layer
of siltstone. Describe challenges the company might face.
Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks
59
Name
Date
Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks
Section 6.3 Metamorphic Rocks
Main Idea
Details
Skim Section 3 of your text. Read the headings and the illustration
captions. Write three questions that come to mind.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
intrusive
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
regional metamorphism
contact metamorphism
hydrothermal
metamorphism
foliated
nonfoliated
porphyroblast
rock cycle
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
cycle
60
Section 6.3 Metamorphic Rocks
Name
Date
Section 6.3 Metamorphic Rocks
Main Idea
Causes of
Metamorphism
(continued)
Details
Summarize information about causes of metamorphism by
completing the graphic organizer.
Conditions necessary for metamorphism
Use with page 133.
can be caused by
1.
2.
1.
2.
Types of
Metamorphism
Use with pages
134–135.
Organize information about metamorphism by completing the
outline.
I. Regional metamorphism
A. Occurs when
.
B. Geologists can divide metamorphic rock belts into zones based
on
.
II.
A. Occurs when
B. Can result in
III.
A. Occurs when
B. Can result in
Metamorphic
Textures
Use with page 136.
Organize information about textures of metamorphic rock in the
table below.
Texture
Shape of
crystals
How formed
Examples
Foliated
Nonfoliated
no pressure during
metamorphism
Porphyroblast very large
Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks
61
Name
Date
Section 6.3 Metamorphic Rocks
Main Idea
(continued)
Details
Use with page 137.
Compare mineral changes in metamorphism to changes in
fractional crystallization. Name the process of mineral change
in metamorphism.
Compositional
Changes
Describe compositional changes in metamorphism by completing
the paragraph below.
Use with page 137.
Hot fluids
Mineral Changes
during metamorphism. This
can change
. Chemical
changes often happen during
. Hydrothermal fluids
The Rock Cycle
and Possible
Paths
.
Draw the rock cycle with the processes that change one kind of
rock into another kind. Use Figure 6-21 in your text for help.
Use with pages 138–139.
S YNTHESIZE
A geologist says that a certain rock is 500 million years old. Tell
if this can be true, and why or why not.
62
Section 6.3 Metamorphic Rocks
Name
Date
Tie-It-All-Together
S YNTHESIZE
Analyze what you have learned in this chapter about how
igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks are formed. Explain how a rock can
undergo two different processes that change its texture, rock type, or composition.
Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks
63
Name
Date
Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks Chapter Wrap-Up
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.
Then list three questions you have about them in the “What I
Wanted to Find Out” column.
K
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
W
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of
each section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
After reading this chapter, list three
things you have learned about sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.
64
Chapter Wrap-Up
Name
Date
Weathering, Erosion, and Soil
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about weathering, erosion, and soil. Then list
three questions you have about them in the “What I Want to Find
Out” column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think about the Discovery Lab you did to model interfaces and record your responses in this
science journal.
Describe what happened to the sugar cube and the granulated sugar.
Explain why one form of sugar dissolved faster than the other. Infer how you could
decrease the time required to dissolve the other form of sugar.
Weathering, Erosion, and Soil
65
Name
Date
Weathering, Erosion, and Soil
Section 7.1 Weathering
Main Idea
Details
Scan the objectives for Section 1 in your text. Write three questions
that come to mind.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term. Hypothesize how the
term might be important in this chapter.
chemical reaction
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
weathering
erosion
mechanical weathering
frost wedging
exfoliation
chemical weathering
hydrolysis
oxidation
Academic
Vocabulary
expand
66
Section 7.1 Weathering
Define the following term.
Name
Date
Section 7.1 Weathering
Main Idea
Mechanical
Weathering
Use with page 154.
(continued)
Details
Sequence the processes by which factors in mechanical weathering break down rocks and minerals. Number the steps in each
process 1–4. Use Figure 7-3 to help you.
Mechanical Weathering
Temperature
Freezing water exerts pressure on the rocks and make them split.
Water collects in the cracks of rocks and rock layers.
Water thaws and the cycle, called frost wedging, repeats.
Water expands as it freezes.
Pressure
Successive layers of rock are stripped away in a process called
exfoliation.
The bedrock surface expands and long cracks form parallel to
the surface of the rock.
The overlying rock layers are removed and the pressure on the
bedrock is reduced.
Bedrock at great depths is under pressure from the overlying
rock layers.
Chemical
Weathering
Use with pages 156–157.
Outline information about how water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide
contribute to chemical weathering to help you understand and
remember this cause of erosion.
I. Water
A. Important in chemical weathering because
.
B. Hydrolysis is
1. It occurs in the decomposition
.
.
II.
A. Like water, it can
B. This chemical reaction is called
.
.
III.
A. Produced by
B. Combines with water in the atmosphere to form
.
.
C. Carbonic acid reacts with minerals to
1. Limestone caverns can form when
.
.
Weathering, Erosion, and Soil
67
Name
Section 7.1 Weathering
Main Idea
Use with page 157.
Date
(continued)
Details
Organize information about acid precipitation by completing this
graphic organizer.
Acid Precipitation
is caused by
of materials
from human activity
including
from
What affects
the rate of
weathering?
Use with page 158.
from
Summarize the conditions that can increase the rate of weathering
by completing the table.
Variables that Affect the Rate of Weathering
Variable
Climate
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Most weathering happens with. . .
warm, rainy (chemical) cool, dry (physical)
You have been asked to evaluate a
design for a stone monument. The monument will be located in a city that has a warm,
rainy climate. The artist has made several errors in judgment. List what they might be,
and why. Include information about its placement, design, and the materials you would
use to make it.
68
Section 7.1 Weathering
Name
Date
Weathering, Erosion, and Soil
Section 7.2 Erosion and Deposition
Main Idea
Details
Consider the title of Section 7.2 of your book. Write 3 topics that
might be discussed in this section.
1.
2.
3.
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term. Make a sketch to help you
understand and remember each term.
deposition
rill erosion
gully erosion
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
annual
Weathering, Erosion, and Soil
69
Name
Date
Section 7.2 Erosion and Deposition
Main Idea
Gravity’s Role in
Erosion
(continued)
Details
Identify gravity’s role in erosion. Include examples.
Use with page 162.
Erosion by
Running Water
Use with page 162.
Write a sentence that tells how each of the following factors affect
erosion and/or deposition.
Streams and rivers
Deltas
Ocean currents, waves, and tides
Dunes and beaches
Ocean floor and shorelines
Human development and population growth
70
Section 7.2 Erosion and Deposition
Name
Date
Section 7.2 Erosion and Deposition
Main Idea
Wind Erosion
Use with page 165.
(continued)
Details
Organize information about wind erosion by filling in the graphic
organizer.
Wind
Erosion
Factors that
contribute to
wind erosion
Erosion by
Plants, Animals,
and Humans
One way to
reduce wind
erosion:
Formulate additional examples of how plants, animals, and
humans contribute to erosion. List examples from the book in the left
column. Add your own examples in the right column.
Use with page 166.
Examples from the book
Additional examples
S YNTHESIZE
Is erosion a purely destructive force, or does it have
constructive aspects as well? Explain your answer and give examples.
Weathering, Erosion, and Soil
71
Name
Date
Weathering, Erosion, and Soil
Section 7.3 Formation of Soil
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 3 of your text. Use the checklist below as a guide.
• Read all headings.
• Read all bold words.
• Read all tables and graphs.
• Look at all the pictures and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about soil.
Write two questions that come to mind about how soil forms.
1.
2.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
sediment
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term. Make a sketch to help you
understand and remember the terms.
soil
residual soil
transported soil
soil profile
soil horizon
72
Section 7.3 Formation of Soil
Name
Date
Section 7.3 Formation of Soil
Main Idea
(continued)
Details
Development
of Soil
Sequence the steps in the development of soil by completing the
flow chart.
Use with page 167.
Weathering breaks solid bedrock into smaller pieces.
Soil Composition
Use with page 168.
Soil Profiles
Use with page 169.
Write a paragraph that explains the relationship between a soil
and its parent rock.
Model a soil profile in the box below. Use Figure 7-21 and information from your book to help you. If the figure below shows a crosssection of the earth, write each of the labels below in the correct
space in the soil profile.
• High concentrations of
organic matter
• Horizon A
• Horizon B
• Sits directly above bedrock
• Subsoils enriched with clay
minerals
• Horizon C
Weathering, Erosion, and Soil
73
Name
Date
Section 7.3 Formation of Soil
Main Idea
Soil Types
Use with page 172.
(continued)
Details
Compare and Contrast polar, temperate, desert, and tropical
soils by completing the table.
Soil Types
Temperate
• Support environments such
Polar
• Form at
•
• Grassland soils
•
• Forest soils
Desert
•
salts
•
of accumulated
•
Soil Fertility
Use with page 173.
Tropical
•
•
•
Identify the five factors that affect soil fertility.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Every food we eat can be traced back to
soil. Take ice cream, for example: ice cream is made with milk; milk comes from cows;
cows eat grass; grass grows in soil. So, ice cream comes from soil! Think of a food you
like to eat. Then trace the food back to its origin in soil.
74
Section 7.3 Formation of Soil
Name
Date
Tie-It-All-Together
S YNTHESIZE
Weathering and erosion are processes that occur continuously
on Earth. Large changes to Earth’s surface features often take place slowly, over many
years. People do not always consider the effects that these changes can have on the
structures they erect. Examine your ideas, thoughts, and opinions about this issue by
reading the scenario below and then answering the questions. Support your opinions
with logical reasoning.
A large hotel was constructed more than 50 years ago on a high cliff overlooking the
Pacific Ocean. Over the years, the cliff has eroded. Ten years ago, a developer built a wharf
that reduced the deposition of sand on the beach below the cliff. This increased the rate of
erosion of the cliff. Each year, the cliff ’s edge advances closer and closer toward the hotel.
The hotel now sits only 20 m from the edge.
The local government has condemned the hotel, saying that it is no longer safe. The hotel
owners have protested the government’s decision. They say that the hotel could still be safe
for years to come. Furthermore, if the hotel is condemned, they want to be paid for the loss
of their property.
Should the hotel owners be allowed to keep the hotel open? Why or why not?
If the hotel did stay open and someone got hurt, would the owners be responsible, or should
it just be considered an accident?
If the hotel is closed, should the owners receive any payment? Who would pay them? The
local government? The builders of the wharf ?
What steps could be taken to ensure that problems like this do not arise in the future?
Weathering, Erosion, and Soil
75
Name
Date
Weathering, Erosion, and Soil
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through the
chapter.
K
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
W
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of each
section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
After reading this chapter, describe the connection between
weathering, erosion, and soil.
76
Chapter Wrap-Up
Name
Date
Mass Movements, Wind, and Glaciers
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about mass movements, wind, and glaciers.
Then list three questions you have about mass movements, wind,
and glaciers in the “What I Want to Find Out” column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think about the Discovery Lab you did to model sand-slope and record your response in this
science journal. Describe how the addition of water affected the sand’s ability to be molded
in the three samples.
Mass Movements, Wind, and Glaciers
77
Name
Date
Mass Movements, Wind, and Glaciers
Section 8.1 Mass Movements at Earth’s Surface
Main Idea
Details
Scan the photos, diagrams, and captions in Section 1 of your text.
List three topics that are discussed in this section.
1.
2.
3.
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
mass movement
creep
mudflow
landslide
slump
avalanche
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
potential
78
Section 8.1 Mass Movements at Earth’s Surface
Name
Date
Section 8.1 Mass Movements at Earth’s Surface (continued)
Main Idea
Mass Movements
Use with page 181.
Details
List three variables that influence mass movement.
1.
2.
3.
Variables That
Influence Mass
Movements
Illustrate how water can influence soil. Make one drawing to show
how water can hold grains together, and one to show how it lubricates
between grains.
Use with page 183.
Types of Mass
Movements
Use with page 184.
Compare the types of mass movement in the table below. Make a
simple sketch of each kind of movement.
Mass
movement
creep
How material
behaves
Effects/Results
Sketch
flow
slide
slump
avalanche
rock fall
Mass Movements, Wind, and Glaciers
79
Name
Date
Section 8.1 Mass Movements at Earth’s Surface (continued)
Main Idea
Mass Movements
Affect People
Use with page 189.
Details
List three ways human actions increase the destruction caused by
mass movements.
1.
2.
3.
Reducing the
Risks
Analyze preventative actions by completing the graphic organizer
below.
Use with page 189.
Preventive
Actions
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Infer why it is important to regulate
development in areas of heavy rainfall and steep topography. Discuss what types of
mass movement can occur and how people should use this information when they
want to build or develop an area.
80
Section 8.1 Mass Movements at Earth’s Surface
Name
Date
Mass Movements, Wind, and Glaciers
Section 8.2 Wind
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 2 of your text. Use the checklist below as a guide.
• Read all the section titles.
• Read all bold words.
• Look at all figures and photos and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about rivers and streams.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term. How do you think it
fits with the concepts discussed in this chapter?
friction
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
deflation
abrasion
ventifact
dune
loess
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
transport
Mass Movements, Wind, and Glaciers
81
Name
Date
Section 8.2 Wind (continued)
Main Idea
Wind Erosion and
Transport
Use with page 191.
Details
Organize information about sediment transport in the Venn diagram
to show whether it is a characteristic of saltation, suspension, or both.
• airborne particles
• moves larger particles
• areas of low precipitation
• strong winds
• bouncing motion
• move smaller particles
Saltation
Suspension
Both
Wind Deposition
Use with page 195.
82
Section 8.2 Wind
Draw diagrams of 4 types of sand dunes in the boxes below. Use
Table 8-1 in your text to help. Use an arrow to show the direction
the wind is blowing.
Barchan Dune
Parobolic Dune
Transverse Dune
Longitudinal Dune
Name
Date
Section 8.2 Wind (continued)
Main Idea
Wind Deposition
Use with page 194.
Details
Synthesize Turn the three bold-faced headings under “wind
deposition” into questions. Then use the information from your
text to answer your questions.
Formation of Dunes
Question:
Answer:
Types of Dunes
Question:
Answer:
Loess
Question:
Answer:
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Imagine you are a conservation officer
for an ocean side state park. How could you explain to the public that they must not
damage the dunes? Make up three rules, and give three explanations of what could
happen if the rules were not obeyed.
Rule
Consequence
Mass Movements, Wind, and Glaciers
83
Name
Date
Mass Movement, Wind, and Glaciers
Section 8.3 Glaciers
Main Idea
Details
Read the title of the section. Predict three things that might be
discussed in this section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
glacier
valley glacier
continental glacier
cirque
moraine
outwash plain
drumlin
esker
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
accumulate
84
Section 8.3 Glaciers
Name
Date
Section 8.3 Glaciers (continued)
Main Idea
Use with page 198.
Details
List three things glaciers do to rock.
,
, and
.
List three things scientists learn by studying the layers of glaciers.
1.
2.
3.
Moving Masses
of Ice
Compare and Contrast valley glaciers and continental glaciers in
the table below.
Use with pages 199–201.
Valley Glaciers
Continental Glaciers
size
flow begins when . . .
part of glacier where
movement occurs
locations on Earth
Glacial Erosion
Use with page 201.
Draw a diagram similar to Figure 8-24, or several separate
pictures, to show the glacial features listed below.
• arête
• hanging valley
• U-shaped valley
• cirque
• horn
• waterfall
Mass Movements, Wind, and Glaciers
85
Name
Date
Section 8.3 Glaciers (continued)
Main Idea
Glacial
Deposition
Details
Describe the differences between glacial till and glacial outwash.
Use with page 202.
Describe the differences between moraines, drumlins, and eskers.
Sequence the formation of a kettle lake.
1. Large block of ice breaks off glacier.
2.
3.
4. Kettle hole fills with water and becomes a kettle
lake.
A NALOGY
Describe be how a glacier can be compared to each of the following:
sand paper, a city bus system, a newspaper carrier.
86
Section 8.3 Glaciers
Name
Date
Tie-It-All-Together
F URTHER I NQUIRY
Predict why mudflows are common when a dry
summer with numerous wildfires is followed by an autumn with torrential rains.
What precautions can people in this area take to avoid problems?
Identify ways that past glacial action in New England and New York State might affect
tourism and recreation in those areas.
Design a model of one of the types of mass movement mentioned in the chapter. Come up
with a plan to stop the erosion or minimize the danger to surrounding areas and homes.
Imagine you have an unlimited budget to carry out your plan.
Mass Movements, Wind, and Glaciers
87
Name
Date
Mass Movements, Wind, and Glaciers
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through the
chapter.
K
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
W
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of each
section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
After reading this chapter, list three important ideas about mass
movement, wind, and glaciers.
88
Chapter Wrap-Up
Name
Date
Surface Water
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about surface water. Then list three questions
you have about surface water in the “What I Want to Find Out”
column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think about the Discovery Lab you did to model water movement.
Describe what happens to the water after five minutes.
Measure how much water passes through each clump and collects in the plastic shoe box.
Explain any differences in the amount of water collected in each plastic shoe box.
Surface Water
89
Name
Date
Surface Water
Section 9.1 Surface Water Movement
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 1 of your text. Use the checklist below as a guide.
• Read all the section titles.
• Read all bold words.
• Look at all figures and photos and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about rivers and streams.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
permeable
New
Vocabulary
In the left margin, write the terms defined below.
water that flows downslope on Earth’s surface and may enter a
stream, river, or lake; its rate is influenced by the angle of the slope,
vegetation, rate of precipitation, and soil composition
land area drained by a stream system
elevated land that divides one watershed or drainage basin
from another
a mixture of materials dissolved in stream water
when silt and sand are held up and carried along by turbulent
stream water
sediments too heavy to remain in solution, that are pushed or rolled
along the bottom of a stream bed.
a measure of the volume of stream water that flows over a location
in an amount of time
potentially devastating natural occurrence in which water spills
over the sides of a stream’s banks onto adjacent land
broad, flat, fertile area extending from a stream’s bank, covered
with water during floods
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
process
90
Section 9.1 Surface Water Movement
Name
Date
Section 9.1 Surface Water Movement
Main Idea
(continued)
Details
Runoff
Use with page 212.
Stream Systems
Watersheds and
Divides
Draw the hydrologic cycle. Include all of the terms listed below.
Use Figure 9-1 to help you.
• condensation
• groundwater
• land
• precipitation
• transpiration
• evaporation
• infiltrates
• ocean
• runoff
Predict how different variables impact whether precipitation will
seep into the ground or become runoff.
seep into ground
Use with page 214.
become runoff
vegetation
rate of
precipitation
soil composition
slope
Sequence the steps in the development of a stream.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Surface Water
91
Name
Date
Section 9.1 Surface Water Movement
Main Idea
Stream
Load/Stream
Velocity and
Carrying Capacity
(continued)
Details
Explain how minerals, such as calcium carbonate and soluble
magnesium compounds found in surface water, compare to the
sugar in lemonade.
Use with page 218.
Floodplains/
Floods
Use with page 220.
Draw a diagram that illustrates the relationship between these
terms.
• bedrock
• floodplain
• floodplain deposits
• river channel
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Imagine you are a developer and have a
chance to buy an area for a housing subdivision on a flood plain. Develop a report on
this buying option for shareholders, including the risks and benefits of building there.
92
Section 9.1 Surface Water Movement
Name
Date
Surface Water
Section 9.2 Stream Development
Main Idea
Details
Skim Section 2 of your text. Read the headings and the figure
captions. Write three questions that come to mind.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
deposition
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
stream channel
stream bank
meander
delta
rejuvenation
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
contrast
Surface Water
93
Name
Date
Section 9.2 Stream Development
Main Idea
Moving Water
Carves A Path
(continued)
Details
Describe the how moving water can carve a path by completing
the paragraph below.
Use with page 222.
supplies the water needed for a stream to form. This
water first accumulates in an area called the
usually a spot high in the
small
. The water accumulates in
at higher elevation and forms
streams. Eventually, the water carves out a
and
a stream by
Formation of
Stream Valleys
Use with pages 223–224.
. This is
, which
as more water accumulates. Water is held in
.
Sequence the steps in the formation of V-shaped valleys. The first
one has been done for you.
the stream reaches base level
broader valley with gentle slopes is formed
1
a stream erodes steep sided valley
erosion continues along side of V-shaped channel
Meandering
Streams
Use with page 224.
Create a diagram of a meandering stream. Your diagram should
include the following:
• places where deposition occurs
• spots where erosion occurs
• an oxbow lake
• an indication of the area of fastest and slowest flow
94
Section 9.2 Stream Development
Name
Date
Section 9.2 Stream Development
Main Idea
Deposition of
Sediment
(continued)
Details
Compare and Contrast an alluvial fan and a delta in the table
below.
Use with page 226.
Shape and
Composition Area and means
deposition
Alluvial
Fan
Delta
Rejuvenation
Use with page 227.
Organize information about the rejuvenation of a stream by completing the cycle diagram below.
deep-sided
canyon formed
stream rejuvenated
S YNTHESIZE
Write the history of a stream. Include information on how and
where it was formed, what it experienced during its middle years, and how it aged.
Diagrams may be useful in creating this life history story.
Surface Water
95
Name
Date
Surface Water
Section 9.3 Lakes and Freshwater Wetlands
Main Idea
Details
Consider the title of Section 3. List three things that might be
discussed in this section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
cirque
New
Vocabulary
In the left margin, write the terms defined below.
land covered in water for most of the year
depression that holds water
process where water becomes rich in nutrients
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
maintain
96
Section 9.3 Lakes and Freshwater Wetlands
Name
Date
Section 9.3 Lakes and Freshwater Wetlands
Main Idea
Origins of Lakes
Use with page 228.
(continued)
Details
List two kinds of man-made lakes and identify their purpose.
1.
2.
Lakes Undergo
Change
Use with page 229.
Summarize the four major ways in which lakes form by describing
each process and the type of lake that is formed.
Streams
Landslides
Glaciers
Groundwater
Analyze the information on how lakes undergo change. In the
question spaces provided, turn the bold-faced headings into questions.
Then answer your questions.
Eutrophication
Question:
Answer:
Freshwater Wetlands
Question:
Answer:
Surface Water
97
Name
Date
Section 9.3 Lakes and Freshwater Wetlands
Main Idea
Lakes Undergo
Change
Use with page 229.
(continued)
Details
Identify two helpful functions that wetlands have.
1. trap
,
,
from water
sources
2. provide habitats and homes for
Create a concept web to show seven factors, natural and humancontributed, that contribute to the eutrophication of a lake.
Eutrophication
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Create a diagram that explains the
probable origin of a lake in your state. Your diagram may include other nearby lakes
or landforms to support your hypothesis.
98
Section 9.3 Lakes and Freshwater Wetlands
Name
Date
Tie-It-All-Together
Describe the erosional and depositional
abilities of a river.
F URTHER I NQUIRY
Explain how a floodplain is a dynamic feature.
Design a model or several frames (cartoon-strip style) that can show the behavior of a river
over its lifetime. Include the different stages and the features that will form and erode over
time. Present your model to the class.
Surface Water
99
Name
Date
Surface Water
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through the
chapter.
W
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
L
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of
each section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
about surface water.
100
Chapter Wrap-Up
After reading this chapter, list three things you have learned
Name
Date
Groundwater
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about groundwater. Then list three questions
you have about groundwater in the “What I Want to Find Out”
column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think about the Discovery Lab you did to model underground water storage and record
your response in this science journal.
Describe how much water is present in the saturated sand.
Calculate the ratio of water volume to the volume of sand. Infer how many liters of water
could be stored in a cubic meter of sand.
Groundwater
101
Name
Date
Groundwater
Section 10.1 Movement and Storage of Groundwater
Main Idea
Details
Read the title of Section 1. List three things that might be discussed
in this section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
renewable resource
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
infiltration
porosity
zone of saturation
water table
permeability
aquifer
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
resource
102
Section 10.1 Movement and Storage of Groundwater
Name
Date
Section 10.1 Movement and Storage of Groundwater
Main Idea
(continued)
Details
Use with page 240.
Create a pie graph that compares the percentages of the sources of
freshwater. Your graph should include the atmosphere, rivers
and streams, groundwater, lakes, and
ice caps and glaciers.
Precipitation and
Groundwater
Sequence Number the steps in the movement of groundwater. The
first one has been completed for you.
The Hydrosphere
water infiltrates into the ground
Use with page 240.
1
seawater evaporates
water becomes part of groundwater
precipitation
groundwater returns to surface through springs
water flows from springs back to the oceans
Groundwater
Storage
Draw diagrams of sediments with different porosity.
Well-Sorted Sediment
Poorly Sorted Sediment
Use with page 240.
Hypothesize why poorly sorted sediments might be less porous.
Groundwater
103
Name
Date
Section 10.1 Movement and Storage of Groundwater
Main Idea
The Zone of
Saturation
(continued)
Details
Explain how a kitchen sponge floating in the water compares to the
zone of saturation and the water table.
Use with page 241.
Groundwater
Movement
Use with page 242.
Draw a diagram similar to Figure 10-4 with an aquifer overlain by
an impermeable layer of rock.
• Show where a reliable well could be dug.
• Draw a well that would be unreliably filled with water.
• Show where a well would be dry.
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Draw a fictional topographic map. Show
where the water table is at the surface, below the surface, and above the surface of the
land. Using graph paper, create a topographic profile (or side view) through a portion
of the map. On your
profile, indicate the approximate location of the water table.
104
Section 10.1 Movement and Storage of Groundwater
Name
Date
Groundwater
Section 10.2 Groundwater Erosion and Deposition
Main Idea
Details
Skim through Section 2 of your text. Read the headings and figure
captions. Write three questions that come to mind.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
carbonate rocks
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
cave
sinkhole
karst topography
stalactite
stalagmite
travertine
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
collapse
Groundwater
105
Name
Date
Section 10.2 Groundwater Erosion and Deposition
Main Idea
Dissolution by
Groundwater
Use with pages 244–246.
(continued)
Details
Analyze cave formation by completing the following sentences.
A
is a natural underground opening with a
surface. Caves form when
The limestone becomes more
usually form in the zone of
to the
is dissolved by
.
as it dissolves. Caves
below the
.
Draw a diagram to show the landforms found in a karst region.
Label the following features on your diagram:
• dry cave
• sinkhole
• sinking stream
• water-filled cave
• water table
Groundwater
Deposits
Compare and contrast stalagmites and the white “scale” sometimes found in pipes and water kettles.
Use with page 247.
Differences
106
Section 10.2 Groundwater Erosion and Deposition
Similarities
Name
Date
Section 10.2 Groundwater Erosion and Deposition
Main Idea
Groundwater
Deposits
Use with page 247.
(continued)
Details
Skim the information about groundwater deposits. In the Question
spaces provided, turn the bold-faced headings into questions. Then
answer the questions.
Hard Water
Question:
Answer:
Natural Deposits
Question:
Answer:
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Marble is a metamorphic rock made from
limestone that has undergone extreme heat and pressure. Many ancient marble statues are
beginning to wear away. Acid rain is the culprit. Explain what is happening to cause this and
compare it to the formation of a karst region.
Groundwater
107
Name
Date
Groundwater
Section 10.3 Groundwater Systems
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 10.3 of your text. Use the checklist below as a guide.
• Read all the section titles.
• Read all bold words.
• Look at all figures and photos and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about rivers and streams.
New
Vocabulary
In the left margin, write the terms defined below.
water being added back to zone of saturation
holes dug or drilled to reach reservoir of groundwater
natural discharge of water
spring with temperatures greater than 40°C.
well that the water does not need to be pumped from
difference between original water table level and the level in a
pumped well
explosive hot springs
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
transport
108
Section 10.3 Groundwater Systems
Name
Date
Section 10.3 Groundwater Systems
Main Idea
(continued)
Details
Springs
Use with page 250.
Wells
Use with page 252.
Create one diagram to illustrate these terms. Use Figure 10-12 to
help you.
• impermeable layer
• main water table
• perched water table
• spring
Describe how pumping affects a water well by completing the
cycle diagram below.
Water level
in a well is the
same as the water
table.
Confined
Aquifers
Use with page 253.
Explain concepts related to aquifers by completing the following
sentences.
Aquifers that are unconfined are called
Confined aquifers are located between two
aquifers.
. If a
confined aquifer is under pressure, a well dug in that area may form
an
be an
. If water flows naturally from the ground, it may
.
Groundwater
109
Name
Date
Section 10.3 Groundwater Systems
Main Idea
Threats to Our
Water Supply
Use with page 254.
(continued)
Details
Summarize threats to the water supply, causes, and consequences in
the table below.
Threat
Causes
Consequences
Overuse
Subsidence
Pollution of
Groundwater
Chemicals
Salt
Radon
Protecting Our
Water Supply
Use with page 257.
Identify four ways that pollution that has entered the groundwater
system can be controlled.
1.
2.
3.
4.
S YNTHESIZE
Imagine you are teaching a course for water-well drillers. List
factors that would be important to teach drillers to consider when locating and using
water wells, and land features useful for drillers to know about.
110
Section 10.3 Groundwater Systems
Name
Date
Tie-It-All-Together
Describe some of the problems associated with living
in a karst region.
F URTHER I NQUIRY
Explain how limestone is dissolved by groundwater.
Design a model of a cave. Show natural features. Describe animals or plant life. Indicate
rock type as well as add the surface of the land to your diagram.
Groundwater
111
Name
Date
Groundwater
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the "What I Wanted to Find Out" column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the "What I Learned" column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through the
chapter.
W
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
L
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of
each section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
about groundwater.
112
Chapter Wrap-Up
After reading this chapter, list three things you have learned
Name
Date
Atmosphere
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about atmosphere Then list three questions you
have about atmospheres in the ”What I Want to Find Out” column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think about the Discovery Lab you did to model the formation of dew and record your
responses in this science journal.
Describe what happened to the outside of the glass in step 3 and step 4.
Relate your observations to the formation of dew.
Graph the temperature of the water during both experiments. Did the results vary with
location?
Atmosphere
113
Name
Date
Atmosphere
Section 11.1 Atmospheric Basics
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 1 of your text. Use the checklist below as a guide.
• Read all the section titles.
• Read all bold words.
• Look at all figures and photos and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about atmosphere.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term. Predict how you think
this term will apply to the Atmosphere chapter.
composition
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
ozone
troposphere
stratosphere
radiation
conduction
convection
mesosphere
thermosphere
exosphere
114
Draw a sketch showing the relative positions of the mesosphere,
thermosphere, and exosphere.
Section 11.1 Atmospheric Basics
Name
Date
Section 11.1 Atmospheric Basics
Main Idea
Atmospheric
Composition
Use with page 272.
(continued)
Details
Organize information about the components of the atmosphere
using the prompts provided. Use Figure 11-1 and other information
from your book to help you.
The majority of air is made up of
(
%).
that
(
and
%) and
are two important gases
in amount but are critical in determining the amount of
the atmosphere absorbs.
is either absorbed or
released when water
.
Three solids in the atmosphere are
,
, and
.
A gas that controls the amount of ultraviolet light that enters the
atmosphere is
, a molecule made of three
.
Other major gases that can be found in the atmosphere include
,
Structure of the
Atmosphere
,
,
,
, and
.
Compare and Contrast the characteristics of the different layers
of the atmosphere in the table below.
Use with page 274.
Layer
Temperature Composition
Special
Variation
Characteristics
with Altitude
Troposphere
Stratosphere
Mesosphere
Thermosphere
Atmosphere
115
Name
Date
Section 11.1 Atmospheric Basics
Main Idea
Solar
Fundamentals
(continued)
Details
Summarize the three methods of energy transfer from the Sun to
Earth’s atmosphere by completing the following chart.
Use with pages 275-277.
Movement
of energy
Radiation
occurs
when molecules
collide
Analyze how the Sun’s energy is affected as it hits Earth’s
atmosphere. Fill in the table with the five ways it is reflected or
absorbed and the percentage of sunlight that goes each way. Use
Figure 11-4 to help you.
Effect
percent
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
CFCs are banned in the United States
because they can cause ozone to degrade. Explain which part of our atmosphere this
protects and why that is important.
116
Section 11.1 Atmospheric Basics
Name
Date
Atmosphere
Section 11.2 State of the Atmosphere
Main Idea
Details
Read the title of Section 2. Predict what you think the section might
be about.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
volume
New
Vocabulary
In the left margin, write the terms defined below.
measure of the rate of movement of molecules
transfer of energy
temperature to which air must be cooled at constant pressure to
reach saturation
matter changes from gas to liquid
height at which condensation occurs
increase in temperature with elevation
amount of water vapor in air
ratio of water vapor in air to how much water vapor that volume
of air is capable of holding
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
individual
Atmosphere
117
Name
Date
Section 11.2 State of the Atmosphere
Main Idea
Temperature
Versus Heat
(continued)
Details
Distinguish between temperature and heat by completing the
following sentences.
Use with page 278.
is the measurement of how quickly or slowly
move.
areas of
is the transfer of
. Heat flows from
temperature to areas of
temperatures.
Temperature can be measured in
, or
known than
Vertical
Temperature
Changes
,
. There is no colder temperature
on the
scale.
Create a graphic organizer with information about adiabatic lapse
rates, air saturation, temperature, and altitude.
Use with page 279.
Air Pressure and
Density
Predict whether water would boil on top of a mountain at a higher
or lower temperature than at sea level. Explain.
Use with page 280.
118
Section 11.2 State of the Atmosphere
Name
Date
Section 11.2 State of the Atmosphere
Main Idea
(continued)
Details
PressureTemperatureDensity
Relationships
Use with page 280.
Sequence the steps in the formation of temperature inversions.
1. Cool, clear winter night when the wind is calm
2.
3.
4.
Wind
Use with page 282.
Describe how wind is created by completing the paragraph below.
Cool air
Warm air
. This creates an area of
. This creates an area of
Air masses move from areas of
This is what creates
Relative
Humidity
Use with page 282.
.
.
to
.
.
Draw a graph and write one
sentence to explain why climate
zones near the equator are more
humid than climate zones closer
to the poles. Use the ProblemSolving Lab to help you.
S YNTHESIZE
You are at the beach and notice that in the afternoon there is a
cool breeze blowing onto the beach from the ocean. At night, the wind is blowing from
the land out to sea. How would you explain to someone why this occurs?
Atmosphere
119
Name
Date
Atmosphere
Section 11.3 Moisture in the Atmosphere
Main Idea
Details
Scan the section titles, boldface terms, and diagrams found in this
section. Write three topics that will be discussed in this section about
moisture in the atmosphere.
1.
2.
3.
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
condensation nuclei
orographic lifting
stability
latent heat
coalescence
precipitation
water cycle
evaporation
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
method
120
Section 11.3 Moisture in the Atmosphere
Name
Date
Section 11.3 Moisture in the Atmosphere
Main Idea
Cloud Formation
(continued)
Details
Describe clouds by completing the paragraph below.
Use with page 285.
can form as warm moist air rises, expands, and cools, and
cooler air
in a
. Water vapor in the air
condenses on a
such as dust or
and more droplets collect, a
from
. As more
is formed. Clouds also form
where moist air comes in contact with a
and rises. Another type of cloud forms when
of different temperatures collide.
Types of Clouds
Use with page 287.
Analyze the information on types of clouds. In the question spaces
provided, turn the bold-faced headings into questions. Then answer
your questions.
Low Clouds
Question:
Answer:
Middle Clouds
Question:
Answer:
High Clouds
Question:
Answer:
Precipitation
Use with page 289.
Sequence the formation of precipitation.
coalescence of cloud droplets
Atmosphere
121
Name
Date
Section 11.3 Moisture in the Atmosphere
Main Idea
The Water Cycle
Use with page 291.
(continued)
Details
Create your own diagram of the water cycle. Include the following
steps in your diagram: evaporation, precipitation, run off, groundwater, and condensation.
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Clouds are more often formed in areas
of higher air pollution than in areas that have cleaner air. Use what you have learned in
this chapter to describe the process that causes polluted areas to be cloudier.
122
Section 11.3 Moisture in the Atmosphere
Name
Date
Tie-It-All-Together
F URTHER I NQUIRY
Explain why the smog problem is so intense in
Los Angeles. You may want to look at an atlas to answer this question.
Compare the difference between ozone in the atmosphere and ozone near Earth’s surface.
Design a model of a greenhouse. Discuss how the heat enters the greenhouse in similar ways
that energy is transferred in the atmosphere.
Atmosphere
123
Name
Date
Atmosphere
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column, write
down the answers you discovered as you worked through the chapter.
K
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
W
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of
each section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
After reading this chapter, list three things you have learned
about the atmosphere.
124
Chapter Wrap-Up
Name
Date
Meteorology
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about meteorology. Then list three questions
you have about meteorology in the “What I Want to Find Out”
column
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think about the Discovery Lab you did to model a cold air mass and record your responses
in this science journal. Make a graph showing the temperature changes for each temperature
strip.
What happened to the temperature of the air beneath the tray and the air above the tray?
Explain how this model represents a cold air mass.
Meteorology
125
Name
Date
Meteorology
Section 12.1 The Causes of Weather
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 12.1 of your text. Use the checklist below as a guide.
• Read all the section titles.
• Read all bold words.
• Look at all figures and photos and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about weather and forecasting.
Write three facts you discovered about causes of weather.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
temperature
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
meteorology
weather
climate
air mass
air mass modification
Fill in the flow chart below with key terms from the section.
is long term
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
phenomenon
126
Section 12.1 The Causes of Weather
which is the current state of the
Name
Date
Section 12.1 The Causes of Weather
Main Idea
Weather and
Climate
(continued)
Details
Contrast weather and climate by completing the table below.
Weather
Use with page 300.
Climate
Description
Short or long
term; measure of
variations
A Question of
Balance
Use with pages 300–301.
Model shadows of a person standing in their yard at 6 am, 12
noon, and 6 pm. Assume that north is to the top of the page. Label
an approximate degree of latitude your diagram is illustrating.
Explain why it is warmest during the middle of the day and cooler
in the morning and evening.
Meteorology
127
Name
Date
Section 12.1 The Causes of Weather
Main Idea
Air Masses
Use with pages 301–304.
(continued)
Details
Compare the major air masses impacting North America.
Type of Air Mass
Source of Air
Mass
Weather Associated
with Air Mass
Hot, dry summers
Maritime tropical
Interior of Canada
and Alaska
Heavy rains in winter
on West Coast
Arctic
What if you are visiting the deserts of the southwestern United
States. A sudden thunderstorm moves in. Hypothesize what type
of air mass could have brought that storm, and where it likely
originated.
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Determine the type of air mass that
typically plays a role in the weather in your area. Describe the type of weather that
commonly is associated with the air mass and where the air mass originates. Describe
the seasons in your area which result from that air mass.
128
Section 12.1 The Causes of Weather
Name
Date
Meteorology
Section 12.2 Weather Systems
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 2 of your text. Read the headings and the figure
captions. Write three questions that come to mind.
1.
2.
3.
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
Coriolis effect
trade winds
prevailing westerlies
polar easterlies
jet stream
front
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
migrate
Meteorology
129
Name
Date
Section 12.2 Weather Systems
Main Idea
Global Wind
Systems
Use with pages 305–307.
(continued)
Details
Model the movement of air around the surface of Earth. Use
Figure 12-4 to help you. Include the following features:
• doldrums
• northeast trade winds • prevailing westerlies
• equator
• northern hemisphere
• horse latitudes • polar easterlies
Jet Streams
Use with pages 307–308.
130
• southeast trade winds
• southern hemisphere
Predict what would happen to the weather in the north-eastern
United States if the polar jet stream dipped to the south. How
would the weather change if the jet stream moved to the north?
Section 12.2 Weather Systems
Name
Date
Section 12.2 Weather Systems
Main Idea
(continued)
Details
Fronts
Use with page 308.
Compare the four main types of fronts.
Type of
Map
Description of air
front
symbol movement
Cold Front
Cold air displaces
Warm
Front
Stationary
Front
Occluded
Front
Pressure
Systems
Use with pages 310–311.
Associated
Weather
warm air, forces warm
air up
Clouds, showers,
thunderstorms
Warm air displaces cold
air
Very cloudy,
precipitation
Two air masses meet,
neither advances
some-what cloudy,
light precipitation
Fast moving cold air
wedges warm air up
where it gets trapped
between two cold air masses
precipitation
Differentiate between high-pressure systems and low-pressure
systems. Use the list of characteristics below to complete the Venn
diagram.
• winds move clockwise in
• air moves in circular motion
northern hemisphere
• rising air
• winds move counterclockwise
• fair weather
in northern hemisphere
• sinking air
• stormy weather
Low-Pressure
System
Both
High-Pressure
System
• formed by
internal forces
motion
S YNTHESIZE
The doldrums along the equator is an area of very little wind. This
gave early sailors a difficult time in their transoceanic trips. How could sailors avoid this
trouble spot?
Meteorology
131
Name
Date
Meteorology
Section 12.3 Gathering Weather Data
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 3 of the text. Read the section title, bold words,
figures and figure captions. Write four facts you discovered about
tropical storms as you scanned the section.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
humidity
New
Vocabulary
Read the definitions below, then write the term for each in the left
column.
measures temperature
measures air pressure
measures wind speed
measures relative humidity
measures height of clouds and estimate amount of cloud cover
balloon borne package to measure upper level atmospheric data
change in wave frequency that occurs in energy
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
release
132
Section 12.3 Gathering Weather Data
Name
Date
Section 12.3 Gathering Weather Data
Main Idea
Surface Data
Use with pages 312–313.
(continued)
Details
Compare the different types of instruments that measure surface
weather data.
Instrument
What does it measure?
Barometer
How does it work?
Changes in pressure
measured by changes
in height of column of
mercury
Anemometer
Wet- and dry-bulb
thermometers
Data collected by
ASOS
Upper Level Data
Discuss collecting weather data in the upper atmosphere.
Use with pages 313–314.
Upper-level weather data is collected by a
series of sensors carried by a
,
. Sensors that measure
and
are carried.
Measurements are sent back by
important when measuring
.
is very
data because it helps
meteorologists determine wind speed and
Weather Radar
, which is a
.
Sequence the way weather radar works in this flow chart.
Use with page 314–315.
Amplifier
increases wave
signal of
scattered waves
Computer
processes
signals and displays them on a
screen
Waves bounce
off of large
raindrops
Meteorology
133
Name
Date
Section 12.3 Gathering Weather Data
Main Idea
Weather
Satellites
(continued)
Details
Organize information about weather data collection for
precipitation tracking by completing the graphic organizer.
Use with pages 315–316.
Scientists can determine
location of precipitation
and clouds using
Analyze how infrared imagery is used by meteorologists by
completing the following statements.
Data can be collected in
.
Infrared imagery detects differences in
.
Objects show up differently according to the
The temperature of a cloud tells meteorologists about its
.
and
.
S YNTHESIZE
Suppose you wanted to explain to someone how
meteorologists measure the speed of raindrops. How would you explain this procedure
in terms that most people would understand?
134
Section 12.3 Gathering Weather Data
Name
Date
Meteorology
Section 12.4 Weather Analysis
Main Idea
Details
Consider the title of Section 4. Think of three things that might be
discussed in this section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term. What do you think it
has to do with weather?
stability
New
Vocabulary
Read the definitions below, then write the term for each in the
left column.
a record of weather data at a particular site at a particular time
lines that connect points of equal or constant values
forecast that relies on numerical data
forecast that compares current weather patterns to patterns hat
took place in the past
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
accuracy
Meteorology
135
Name
Date
Section 12.4 Weather Analysis
Main Idea
Surface Analysis
(continued)
Details
Classify the different types of isopleths found on a weather map.
Use with pages 318–319.
isopleths
lines of
equal
temperature
Short-Term
Forecasts
Use with page 318.
indicates
how fast wind
blowing
Categorize the following phrases as either digital or analog
forecasting.
• compare current conditions to past
• looks at conditions in all levels of atmosphere
• monthly or seasonal forecasts
• the more data, the more accurate will be the forecast
• numerical data
Digital
136
Section 12.4 Weather Analysis
Analog
Name
Date
Section 12.4 Weather Analysis
Main Idea
Long-Term
Forecasts
Use with pages 320–321.
(continued)
Details
Summarize three related factors that cause the accuracy of
weather forecasts to decline with time.
1.
2.
3.
Compare and Contrast short-term forecasting and long-term
forecasting. Discuss reliability, the techniques used, and the type of
information that is gathered in each case.
Short-term forecasting
Long-term forecasting
S YNTHESIZE
Imagine you are reading the newspaper forecast and you want to go
downhill skiing the next weekend. Describe the type of information you would like to see on
the weather map.
Meteorology
137
Name
Date
Meteorology
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through the
chapter.
K
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
W
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of each
section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
After reading this chapter, list three things you have learned
about weather systems and weather prediction.
1.
2.
3.
138
Chapter Wrap-Up
Name
Date
The Nature of Storms
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about the nature of storms. Then list three
questions you have about the nature of storms in the “What I Want
to Find Out” column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think about the Discovery Lab you did to replicate thunder and record your response in this
science journal.
What did you hear when the bag broke? How is this similar to the thunder produced by a
lightning bolt?
Light moves much faster than sound. Knowing this, what can you infer about the movement
of a thunderstorm if the amount of time between when you see the lightning and hear the
thunder increases between lightning flashes?
The Nature of Storms
139
Name
Date
The Nature of Storms
Section 13.1 Thunderstorms
Main Idea
Details
Read the objectives on the first page of Section 1. List three
questions that come to mind. Accept all reasonable responses.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
barometer
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
air-mass
thunderstorm
sea-breeze
thunderstorm
frontal thunderstorm
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
initial
140
Section 13.1 Thunderstorms
Name
Date
Section 13.1 Thunderstorms
Main Idea
How
Thunderstorms
Form
Use with pages 329–330.
(continued)
Details
Summarize three conditions that must be met for a thunderstorm
to occur.
1.
2.
3.
Air-Mass
Thunderstorms
Use with page 331.
Organize information about the limits on the growth of
thunderstorms.
This
produces
more
This
produces
more
Air rises
Draw diagrams that explain
the formation of a mountain
thunderstorm and a seabreeze thunderstorm. Use
Figures 13-2 and 11-13 in
your text to help you.
Analyze Figure 13-1 in your text. Use the diagrams you drew
above to explain the reason for the placement of the red and
orange zones in Figure 13-1.
Frontal
Thunderstorms
Use with page 331.
Explain frontal thunderstorms by completing the following sentences.
The
,
movement of air in a
front can produce a
line of thunderstorms. These thunderstorms can occur at
because they do not depend on
can also be associated with
usually fairly
,
. Thunderstorms
. These thunderstorms are
.
The Nature of Storms
141
Name
Date
Section 13.1 Thunderstorms
Main Idea
Stages of
Development
(continued)
Details
Sequence the steps in the process of thunderstorm formation. The
first one has been completed for you.
Use with page 331.
precipitation falls, cooling the air around it
1
air rises vertically, creating updrafts
supply of warm, moist air runs out, stopping the updrafts
cloud droplet coalesce, until they are so latent they fall as
precipitation
downdrafts form
moisture condenses and releases latent heat
nearly equal amounts of updrafts and downdrafts exist with a
cumulonimbus cloud
Compare and contrast the stages of a thunderstorm. Use
Figure 13-3 to help you make detailed sketches of the cumulus
stage, the mature stage, and the dissipation stage. Note similarities
and differences between the stages.
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Imagine there is a thunderstorm raging
outside. You see the lightning flash long before the thunderclap is heard. Describe how
you can estimate the distance to the storm.
142
Section 13.1 Thunderstorms
Name
Date
The Nature of Storms
Section 13.2 Severe Weather
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 13.2 in your text. Use the checklist below as a guide.
• Read all the section titles.
• Read all bold words.
• Look at all figures and photos and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about severe weather and its
causes.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
front
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
supercell
downburst
tornado
Fujita tornado
intensity scale
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
proportion
The Nature of Storms
143
Name
Date
Section 13.2 Severe Weather
Main Idea
Severe
Thunderstorms
Use with page 334.
(continued)
Details
Sequence the steps in the formation of a severe thunderstorm.
• Strength of storm’s updrafts and downdrafts intensifies.
• The cold, high air increases temperature differences.
• A severe storm is formed.
• Cold fronts formed with upper level, low-pressure systems.
• Air becomes more unstable.
1. Cold fronts formed with upper level, low-pressure systems.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Lightning
Use with page 335.
The Fury of the
Wind
Create a public service announcement detailing three ways to
remain safe during a thunderstorm. Include tips for indoor and
outdoor safety. Use Table 13-1 to help you.
Organize information about downbursts in the graphic organizer.
downbursts
Use with page 336.
144
macrobursts
microbursts
path of
destruction up to 5
km wide, wind speed
of more than 200
km/h, 30 minutes in
duration
affect areas
less than 3 km,
winds of 250 km/h,
less than 10 minutes in
duration
Section 13.2 Severe Weather
Name
Date
Section 13.2 Severe Weather
Main Idea
Hail, Floods
Use with page 337.
Tornadoes
Use with page 337.
(continued)
Details
Analogy An oyster forms a pearl by putting many layers of
shell material over a grain of sand or other material. Tell how
the formation of a hailstone is similar to the formation of a pearl.
Define Tornado Alley is a real place in the Midwestern United
States. This area is more susceptible to tornadoes than other regions
of the country. Explain why this is so.
Model tornado formation. Draw a series of pictures to show the
formation of a tornado. Use Figure 13-8 as a guide.
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
What if you are fishing from a rowboat
in the middle of a lake. You notice the clouds building, getting darker, and then it starts
to rain. Are you in danger of being struck by lightning? Explain your answer.
The Nature of Storms
145
Name
Date
The Nature of Storms
Section 13.3 Tropical Storms
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 3 of the text. Read the section title, bold words,
figures and figure captions. Write three facts you discovered about
tropical storms as you scanned the section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
Coriolis effect
New
Vocabulary
In the left margin, write the terms defined below.
large, rotating low-pressure storm that gets its energy from the
evaporation of warm ocean water and the release of heat
calm center of a hurricane
strongest winds of hurricane in a band surrounding the eye
classification of hurricanes based on wind speed, air pressure, and
potential for property damage
mound of ocean water driven toward land by hurricane-force
winds
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
release
146
Section 13.3 Tropical Storms
Name
Date
Section 13.3 Tropical Storms
Main Idea
Tropical Cyclones
Use with pages 341–342.
(continued)
Details
Sequence the steps in the process of the formation of a hurricane.
The first one is done for you.
1
disturbances produce more precipitation, more energy is
released
as water evaporates from the ocean surface, latent heat is
stored
the Coriolis effect causes moving air to turn counterclockwise
in the northern hemisphere
rising air creates a low pressure area at ocean’s surface
latent heat released, when air begins to rise and clouds form
cyclonic rotation of a tropical cyclone
List the three names used around the world for tropical cyclones,
and identify the locations where each is used.
Name
Locations
A.
i.
B.
i.
C.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
Analyze the formation of tropical cyclones in the outline below.
I. Two conditions required for a tropical cyclone to form:
A.
B.
II. Two tropical oceans where tropical cyclones do not form:
A.
B.
III. Two reasons tropical cyclones do not form in those two places:
A.
B.
The Nature of Storms
147
Name
Date
Section 13.3 Tropical Storms
Main Idea
(continued)
Details
Model a hurricane, as seen from above. Use Figure 13-11 in your
text as a guide. Your drawing should include:
• descending air
• eye
• warm moist air
• direction of rotation
• eyewall
Classifying
Hurricanes
Complete the following sentences.
A hurricane usually
Use with page 344.
strength as it moves over
because it has no access to the
which it draws its energy. Hurricanes
Hurricane
Hazards
Use with pages 345–346.
or
from
in intensity
over their life cycle as they interact with
Analyze why flooding is an additional hazard of hurricanes by
completing the statements.
Flooding occurs due to
caused by the
,
.
Floods will be worse if
because
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
,
.
Hurricanes that form during a new
moon are potentially more damaging than those that form during the third quarter of
the lunar cycle. Explain why this is true.
148
Section 13.3 Tropical Storms
.
Name
Date
The Nature of Storms
Section 13.4 Recurring Weather
Main Idea
Details
Consider the title of the section. Predict three topics that might be
discussed in the section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
precipitation
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
drought
heat wave
cold wave
wind-chill factor
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
persist
The Nature of Storms
149
Name
Date
Section 13.4 Recurring Weather
Main Idea
Flood and
Droughts
(continued)
Details
Compare and contrast floods and droughts.
Definition
Cause
Impact
Use with pages 347–348.
Flood
Drought
Analyze the problems associated with large domes of high
pressure. Complete the flow chart below.
High Pressure
no uplift of
moisture
air compresses
and becomes
warmer
drought
conditions
150
Section 13.4 Recurring Weather
Name
Date
Section 13.4 Recurring Weather
Main Idea
Cold Waves
(continued)
Details
Analyze cold waves completing the following flow chart.
Use with pages 349–350.
snow-covered
surfaces radiate
heat back to space
large pools of cold
air, which sinks
Compare and Contrast heat waves and cold waves.
Heat Waves
Cold Waves
Cause
Other
Factors
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Explain what happens to the water table,
zone of saturation, and zone of aeration of an area during a flood.
The Nature of Storms
151
Name
Date
The Nature of Storms
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through the
chapter.
K
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
W
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of
each section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
about storms.
152
Chapter Wrap-Up
After reading this chapter, list three things you have learned
Name
Date
Climate
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about climate. Then list three questions you
have about climate in the “What I Want to Find Out” column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think about the Discovery Lab you did to model cloud cover, and record your response to
this science journal.
Describe any differences in dew formation that you observed.
How is the umbrella in this activity similar to clouds in the atmosphere?
Based on your observations, infer how temperatures during the night might differ between
climates with extensive cloud cover and climates with fewer clouds.
Climate
153
Name
Date
Climate
Section 14.1 What is Climate?
Main Idea
Details
Consider the title of Section 1. List three things that might be discussed in this section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
humidity
New
Vocabulary
Read the definitions below, then write the term on the blank in the
left column.
the study of Earth’s climate
the long-term weather patterns of an area
the standard values for an area
the area 23.5° south of the equator and 23.5° north of the equator
the area 23.5° and 66.5° north and south of the equator
the area located from 66.5° north and south of the equator to the
poles
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
affect
154
Section 14.1 What is Climate?
Name
Date
Section 14.1 What is Climate?
Main Idea
Climate: More
than Just
Average Weather
(continued)
Details
Explain climate by completing the graphic organizer below.
describes the
Use with page 359.
long-term weather
patterns of an area
Normals
Use with page 360.
What Causes
Climates?
Use with page 362.
Climate
also describes
the
variations of
Explain why most meteorological data are gathered at airports.
Then discuss why airports may not be the best location to gather
this data.
Sketch Make a sketch of Earth similar to Figure 14-2 in your text.
Label the following in your sketch:
• Polar zone
• 66.5°N and S latitudes
• two Temperate zones
• 23.5°N and S latitudes
• Tropics
• 0° latitude
• Polar zone
• Tropic of Cancer
• Equator
• Tropic of Capricorn
Climate
155
Name
Date
Section 14.1 What is Climate?
Main Idea
What Causes
Climates?
Use with page 362–363.
(continued)
Details
Describe topographic effects by completing the following
paragraph.
heats up and cools down more slowly than
coastal areas are
in the winter and
than inland areas of similar
. Many
in the summer
.
Temperatures in the lower atmosphere generally decrease with
. Thus,
climates are usually cooler than those at
. In addition, climates often differ on either side of a mountain. The climate on one side of the mountain—the
side—
is usually wet and cool. On the opposite side of the mountain—the
side—the air is
, and it warms as it
.
Label the following in the figure below: windward side, leeward
side, moist air, and dry air. Also include arrows to indicate the
direction of the airflow.
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Suppose a large reservoir is built in the
middle of an arid region. Infer how normals for that area may change over the long
term as a result.
156
Section 14.1 What is Climate?
Name
Date
Climate
Section 14.2 Climate Classification
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 2 of your text. Use the checklist below as a guide.
• Read all section titles.
• Read all bold words.
• Read all graphs and equations.
• Look at all the pictures and read their captions.
• Think about how the word “climate” is used on television weather
shows.
Write three facts you discovered about climate as you scanned the
section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
precipitation
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
Koeppen classification
system
microclimate
heat island
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
classify
Climate
157
Name
Date
Section 14.2 Climate Classifications
Main Idea
Use with page 364.
(continued)
Details
Describe the Koeppen classification system by completing the
graphic organizer below.
The Koeppen classification system is
based on the average monthly values of:
Koeppen
Classification
System
Use with pages 365–366.
Compare the five major climates in the Koeppen classification
system by completing the table.
Climate
Tropical
Dry
Mild
Continental
Polar
158
Section 14.2 Climate Classifications
Characteristics
Examples
Name
Date
Section 14.2 Climate Classifications
Main Idea
Polar Climates
(continued)
Details
Explain why precipitation is generally low in polar climates.
Use with page 366.
Microclimates
Use with page 368.
Describe the heat-island effect by completing the graphic
organizer below.
The heat-island effect occurs because
This causes mean temperatures in large cities to be
The heat-island effect also causes
This in turn produces
S YNTHESIZE
Scientists tell us that Central Park lowers the temperature of
New York City by about 3 degrees. Explain this effect using your knowledge about
microclimates.
Climate
159
Name
Date
Climate
Section 14.3 Climatic Changes
Main Idea
Details
Skim Section 3 of your text. Write three examples of climatic
changes that come to mind from reading the headings and
illustration captions.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
glacier
New
Vocabulary
Read the definitions below, then write the term on the blank in the
left column.
periods of time when parts of Earth were covered by glaciers
short-term periods of climatic change
warm ocean current that develops off the western coast of
South America
period of very low sunspot activity
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
constant
160
Section 14.3 Climatic Changes
Name
Date
Section 14.3 Climatic Changes
Main Idea
Ice Ages
Use with page 369.
(continued)
Details
Analyze the effects of the glaciers by completing the sentences
below.
is the term that describes extensive glacial coverage. The
most recent ice age ended about
years ago. During an ice
age the average temperature of Earth decreased by
. The
glaciers eventually retreated, but left evidence in North America.
Evidence of the glaciers are the
and the
of central New York. We are currently in an
Short-Term
Climatic Changes
Use with page 370.
Lakes
period.
Describe the summer and winter seasons in North America. Also
explain the cause for the differences in the two seasons.
Seasons Characteristics
Summer
Cause
Winter
Sequence the movements of El Niño, which lead to dramatic climate
changes. The first and last steps have been completed for you.
Warm water from the western Pacific moves east toward the
South American coast.
Dramatic climate changes result.
Climate
161
Name
Date
Section 14.3 Climatic Changes
Main Idea
Change Can Be
Natural
(continued)
Details
Summarize the effects of increased and decreased solar activity
on Earth’s climate.
Use with pages
372–374.
Sketch Earth in a circular orbit around the Sun, and then in
an elliptical orbit around the Sun. Refer to Figure 14-14 in your
textbook for help.
Explain how Earth’s temperatures are affected when experiencing a
circular orbit compared to an elliptical orbit.
Relate how major volcanic activity can result in climatic changes.
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Consider the effects that El Niño might
have on the marine life that come in contact with the warmer ocean currents.
162
Section 14.3 Climatic Changes
Name
Date
Climate
Section 14.4 The Human Factor
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 4 of your text. Use the checklist below as a guide.
• Read all section titles.
• Read all bold words.
• Read all graphs and equations.
• Look at all the pictures and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about how humans influence
Earth’s climate.
Write three facts you discovered about climate as you scanned the
section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
carbon dioxide
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
greenhouse effect
Global warming
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
consume
Climate
163
Name
Date
Section 14.4 The Human Factor
Main Idea
The Greenhouse
Effect
Use with pages 375–376.
Global Warming
Use with page 376.
(continued)
Details
Sketch the greenhouse effect, similar to Figure 14-18 in your
textbook. Use arrows to show how solar radiation reaches Earth
and is redirected.
Describe how an increase in greenhouse gases could affect global
temperatures.
Identify four possible consequences if the upward trend of worldwide temperatures continues.
Rising
Temperatures
164
Section 14.4 The Human Factor
Name
Date
Section 14.4 The Human Factor
Main Idea
Impact of Human
Activities
Use with page 377.
(continued)
Details
List two causes for rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
1.
2.
Relate how deforestation plays a role in increasing levels of
atmospheric CO2.
Describe four easy ways to conserve energy.
1.
2.
3.
4.
S YNTHESIZE
In 1988, most of the trees in heavily forested Yellowstone
National Park burned. Although it is environmentally sound to let trees burn in
order to re-forest, describe the effect that losing so many trees could have on global
warming. Explain your reasoning.
Climate
165
Name
Date
Climate
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through the
chapter.
K
What I Wanted to Find Out
1.
W
What I Learned
1.
2.
Review
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of
each section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
about climate.
166
Chapter Wrap-Up
After reading this chapter, list three things you have learned
Name
Date
Physical Oceanography
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about physical oceanography. Then list three
questions you have about physical oceanography in the “What I
Want to Find Out” column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think about the Discovery Lab you did to measure the amount of water on Earth’s surface,
and record your response to this science journal.
What percentage of the globe’s equator is made up of oceans?
What percentage of the globe’s equator is made up of land?
Study the globe again. Are the oceans separate bodies of water, or do they interconnect?
Physical Oceanography
167
Name
Date
Physical Oceanography
Section 15.1 The Oceans
Main Idea
Details
Skim Section 1 of the text. Write three questions that come to mind
from reading the headings and the figure captions.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
comet
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
oceanography
side-scan sonar
sea level
Academic
Vocabulary
investigate
168
Section 15.1 The Oceans
Define the following term.
Name
Date
Section 15.1 The Oceans
Main Idea
Modern
Oceanography
Use with pages 385–386.
Origin of the
Oceans
Use with pages 387–388.
(continued)
Details
Create a timeline showing the advances in methods used to study
Earth’s oceans. Your timeline should include specific vessels,
technology used, and type of data gathered.
Analyze the origins of Earth’s oceans.
Possible origins
of oceans
Volcanic
Activity
early Earth
may have
contained
0.5% water
Physical Oceanography
169
Name
Date
Section 15.1 The Oceans
Main Idea
Distribution of
Earth’s Water
(continued)
Details
Sequence the formation sea ice by completing the flow chart below.
1.
slush forms at surface
Use with page 388.
2.
3. pancake ice continues to thicken
and
4.
Compare and Contrast oceans and seas. Organize each characteristic in the Venn diagram to show whether it is a trait of oceans,
seas, or both.
• Aral, Mediterranean, Bering
• Atlantic, Indian, Pacific
• identical proportions of salt
• part of one global ocean
• partly or mostly landlocked
Seas
Oceans
Both
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Imagine you are an astronaut. You are
traveling through a newly discovered solar system. One of the planets has a blue tinge
while another is brownish-red. What can you infer about the surface of those planets?
What about the temperatures on the planet?
170
Section 15.1 The Oceans
Name
Date
Physical Oceanography
Section 15.2 Seawater
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 2 of your text. Use the checklist below as a guide.
• Read all the section titles.
• Read all bold words.
• Look at all figures and photos and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about water in the sea.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term. How do you think it
relates to seawater?
density
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
salinity
temperature profile
thermocline
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
deviate
Physical Oceanography
171
Name
Section 15.2 Seawater
Date
(continued)
Main Idea
Details
Analyze how salt is naturally added to and removed from
seawater. List two ways salt is added to the sea, and three ways
salt is removed from the sea. Use Figure 15-13 and information
from your text to help you.
Chemical
Properties of
Seawater
Use with page 395.
Salt Added to Sea by. . .
Removed from Sea by. . .
Physical
Properties of
Seawater
Contrast seawater and fresh water. List three differences.
Use with page 395.
2.
1.
3.
Ocean Layering
Use with page 396.
172
Model Draw your own graph of variations in ocean water
temperatures.
Be sure to indicate:
• a layer of cold water • a thermocline • a layer of warm water
Section 15.2 Seawater
Name
Section 15.2 Seawater
Main Idea
Water Masses
Date
(continued)
Details
Sequence the formation of a cold deep water mass.
Use with page 397.
salt ions accumulate under newly formed ice
salty water sinks
1
seawater freezes during arctic winter
cold, deep water mass migrates toward equator
sea ice forms
water beneath ice becomes saltier and denser
Organize information about water masses in the outline below.
I. Three water masses that account for most of the deep water in the
Atlantic Ocean are:
A.
i. forms when
ii. is the
and densest
B.
i. forms offshore from
ii. overrides the
C.
i. forms when
ii. least
and warmest
iii. overrides the other
masses
II. Two oceans that only contain the two deep antarctic water masses
A.
B.
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Suppose you go on vacation to
Greenland. Your travel companions suggest that the water must be very salty in the
ocean surrounding Greenland. How would you respond to this?
Physical Oceanography
173
Name
Date
Physical Oceanography
Section 15.3 Ocean Movements
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 3 of the text. Look at the section titles, bold words,
figures, and figure captions. Write three facts you discovered about
ocean movements as you scanned the section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
nutrients
New
Vocabulary
Read the definitions below, then write the term for each in the left
column.
a rhythmic movement that carries energy
highest point of a wave
lowest point of a wave
collapsing waves
periodic rise and fall of sea level
caused by differences in temperature and salinity of sea water
caused by wind, affects upper few hundred meters of ocean
upward movement of ocean water
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
generate
174
Section 15.3 Ocean Movements
Name
Date
Section 15.3 Ocean Movements
Main Idea
Wave
Characteristics
Use with page 399.
Tides, Causes of
Tides
Use with page 403.
(continued)
Details
Identify the characteristics of a wave and show how water moves
in waves. Use Figure 15-18 in your text to help you make your own
diagrams. Label the crest, half a wavelength, trough, wave base,
wave height, wavelength, and where the water movement stops.
Model the influence the Sun and the Moon have on Earth’s tides.
Show a spring tide and a neap tide. Use Figure 15-22 to help you.
Include the Sun, the Moon in its appropriate phase, Earth, and the
oceans in your diagrams.
Explain what causes tides by completing the following paragraph.
Tides are caused by
and the
among Earth, the
,
. The fact that gravitational attraction decreases with
also plays a role. Unbalanced forces between Earth and
the
create
on opposite sides of Earth. The
farther from Earth, and therefore has a smaller
is
than the
despite its greater size.
Physical Oceanography
175
Name
Date
Section 15.3 Ocean Movements
Main Idea
Ocean Currents
Use with page 403.
(continued)
Details
Compare the types of ocean currents by completing the table
below.
Ocean
Current
Density
current
Cause
Characteristics
Location
Move slowly
move fast, follow
predictable
patterns
Model gyres of ocean currents by making a simplified sketch of
Figure 15-23. Consider the effects of the Coriolis effect, land masses,
and temperature on gyres as you draw.
Upwelling
Use with page 405.
Sequence the steps that show how upwelling supports marine
ecosystems.
1. Trade winds move surface water away from the land.
2.
3.
4.
S YNTHESIZE
Imagine Earth was a planet that had two moons. How would this
impact the tides on the planet?
176
Section 15.3 Ocean Movements
Name
Date
Tie-It-All-Together
F URTHER I NQUIRY
Connect Ancient mariners traveled the oceans in
primitive sailing ships. Imagine you are an ancient sea captain sent out to hunt for food.
Explain how knowledge from this chapter would be helpful for navigation and food-finding.
Include information on currents, seas and oceans, winds, wave movements, tides, layers,
water masses, ice, salinity, and other factors.
Physical Oceanography
177
Name
Date
Physical Oceanography
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through the
chapter.
K
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
W
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of
each section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
After reading this chapter, list three things you have learned
about oceans. Consider their origin, composition, and the properties of the water.
178
Chapter Wrap-Up
Name
Date
Marine Environments
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about marine environments. Then list three
questions you have about them in the “What I Want to Find Out”
column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think about the Discovery Lab you did to find out the composition of chalk.
Describe the composition of the powdered chalk.
What is the origin of the chalk?
On what evidence do you base your conclusions?
Marine Environments
179
Name
Date
The Marine Environment
Section 16.1 Shoreline Features
Main Idea
Details
Consider the title of Section 16.1 in your text. Predict three things
that might be discussed in this section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term. Hypothesize how it
affects the topic of this section.
erosion
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
wave refraction
beach
estuary
longshore bar
longshore current
barrier island
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
concentrate
180
Section 16.1 Shoreline Features
Name
Date
Section 16.1 Shoreline Features
Main Idea
Erosional
Landforms
Use with page 414.
(continued)
Details
Sequence the steps in the process of straightening a shoreline. Use
Figure 16-1 and information from your text to help you. The first
one has been done for you.
1. waves move faster in deep water than in shallow water
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Beaches,
Estuaries
Describe how the size and composition of beach sand is determined.
Use with page 415.
Predict what would happen to the estuaries if global sea level
were to rise considerably.
Longshore
Currents
Use with page 416.
Analyze the impact of longshore currents and rip currents on a
shoreline by making a diagram similar to Figure 16-6. Your diagram
should include longshore bar, shoreline, and an arrow indicating a
rip current, an arrow indicating a longshore current, surf zone.
Marine Environments
181
Name
Date
Section 16.1 Shoreline Features
Main Idea
Depositional
Features of
Seashores,
Protective
Structures
Use with page 417.
Changes in Sea
Level
(continued)
Details
Identify depositional features by drawing a diagram of an eroding
shoreline. Identify the following features on your diagram. Use
Figure 16-7 and information from your text to help you.
• bay
• mainland beach
• tombolo
• baymouth bar
• spit
• lagoon
• barrier island
Analyze changes in sea level by completing the graphic organizer
below.
Use with page 420.
Changes in sea level
Tectonic forces
has
occurred in
past
S YNTHESIZE
What if you have been elected to your town’s beach preservation
committee. The committee wants to build a series of breakwaters to decrease erosion.
Make a poster-like diagram to defend and argument in favor of or against the proposal.
182
Section 16.1 Shoreline Features
Name
Date
The Marine Environment
Section 16.2 The Seafloor
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 2 in your text. Look at the headings, photos,
illustrations and captions. Write three facts you discovered about
the seafloor.
1.
2.
3.
New
Vocabulary
Read the definitions below, then write the term for each in the left
column.
submerged parts of continents
shallowest part of a continental margin extending seaward
area where seafloor drops quickly to depths of several kilometers
rapidly flowing water currents carrying heavy loads of sediment
accumulation of deposits from turbidity currents
plains with thick deposits of marine sediment above basaltic rock
deepest part of ocean basin
most prominent feature in ocean basin
submerged basaltic volcanoes
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
mechanism
Marine Environments
183
Name
Date
Section 16.2 The Seafloor
Main Idea
Oceanic and
Continental Crust
Use with page 422.
(continued)
Details
Compare oceanic and continental crust by completing the table
below.
Crust
Average
Location
thickness
Continental 40 km
Oceanic
Continental
Shelves,
Continental
Slopes, Ocean
Basins
Use with page 424.
184
Identify the features in the list below on a diagram of the
continental margin. Use Figure 16-12 to help you.
•
•
•
•
•
continental rise
continental slope
continental shelf
oceanic crust
shelf break
Section 16.2 The Seafloor
•
•
•
•
abyssal plain
submarine canyons
continental margin
continental crust
Name
Date
Section 16.2 The Seafloor
Main Idea
Seafloor
Volcanoes
Use with pages 427–428.
(continued)
Details
Compare seamounts and hydrothermal vents in the Venn diagram
below. Use the following phrases to fill in the circles.
•
•
•
•
hole in seafloor where magma erupts
formed on ocean floor
bottom of rifts in mid-ocean ridges
in area of no current volcanism
• extinct volcanoes
Seamounts
Both
Marine
Sediments
Use with pages 428–429.
Hydrothermal
Vents
Identify the three types of marine sediment. Describe each of them.
1.
2.
3.
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Hypothesize where you would you find
the youngest rock on the planet. Support your reasoning with information from the
section.
Marine Environments
185
Name
Date
Marine Environments
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through the
chapter.
K
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
W
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of
each section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
After reading this chapter, list three things you have learned
about the marine environment, including shoreline features and the seafloor.
186
Chapter Wrap-Up
Name
Date
Plate Tectonics
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to
list three things you know about plate tectonics. Then list three
questions you have about plate tectonics in the “What I Want to
Find Out” column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think about the Discovery Lab you did to determine fault movement in California, and
record your response to this science journal.
Infer what might be causing these large pieces of land to move.
Plate Tectonics
187
Name
Date
Plate Tectonics
Section 17.1 Drifting Continents
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 1 of your text. Write three questions that come to
mind from reading the headings and figure captions.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
fossil
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
continental drift
Pangaea
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
apparent
188
Section 17.1 Drifting Continents
Name
Date
Section 17.1 Drifting Continents
Main Idea
Early
Observations
Use with pages 443–444.
(continued)
Details
Analyze the growth of the continental drift theory by summarizing
contributions by each person in the table below.
Name
Alfred
Wegener
Nationality
Date
Austrian
late 1500s
Profession
Observation
built on
matching
coastline
observations
by other
people
built
upon
observations
by other
people
Proposed
Explanation
Continental Drift
Use with pages 444–445.
Create three diagrams to show how it is thought that the continents
drifted. Use Figure 17-1 to help you draw what Earth looked like
200 million years ago, 135 million years ago, and in the present.
200 million
years ago
135 million
years ago
present
Plate Tectonics
189
Name
Date
Section 17.1 Drifting Continents
Main Idea
(continued)
Details
Analyze the evidence Wegener had supporting his hypothesis of
continental drift.
Evidence Concept/Idea
Rock
evidence
Examples of evidence
Fossil
evidence
Climate
evidence
A Rejected
Hypothesis
Identify two reasons why scientists rejected Wegener’s hypothesis of
continental drift.
Use with pages 446–447.
A NALOGY
190
Compare the concept of continental drift to a jigsaw puzzle.
Section 17.1 Drifting Continents
Name
Date
Plate Tectonics
Section 17.2 Seafloor Spreading
Main Idea
Details
Consider the objectives of Section 2. Write three questions that
come to mind from reading these statements.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use a dictionary to define the following term.
topographic
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
magnetometer
paleomagnetism
magnetic reversal
isochron
seafloor spreading
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
depress
Plate Tectonics
191
Name
Date
Section 17.2 Seafloor Spreading
Main Idea
Help From
Technology
Use with page 448.
(continued)
Details
Sequence the steps in the use of sonar to map the ocean floor.
• sound waves travel through the water
• regular pulses of sound sent out from a device aboard a ship
• the time it takes waves to travel from and to the receiver on the
boat is used to calculate distance
• sound waves reflected off ocean floor
1.
2.
3.
4.
Ocean Floor
Topography
Organize information about ocean floor topography by completing
the following flow chart.
Use with page 449.
Topographic
features on ocean
floor
earthquakes
and
volcanoes
common
Ocean Rocks and
Sediments
Use with page 450.
192
Deepest
spot in
ocean—
11 km deep
Predict where the oldest rocks in the Atlantic Ocean are. Predict
where the youngest rocks are. Use maps in your text to help you
answer this question.
Section 17.2 Seafloor Spreading
Name
Date
Section 17.2 Seafloor Spreading
Main Idea
Magnetism
Use with page 452.
(continued)
Details
Illustrate magnetic symmetry around an ocean ridge. Use Figures
17-9 and 17-10 to help you. Show the following features:
• ocean ridge
• areas of normal polarity
• areas of reversed polarity
• relative ages of rocks
Describe how a scientist would know how to draw isochrons to
connect basalt flows on land with the ocean floor.
Seafloor
Spreading
Organize information about seafloor spreading by completing the
following cycle diagram.
Use with page 453.
magma pushed into
ocean ridge
plate moves
outward from ridge
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Suppose you could measure the
distance between New York and London and between Los Angeles and Singapore
over several thousand years. Describe how those distances would change compared
to their distances today.
Plate Tectonics
193
Name
Date
Plate Tectonics
Section 17.3 Theory of Plate Tectonics
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 9.1 of your text. Use the checklist below as a guide.
• Read all the section titles.
• Read all bold words.
• Look at all figures and photos and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about plate tectonics.
Write three questions that you think will be answered in this section.
New
Vocabulary
Read the definitions below, then write the term for each in the left
column.
Earth’s rigid crust and ridged upper mantle are broken into plates
place where two plates are moving apart
long, narrow depression caused by stretched crust
place where two plates are moving toward each other
when one of two plates is descending under the other
place where two plates slide horizontally past each other
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
involve
194
Section 17.3 Theory of Plate Tectonics
Name
Date
Section 17.3 Theory of Plate Tectonics
Main Idea
Plate Boundaries
Use with page 455.
(continued)
Details
Illustrate a divergent plate boundary and the three types of
convergent plate boundaries. Include the crust, asthenosphere,
lithosphere, upper mantle, and ocean ridge on the divergent plate
boundaries, and trench, volcanoes, upper mantle, oceanic crust,
and continental crust on the convergent plate boundary diagrams.
Below your diagrams, list at least four products or results at each
type of plate boundary. Use Figures 17-14 and 17-15 to help you.
Divergent Plate Boundary
Oceanic-Oceanic Convergent
Oceanic-Continental Convergent
Continental-Continental Convergent
products/results:
products/results:
Plate Tectonics
195
Name
Date
Section 17.3 Theory of Plate Tectonics
Main Idea
Plate Boundaries
Use with pages 455–459.
(continued)
Details
Predict Imagine that a fence perpendicularly crosses a transform
plate. Draw diagrams of the fence and the two plates before and
after the plates move. Use arrows to show the direction of movement of the plates.
Compare the three types of plate boundaries and their characteristics
in the table
Plate
Boundary
Type
Location Impact on
Associated New
plates
geologic
features
features
phenomena formed?
involved
Most on
Two oceanic
ocean
plates moving
floors
apart
Convergent
Transform
Oceanic crust
sinks beneath
oceanic crust;
oceanic crust
sinks beneath
continental
crust;
continental
crust and
continental
crust collide
Two
plates
moving
past each
other,
plate
edges
S YNTHESIZE
n/a
The oldest rocks on the continents are almost four billion years
old. The oldest rocks on the ocean floor are less than 200 million years old. Analyze
the reasons for this difference.
196
Section 17.3 Theory of Plate Tectonics
Name
Date
Plate Tectonics
Section 17.4 Causes of Plate Motions
Main Idea
Details
Consider the title of Section 4. List three things that might be discussed in this section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
asthenosphere
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
ridge push
slab pull
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
mechanism
Plate Tectonics
197
Name
Date
Section 17.4 Causes of Plate Motions
Main Idea
Mantle
Convection
(continued)
Details
Identify two factors that cause convection. Describe the movement
of a convection current and sketch a current.
Use with page 460.
Use with page 461.
Compare the processes of ridge push and slab pull by filling in the
table below.
Type of plate Description of
boundary
movement
Impact on plate
tectonics
Ridge
push
Slab pull
Explain mantle convection currents by completing the following
sentences.
currents in the
nism behind
is like soft
are thought to be the mecha. The
of the mantle
, so it can be moved like a fluid by convection
currents .
energy inside Earth’s
starts the convection
currents moving. Hot mantle material is
mantle material. Therefore, it
toward the
198
Section 17.4 Causes of Plate Motions
.
than the cooler
. Cooler parts of the mantle
Name
Date
Section 17.4 Causes of Plate Motions
Main Idea
Mantle
Convection
Use with page 461.
Use with page 463.
(continued)
Details
Create a diagram to illustrate the following features. Use Figure
17-19 to help you.
• divergent plate
• convection current • crust
boundary
• convergent plate
• asthenosphere
• ridge push
boundary
• upper mantle
• lithosphere
• slab pull
• trench
Identify unanswered questions that scientists still have about
convection currents and plate tectonics.
A NALOGY
Draw a connection between heating soup on the stove and
convection currents in the Earth.
Plate Tectonics
199
Name
Date
Plate Tectonics
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through the
chapter.
K
What I Wanted to Find Out
1.
W
What I Learned
1.
2.
Review
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of
each section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
about plate tectonics.
200
Chapter Wrap-Up
After reading this chapter, list three things you have learned
Name
Date
Volcanic Activity
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about volcanoes. Then list three questions you
have about volcanoes in the “What I Want to Find Out” column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think about the Discovery Lab you did to model magma movement and record your
response in this science journal.
Describe what happened to the colored water when it entered the beaker.
How might this be similar to what happens to magma beneath Earth’s surface?
Infer what would have happened if you had released the hot water at the surface of the cold
water.
Volcanic Activity
201
Name
Date
Volcanic Activity
Section 18.1 Magma
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 1 of your text. Use the checklist below as a guide.
• Read all section titles.
• Read all bold words.
• Read all tables and graphs.
• Look at all the pictures and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about volcanoes.
Write three facts you discovered about magma.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use the text to define the following term.
magma
New
Vocabulary
Use the text to define the following term.
viscosity
Show your understanding of the word by writing a definition of
your own.
Academic
Vocabulary
factor
202
Section 18.1 Magma
Define the following term.
Name
Date
Section 18.1 Magma
(continued)
Main Idea
How Magma
Forms
Use with page 472.
Details
List three factors that affect the formation of magma.
1.
2.
3.
Analyze Figure 18-1 to complete the table. Indicate in the table
whether temperature, pressure, and melting point increase or
decrease for each of the conditions.
Pressure
Temperature
Melting Point
of Wet Albite
Increasing
Depth Below
Earth’s Surface
Decreasing
Depth Below
Earth’s Surface
Illustrate the relationship between the melting point of a wet rock
and a dry piece of the same rock under the same amount of
pressure by sketching a thermometer and marking a possible
temperature for each type of rock.
S YNTHESIZE
If you were the engineer on an oil-drilling expedition, explain
how you might use a graph such as the one in Figure 18.1 in your text.
Volcanic Activity
203
Name
Date
Section 18.1 Magma
(continued)
Main Idea
Details
Types of Magma
Use with page 473.
Surtsey
Vesuvius
Mt. St. Helens
Mt. Unzen
Mt. Fuji
Kilauea
Etna
Parícutin
Pinatubo
Mariana
Islands
Pelé
e
Mauna Loa
Nevado del Ruiz
Galapagos
Islands
Krakatau
Kilimanjaro
Tambora
Easter
Island
Deception
Island
Identify types of volcanoes. Write basaltic, andesitic, or rhyolithic
to the left of each description.
Volcanoes that are found along continental margins. In
the figure above, circle two such volcanoes in red.
Volcanoes in which rocks in the upper mantle melt. In
the figure above, circle two such volcanoes in blue.
Viscosity
Use with page 475.
Compare the explosiveness, viscosity, and gas content of Surtsey to
Tambora.
Organize information about types of magna by completing the
table below.
Andesetic
Magma
Gas content
Silica Content
Viscosity
Explosives
204
Section 18.1 Magma
4-6%
About 50%
About 10%
Intermediate
Name
Date
Volcanic Activity
Section 18.2 Intrusive Activity
Main Idea
Details
Skim Section 2 of your text. Write three questions that come to mind
from reading the headings and the illustration captions.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
igneous rock
New
Vocabulary
In the left column, write the terms defined below.
intrusive igneous rock bodies
irregularly shaped plutons that are similar to batholiths but smaller
a pluton that forms when magma intrudes parallel to layers of rock
the largest plutons
a mushroom-shaped pluton with a round top and a flat bottom
a pluton that cuts across preexisting rocks
Volcanic Activity
205
Name
Date
Section 18.2 Intrusive Activity
Main Idea
(continued)
Details
List three ways intruding magma can affect Earth’s crust.
1.
2.
3.
Plutons
Use with pages 476–478.
Record the three characteristics used to classify plutons.
1.
2.
3.
Draw an illustration that includes the following features. Label the
features on your drawing.
• a batholith
• a sill
• a dike
• a stock
• a laccolith
206
Section 18.2 Intrusive Acitivity
Name
Date
Section 18.2 Intrusive Activity
Main Idea
(continued)
Details
Compare a sill and a dike. Place each characteristic below in the
Venn diagram to show whether it is a characteristic of a sill, a dike,
or both.
• cuts across preexisting rocks
• is parallel to the rocks it intrudes
• is a few centimeters to hundreds of meters thick
• many are coarse grained
• is a few centimeters to several meters wide
• is a pluton
Sill
Plutons and
Tectonics
Use with page 478.
Both
Dike
Sequence the four steps involved in forming batholiths from
mountain-building processes. The first step has been completed for you.
Two continental plates converge,
forcing continental crust into the mantle.
OR
Two oceanic plates converge and
one plate is subducted into the mantle.
Volcanic Activity
207
Name
Date
Volcanic Activity
Section 18.3 Volcanoes
Main Idea
Details
Scan the photos and read the captions in this section. Write two
questions you think may be answered in this section.
1.
2.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
convergent boundary
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
vent
crater
caldera
tephra
pyroclastic flow
hot spot
Write each of the following terms on the line below its
corresponding image.
• Cinder-cone volcano
• Shield volcano
208
Section 18.3 Volcanoes
• Composite volcano
Name
Date
Section 18.3 Volcanoes
Main Idea
(continued)
Details
Anatomy of a
Volcano
Create a cross section of a volcano. Show the interior of the
volcano. Label the following:
Use with page 480.
• crater
• magma chamber
• vent
Sequence the steps in the formation of a lake in a caldera. Refer
to Figure 18-11 for help. The first one has been completed for you.
Steam causes explosions.
A volcano erupts many times.
The caldera that is formed fills with water to form a lake.
The top of the partially empty magma chamber collapses.
Types of
Volcanoes
Identify the two factors that affect the appearance of a volcano by
completing the concept map below.
Use with page 481.
factors affecting
volcano
appearance
Volcanic Activity
209
Name
Section 18.3 Volcanoes
Date
(continued)
Main Idea
Details
Compare and Contrast the three types of volcanoes by
completing the table below.
Type of
volcano
Cinder-cone
Description
How does it
form?
steep sides,
generally small
How
explosive is
its eruption?
more explosive
than shield
Shield
Composite
Volcanic Material
Use with page 483.
Sketch a small volcano below at the left. Draw and label an
example of each of the following types of tephra as it is ejected
above or to the right of the volcano. Your drawing should illustrate
relative sizes and possible places where the tephra might be found.
Then write the size range for each next to the label.
• ash
• volcanic blocks
• dust
• volcanic bombs
• lapilli
210
larger, with steep
slopes that are
concave
Section 18.3 Volcanoes
Name
Date
Section 18.3 Volcanoes
Main Idea
Volcanic Material
Use with page 484.
Where Do
Volcanoes
Occur?
(continued)
Details
Analyze and describe the setting and eruption that results in a
pyroclastic flow.
Contrast convergent and divergent volcanism.
Use with page 484–487.
Complete the following sentences to better understand hot spots.
are unusually hot regions of Earth’s mantle. In these
places, high-temperature plumes of mantle material
the surface. The heat of the plumes
magma melts through the
rock into
toward
. This
and forms
.
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Yellowstone National Park sits atop a
caldera formed 650,000 years ago. Describe evidence showing that this area is still a
geologic hot spot.
Volcanic Activity
211
Name
Date
Volcanic Activity
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column, write
down the answers you discovered as you worked through the chapter.
K
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
W
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of
each section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
After reading this chapter, list three things you have learned
about volcanic activity.
212
Chapter Wrap-Up
Name
Date
Earthquakes
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about earthquakes. Then list three questions
you have about earthquakes in the “What I Want to Find Out”
column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think about the Discovery Lab you did to model an earthquake and record your response in
this science journal.
Compare the two movements.
Infer which of the two scenarios models what happens during an earthquake.
Earthquakes
213
Name
Date
Earthquakes
Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth
Main Idea
Details
Consider the title of Section 1. List three topics that might be
discussed in this section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
fracture
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
stress
strain
fault
primary wave
secondary wave
surface wave
focus
epicenter
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
exceed
214
Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth
Name
Date
Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth
Main Idea
(continued)
Details
Stress and Strain
Use with pages 495–496.
Identify the three kinds of stress that can act on Earth’s rocks.
Explain how each type of stress affects rocks.
1.
2.
3.
Describe what happens to a rubber band as it is stretched at each
point or segment on the stress-strain curve below.
Typical Stress-Strain Curve
Ductile deformation
Failure
Stress
Elastic limit
Elastic deformation
Strain
Faults
Use with page 497.
Compare the different types of faults, and their characteristics by
completing the table below.
Type of Fault
Cause
horizontal
tension
Movement
Earthquakes
215
Name
Date
Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth
Main Idea
Earthquake
Waves
Use page 498.
(continued)
Details
Differentiate between P-waves, S-waves, surface waves, both
P- and S-waves, both S- and surface waves, or all three waves.
Place each of the following characteristic in the Venn diagram
below.
• are body waves
• squeeze and pull rocks in the
same direction as the waves
• move up and down
• move back and forth
• are seismic waves
• travel along Earth’s surface
• pass through Earth’s interior
• move in two directions as they
• cause rocks to move at right
pass through rock
angles to the wave
P-waves
S-waves
P- and
S- waves
through Earth’s interior
all waves
move back
and forth
move up
and down
P- and surface
waves
S- and surface
waves
Surface waves
A NALOGY
Describe how dropping a rock into a still pond models the
movement of an earthquake.
216
Section 19.1 Forces Within Earth
Name
Date
Earthquakes
Section 19.2 Seismic Waves and Earth’s Interior
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 2 of your text. Use the checklist below as a guide.
• Read all section titles.
• Read all bold words.
• Read all tables and graphs.
• Look at all the pictures and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about seismic waves.
Write three facts you discovered about seismic waves as you
scanned the section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
lithosphere
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
seismometer
seismogram
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
method
Earthquakes
217
Name
Date
Section 19.2 Seismic Waves and Earth’s Interior
Main Idea
Seismometers
and Seismograms
(continued)
Details
Label the parts of the seismometer below.
Use with page 500.
Wire
Frame
Mass
Pen
Rotating
drum
What if a younger student is looking at the diagram above with
you. Explain to the student how the seismometer works.
Create two questions that can be answered using information from
Figure 19-9 in your book. For example, “How long did it take the
S-waves to move 2000 km from the epicenter of the earthquake?”
1.
2.
218
Section 19.2 Seismic Waves and Earth’s Interior
Name
Date
Section 19.2 Seismic Waves and Earth’s Interior
Main Idea
Clues to Earth’s
Interior
(continued)
Details
Sketch a model of the interior of Earth. Label the following:
• inner core
• mantle
• outer core
Use with page 503.
Once you have drawn your model, draw an earthquake focus on
the left side of your model. Then add the following:
• P-waves
• P-wave shadow zones
• S-waves
Identify on your model where there are no direct P-waves and no
direct S-waves.
S YNTHESIZE
What would happen if S-waves encountered a lake or pond?
Explain your reasoning.
Earthquakes
219
Name
Date
Earthquakes
Section 19.3 Measuring and Locating Earthquakes
Main Idea
Details
Consider the objectives on the first page of Section 3. Change each
objective into a question that will be answered with information in
the section.
1.
2.
3.
New
Vocabulary
magnitude
Richter scale
moment magnitude
scale
modified Mercalli scale
Use the terms in the left margin to complete the following
sentences.
When an earthquake is reported on the news, reporters often refer
to its
. This is the amount of energy released during an
earthquake. There is more than one way to measure it. One type
of scale, the
, measures the amount of
damage from an earthquake. The
accounts for the magnitude, size of the fault rupture, amount of
movement along the fault, and the rocks’ stiffness. The
is based on the largest seismic waves made by an
earthquake.
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
occur
220
Section 19.3 Measuring and Locating Earthquakes
Name
Date
Section 19.3 Measuring and Locating Earthquakes
Main Idea
Earthquake
Magnitude and
Intensity
(continued)
Details
Differentiate between the three scales that are used to describe
earthquakes. Write the name of each scale and describe what it
measures in the concept map.
Use with page 505–507.
Earthquake
Scales
Describe the difference between the magnitude and the intensity of
an earthquake.
State the three ways the depth of an earthquake’s focus can be
classified.
1.
2.
3.
From the three classifications above, circle the depth of focus for
almost all catastrophic quakes.
Earthquakes
221
Name
Date
Section 19.3 Measuring and Locating Earthquakes
Main Idea
Locating an
Earthquake
Use with page 508.
(continued)
Details
Consider the locations of two seismic stations that have been
plotted on a map as shown below. Explain why it is impossible to
determine the location of an earthquake using only two seismic
stations. Then continue your explanation to describe why three
stations are needed to determine the location of an earthquake.
Seismic Belts
Describe seismic belts by completing the paragraph below.
Use with page 509.
Most of the world’s earthquakes occur in narrow
that separate large regions of little or no
earthquakes are associated with
. Most
.A
percentage of earthquakes happen far from
and are distributed more or less at
A NALOGY
.
Point out how you could use a simple puzzle to demonstrate where
most earthquakes occur in the world. Describe what would happen if you shook the
puzzle.
222
Section 19.3 Measuring and Locating Earthquakes
Name
Date
Earthquakes
Section 19.4 Earthquakes and Society
Main Idea
Details
Skim Section 4 of your text. Write three questions that come to
mind from reading the headings and the illustration captions.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
landslide
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
tsunami
seismic gap
Show your understanding of each of the above terms by using
each one in a sentence of your own.
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
collapse
Earthquakes
223
Name
Date
Section 19.4 Earthquakes and Society
Main Idea
Some
Earthquake
Hazards
Use with page 511.
(continued)
Details
Compare Place each type of building on the continuum to show its
strength and quality during an earthquake.
• buildings on large rubber
structures
• unreinforced buildings of
stone or concrete
• high-rise, steel-frame buildings
• wooden structures
Least amount of
earthquake damage
Greatest amount of
earthquake damage
Outline information about earthquake hazards. Describe each
hazard in detail.
I. The 4 types of earthquake hazards are:
A.
1. Pancaking—
2. failure related to height—
B.
1. Landslides—
2.
3.
C.
—is an area of great vertical offset where the
fault intersects the ground surface
D.
224
Section 19.4 Earthquakes and Society
Name
Date
Section 19.4 Earthquakes and Society
Main Idea
Seismic Risk
Use with page 513.
(continued)
Details
Identify the four states that have the lowest seismic risk. Refer to
the seismic risk map of the United States on page 514 of your text.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Infer whether any of these states will ever have an earthquake.
Earthquake
Prediction
Use with page 514.
Organize information about earthquake prediction by completing
the graphic organizer below.
Earthquake Prediction
is based on
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Imagine you live in an area that has had
three minor earthquakes and one major earthquake in the last 100 years. It has been
40 years since the last earthquake. Assess the probability of another earthquake in
your area.
Earthquakes
225
Name
Date
Earthquakes
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column, write
down the answers you discovered as you worked through the chapter.
K
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
W
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of
each section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
about earthquakes.
226
Chapter Wrap-Up
After reading this chapter, list three things you have learned
Name
Date
Mountain Building
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about mountains. Then list three questions you
have about mountains in the “What I Want to Find Out” column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think about the Discovery Lab you did to model crustal differences and record your
response in this science journal.
How does density affect the height of flotation?
The blocks of wood that were less dense float higher in the water.
How does thickness affect the height of flotation?
The thicker block floated higher in the water than the other two blocks.
Which block represents oceanic crust? Continental crust?
The thinner block that was more dense represents oceanic crust. The thicker block
represents continental crust.
Mountain Building
227
Name
Date
Mountain Building
Section 20.1 Crust-Mantle Relationships
Main Idea
Details
Consider the objectives on the first page of Section 1. Write three
questions that come to mind while reading these statements.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
erosion
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
isostasy
isostatic rebound
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
mode
228
Section 20.1 Crust-Mantle Relationship
Name
Date
Section 20.1 Crust-Mantle Relationships
Main Idea
Earth’s
Topography
Use with page 524.
(continued)
Details
Identify the two modes that most of Earth’s elevations cluster
around. Then classify those elevations as oceanic crust or continental
crust.
either
or
crust
crust
Name the two main factors that lead to differences in elevation in
Earth’s crust. Describe how each affects elevation.
1.
2.
Infer how the elevations of oceanic crust would be different if
oceanic crust were thicker. Explain.
Mountain Building
229
Name
Date
Section 20.1 Crust-Mantle Relationships
Main Idea
Isostasy
Use with pages 525–526.
(continued)
Details
Consider the principle of isostasy and how it relates to mountains.
Describe what happens to the roots of a mountain range as the
mountain range is forming.
Sequence the steps in the process of isostatic rebound until
mountains and their roots disappear.
The roots become smaller.
Isostatic equilibrium is achieved and the mountains are
buoyantly supported.
This process continues until the mountains and their roots
disappear.
Mountain peaks erode, decreasing the mass of the mountains.
Mountains rise above Earth’s surface, forming deep roots.
A NALOGY
Imagine a cargo boat loaded with grain is being unloaded in a
harbor. Use this situation to illustrate isostatic rebound. Draw a series of images of the
boat and explain how what is happening as it is unloaded is similar to erosion. Use
Figure 20-4 in your text for help.
230
Section 20.1 Crust-Mantle Relationship
Name
Date
Mountain Building
Section 20.2 Convergent-Boundary Mountains
Main Idea
Details
Skim Section 2 of your text. Write three questions that come to
mind while reading the headings and the illustration captions.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
continental drift
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
orogeny
Show your understanding of the term by using it in a sentence.
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
complex
Mountain Building
231
Name
Date
Section 20.2 Convergent-Boundary Mountains
Main Idea
Orogeny
(continued)
Details
Complete the graphic organizer about orogeny.
Use with pages 528–531.
results in
where
compressive
forces cause
which are
associated
with
Compare the different types of mountains that form along
convergent plate boundaries in the table below.
Type of
Boundary
232
Types of
Mountains
that Form
Section 20.2 Convergent-Boundary Mountains
How the
Mountains
are Formed
Type of Rocks
Associated with
Mountains
Name
Date
Section 20.2 Convergent-Boundary Mountains
Main Idea
The Appalachian
Mountains—A
Case Study
Use with page 533.
(continued)
Details
Sequence the formation of the Appalachian Mountains. Some of
the steps have been completed for you. In the smaller boxes, write
the name of the region of the Appalachians that was formed at
that step.
An island arc develops east of ancestral North America.
Piedmont
Province
C ONNECT
Suppose you were hiking and saw rock formations similar to
those in Figure 20-12 in your text. Categorize the type of convergent boundary that
created the rocks in the area. Defend your response.
Mountain Building
233
Name
Date
Mountain Building
Section 20.3 Other Types of Mountains
Main Idea
Details
Examine the photographs of different types of mountains in
Section 3 of your text. Use the photos to create an informative
drawing with an image of two types of mountains. Label each
type.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
divergent boundary
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
pillow basalt
uplifted mountain
fault-block mountain
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
dynamic
234
Section 20.3 Other Types of Mountains
Name
Date
Section 20.3 Other Types of Mountains
Main Idea
DivergentBoundary
Mountains
(continued)
Details
Illustrate how an ocean ridge forms. Show the following:
• central rift
• magma upper
• new crust
• lithosphere
• mantle
• older crust
Use with pages 535–536.
Draw an arrow to show the direction that the magma and crust
move in relation to the central rift. Refer to your model to describe
the process of forming an ocean ridge.
Illustrate vertical dikes and pillow basalts, which are characteristic of ocean-ridge rocks. Label each and write a description of how
each is formed.
Mountain Building
235
Name
Date
Section 20.3 Other Types of Mountains
Main Idea
Nonboundary
Mountains
Use with pages 537–538.
(continued)
Details
Compare and Contrast uplifted and fault-block mountains in the
Venn diagram. Place each characteristic in the diagram to show
whether it is a trait of uplifted mountains, fault-block mountains, or
both.
• crust is uplifted as a unit
• have little structural deformation
• form along faults
• formed by internal forces
• pieces of crust are tilted, uplifted, or dropped
Uplifted
Mountains
Both
Fault-Block
Mountains
Sequence the steps in the formation of a volcano over a hot spot
in the correct order.
• a chain of volcanoes forms • the plate continues to move
• a volcanic peak forms
• mantle material is forced up through the crust
• a tectonic plate moves over a hot spot through the crust
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
S YNTHESIZE
Recall what you learned in Chapter 18 about different types of
volcanoes. Infer whether volcanoes that form over hot spots are more or less explosive
than most volcanoes that form along plate boundaries. Explain your reasoning.
236
Section 20.3 Other Types of Mountains
Name
Date
Tie-It-All-Together
F URTHER I NQUIRY
What if Earth was not a dynamic planet, but had
stayed the same for millions of years? What might Earth’s surface look like today?
Compare mountains that form at plate boundaries to nonboundary mountains.
Design a model of one of the types of mountains in the chapter. It should be a working
model that can show the formation of the type of mountain. Be creative, yet think about
constructing a simple model. Sketch your model below, then build it. Demonstrate your model
to your class.
Mountain Building
237
Name
Date
Mountain Building
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through the
chapter.
W
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
L
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of
each section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
After reading this chapter, state three things you have learned
about how mountains are formed.
238
Chapter Wrap-Up
Name
Date
Fossils and Rock Record
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about fossils. Then list three questions you
have about fossils in the ”What I Want to Find Out” column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think about the Discovery Lab you did to model a fossil hunt, and record your response in
this science journal.
Explain how fossils can help determine the age of sediment or a rock.
Does categorizing the fossils provide any further clues about the environment in which the
fossiliferous sediment formed? Explain.
Fossils and Rock Record
239
Name
Date
Fossils and the Rock Record
Section 21.1 The Geologic Time Scale
Main Idea
Details
Examine the geologic time scale in Figure 21-1 on page 554 of
your text. Write three things about the geologic time scale that
interest you.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
geologic time scale
eon
era
period
epoch
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
decline
240
Section 21.1 The Geologic Time Scale
Name
Date
Section 21.1 The Geologic Time Scale
Main Idea
The Rock Record
Use with pages 553–554.
(continued)
Details
Identify what scientists use to divide the history of Earth into time
units.
List the three main factors that scientists consider when refining the
geologic time scale.
1.
2.
3.
Geologic Time
Use with page 554
Construct three quiz questions using information from the time
scale in Figure 21-1. Then write the answers to the questions.
Question:
Answer:
Question:
Answer:
Question:
Answer:
Label eon, era, epoch, and period in the correct location on the
continuum.
Shortest length of time
Longest length of time
Fossils and Rock Record
241
Name
Date
Section 21.1 The Geologic Time Scale
Main Idea
Main Ideas
Use with page 554.
(continued)
Details
Label the simplified geologic time scale below. Use Figure 21-1 to
help you. Include the different eons and eras on your time scale. On
the lines to the left and right, write important events about the
appearance and development of different animals.
C RITIQUE
Critique the following statement: “Humans are relatively old
according to the geologic time scale.” Explain whether you agree or disagree. Defend
your answer.
242
Section 21.1 The Geologic Time Scale
Name
Date
Fossils and the Rock Record
Section 21.2 Relative-Age Dating of Rocks
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 2 of your text. Use the checklist below as a guide.
• Read all section titles.
• Read all bold words.
• Read all tables and graphs.
• Look at all the pictures and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about the dating of rocks.
Write two facts you discovered about relative-age dating of rocks.
1.
2.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
deposition
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
uniformitarianism
original horizontality
superposition
cross-cutting
relationships
unconformity
correlation
Fossils and Rock Record
243
Name
Date
Section 21.2 Relative-Age Dating of Rocks
Main Idea
Principles for
Determining
Relative Age
Use with page 558.
(continued)
Details
Identify the three geologic principles for determining the relative
age of rocks.
1.
2.
3.
Draw two horizontal layers of rock. Then draw and label inclusions in the top layer. Describe how inclusions are formed.
Create a diagram of four or five rock layers. Include one layer
with inclusion. Draw an intrusion that cuts through more than one
layer. Label the layers A, B, C,…. Write three true statements about
the relative ages of the rock layers in your diagram. State the
geologic principle that helped you write each statement.
1.
2.
3.
244
Section 21.2 The Relative-Age Dating of Rocks
Name
Date
Section 21.2 Relative-Age Dating of Rocks
Main Idea
Main Ideas
Use with page 560.
(continued)
Details
Compare the different types of unconformities using the graphic
organizer.
Type:
Type:
How formed?
How formed?
Uncomformities
Type:
How formed?
S YNTHESIZE
Hypothesize what could have happened to separate the Permian
Kaibab Formation that rims the top of the Grand Canyon and the Permian Kaibab
Formation that is found 300 km away at the bottom of a 200-m gorge.
Fossils and Rock Record
245
Name
Date
Fossils and the Rock Record
Section 21.3 Absolute-Age Dating of Rocks
Main Idea
Details
Skim Section 3 of your text. Read the headings and captions more
closely. Write three questions you think may be answered in this
section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
drought
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
radioactive decay
radiometric dating
half-life
dendochronology
varve
key bed
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
similar
246
Section 21.3 Absolute-Age Dating of Rocks
Name
Date
Section 21.3 Absolute-Age Dating of Rocks
Main Idea
Use with page 562.
(continued)
Details
Compare the relative-age dating of rocks to absolute-age dating of
rocks using the graphic organizer
Relative-age dating
measures
Absolute-age dating
Use of
Radioactive
Isotopes
Use with page 563.
Create an illustration to explain the concept of half-life. Use one of
the radioactive isotopes listed in Table 21-1. Your illustration should
show the amount of parent element at the beginning and the
amount of parent and daughter elements after one half-life.
Explain the radioactive decay of Uranium-238 to Lead-206 in the
table below. Use Tables 21-1 and 21-2 in your book for help.
Radioactive Decay of Uranium-238 to Lead-206
Percent
Percent
Parent Daughter
Element Element
Elapsed
Years
Number of
Half-Lives
Time 1
0
Time 2
1
Time 3
2
Time 4
3
Time 5
4
Fossils and Rock Record
247
Name
Date
Section 21.3 Absolute-Age Dating of Rocks
Main Idea
Other Ways to
Determine Age
Use with pages 564-565.
(continued)
Details
Compare and Contrast tree rings and varves. Place each
characteristic in the Venn diagram to show whether it is a trait of
tree rings, varves, or both.
• determine ages of glacial lake sediments
• used to determine the age of an object
• show evidence of cyclic events
• widest in spring, thinnest in winter
• thickest in summer, thinnest in winter
Tree Rings
Varves
Both
Explain by completing the graphic organizer below.
create
S YNTHESIZE
Draw a cross section of a tree that is six years old. The tree lives in a
normal environment. Next to it, create a cross section of a tree that is six years old, but has
lived through six years of drought. Explain why the two drawings look different from each
other.
248
Section 21.3 Absolute-Age Dating of Rocks
Name
Date
Fossils and the Rock Record
Section 21.4 Remains of Organisms in the Rock Record
Main Idea
Details
Predict three things that might be discussed in this section based on
its title.
1.
2.
3.
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
fossil
evolution
original preservation
altered hard part
permineralization
index fossil
mold
cast
Fossils and Rock Record
249
Name
Date
Section 21.4 Remains of Organisms in the Rock Record
Main Idea
Use with page 566.
(continued)
Details
Identify three ways fossils are useful.
1.
2.
3.
Types of Fossils
Use with page 566.
Compare types of fossils by completing the table below.
Type of
Fossil
Original
preservation
Description and Information
about Its Formation
Example
petrified wood
Index fossils
trilobite molds,
casts of molds
Indirect
evidence of
past life
250
Section 21.4 Remains of Organisms in the Rock Record
Name
Date
Section 21.4 Remains of Organisms in the Rock Record
Main Idea
(continued)
Details
Use with page 568.
Sequence the steps in the process of forming a mold and a cast.
The shell is buried.
Sediment fills the mold.
A hermit crab crawls out of its shell to find a bigger one.
A mold is left in the shell’s place.
Groundwater dissolves the shell.
A cast of the shell is made.
Why Study
Fossils?
Create an informational drawing describing why scientists study
fossils.
Use with page 569.
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Think about fossils that could be made
from organisms that are currently living. Describe two fossils that you could create
that would help future generations learn about how you lived. Be sure to include
details about how the fossils might form.
Fossils and Rock Record
251
Name
Date
Fossils and The Rock Record
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through the
chapter.
K
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
W
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of each
section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
After reading this chapter, describe three things you have learned
about fossils and the rock record.
252
Chapter Wrap-Up
Name
Date
The Precambrian Era
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about the Precambrian Era. Then list three
questions you have about the Precambrian Era in the “What I Want
to Find Out” column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Observe
Describe what happened to the colored water and vegetable oil in the beaker.
Explain how this is similar to what happened to the core and mantle when Earth formed.
The Precambrian Era
253
Name
Date
The Precambrian Earth
Section 22.1 The Early Earth
Main Idea
Details
Predict Read the title of Section 1. List three things that might be
discussed in this section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
isotope
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
zircon
asteroid
meteorite
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
generate
254
Section 22.1 The Early Earth
Name
Date
Section 22.1 The Early Earth
Main Idea
Earth’s “Birth”
Use with page 577.
(continued)
Details
Organize the four billion years that make up the Precambrian Era
by completing the following flowchart.
Precambrian
4.6 billion years
to 2.5 billion
years ago
How Old Is
Earth?
Use with page 578.
Examine the evidence scientists used to determine Earth’s age by
completing the table below. The first one has been done for you.
Rock or Mineral
rocks in Earth’s crusts
Age
3.96 to 3.8 billion years old
4.1 to 4.2 billion years old
between 4.5 and 4.7 billion years old
approx 4.6 billion years old
Explain how scientists used the evidence in the chart to determine
the age of Earth and give their conclusion.
The Precambrian Era
255
Name
Date
Section 22.1 The Early Earth
Main Idea
Earth’s Heat
Sources
Use with page 578.
(continued)
Details
List the three heat sources of Earth shortly after it formed.
1.
2.
3.
Predict what will happen to the number of radioactive isotopes as
Earth continues to get older.
Create a diagram that shows how meteorites and asteroids in the
early solar system could have created a tremendous amount of
thermal energy on Earth.
Explain gravitational contraction by completing the following
sentences.
Another source of Earth’s heat was
.
Meteor bombardment and the resulting accumulation of meteorite
material caused Earth to
caused
was converted into
caused a
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
. The
of the material
of the layers beneath. This energy
. The meteorites material also
, which kept the
from escaping.
The interior of Earth is still generating
heat. Hypothesize which of the three original sources this heat is coming from.
256
Section 22.1 The Early Earth
Name
Date
The Precambrian Earth
Section 22.2 Formation of the Crust and Continents
Main Idea
Details
Skim Section 2 of your text. Read the headings and the figure
captions. Write three questions that come to mind.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
lithosphere
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
differentiation
Precambrian shield
Canadian Shield
microcontinent
Laurentia
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
illustrate
The Precambrian Era
257
Name
Date
Section 22.2 Formation of the Crust and Continents
Main Idea
Formation of the
Crust
(continued)
Details
Model the differentiation of Earth. Draw a cross-section of Earth
and label five layers. Use Figure 22-3 to help you.
Use with page 580–581.
Analyze differentiation and the formation of the crust in the concept
web below.
differentiation occurs as
of a
Earth’s early crust formed
by
composed of
planet
core is made of
and
crust is made of
density rocks which
at a
temperature
in current times
Use with page 581.
Explain the cores of the continents by completing the following
sentences.
Continents contain a core of
a
and
rock called
. The Precambrian shield of North America is
called the
. It is exposed in parts of
,
258
which were recycled into
the
by
undersea crust is dense
which sinks
than
continental
crust
granite continental crust
floats on top of the
below it
The Cores of the
Continents
this rock
weathered and
formed a layer
of
, Michigan,
Section 22.2 Formation of the Crust and Continents
,
, and Greenland.
Name
Date
Section 22.2 Formation of the Crust and Continents
Main Idea
Growth of
Continents
Use with page 582–583.
(continued)
Details
Create cartoon-strip style sketches to show a chronology of the formation of Earth's surface as we now know it. Draw at least four
frames. Include events such as:
•
•
•
•
collision of microcontinents
• formation of Laurentia
formation of microcontinents • formation of Rodinia
Grenville orogeny
suturing at orogenies to produce larger continents
List four important developments of Earth by the end of the
Proterozoic.
1.
2.
3.
4.
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Wegener mentioned Pangaea in his
hypothesis about continental drift. Compare and contrast Pangaea and Rodinina.
The Precambrian Era
259
Name
Date
The Precambrian Earth
Section 22.3 Formation of the Atmosphere and Oceans
Main Idea
Details
Objectives Read the objectives on the first page of Section 3. Write
three questions that come to mind from reading these statements.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term. Hypothesize how the
atmosphere in early times was different from now.
atmosphere
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
cyanobacteria
stromatolite
banded iron formation
red bed
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
dominate
260
Section 22.3 Formation of the Atmosphere and Oceans
Name
Date
Section 22.3 Formation of the Atmosphere and Oceans
Main Idea
The Precambrian
Atmosphere
Use with page 584.
(continued)
Details
Summarize the formation of seven gases in the early atmosphere.
Early
Atmosphere
decay of
radioactive
potassium-40
out-gassing
by
chemical reactions
Oxygen in the
Atmosphere
Predict what would have happened to life on the planet if
cyanobacteria had not evolved 3.46 billion years ago.
Use with pages 585–586.
Compare the rocks related to oxygen in the atmosphere.
Rock Type Composition
Ages
Evidence of
Oxygen?
Cyanobacteria were
the first organisms to
use photosynthesis,
which produced oxygen.
Banded iron
formation
The iron found in rocks
began to oxidize in the
presence of oxygen.
The Precambrian Era
261
Name
Date
Section 22.3 Formation of the Atmosphere and Oceans
Main Idea
Importance of
Oxygen
Use with page 587.
(continued)
Details
List two reasons oxygen is vital to life on Earth.
1.
2.
Formation of the
Oceans
Use with page 588.
Create a diagram to show where water on Earth came from and
why the water in the seas is salty. Include both ice and steam
sources in your diagram.
S UM M ARIZE
Summarize changes described in this section that occurred during
early Earth that made it a place for life.
262
Section 22.3 Formation of the Atmosphere and Oceans
Name
Date
The Precambrian Earth
Section 22.4 Early Life on Earth
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 4 in your text. Read the bold words, headings, and
figure captions. Write four facts about early life that you discovered
as you scanned the section.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term. Tell why it is an
important concept when discussing early life on Earth.
period
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
amino acids
hydrothermal vent
prokaryote
eukaryote
Varangian Glaciation
Ediacara fauna
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
constantly
The Precambrian Era
263
Name
Date
Section 22.4 Early Life on Earth
Main Idea
Origin of Life on
Earth
Use with pages 589–591.
Proterozoic Life
Use with pages 591–592.
(continued)
Details
Model the “primordial soup” experiment by drawing the Miller and
Urey’s laboratory setup. Label the two chambers, write the products
found in the condensation chamber, the gases found in the atmospheric
chamber, and the metal used for the electrodes. Use Figure 22-12 to
help you.
Organize the information about DNA and RNA in the Venn diagram
below.
•
•
•
•
carries instructions necessary for cells to function
first replicating molecules on Earth
need enzymes to replicate
ribozymes replicate without enzymes
RNA
DNA
Both
Compare and Contrast the characteristics of early life forms by
filling in the table below.
Organism
Prokaryote
Eukaryote
264
Section 22.4 Early Life on Earth
Structure
Example
Approximate
age
Name
Date
Section 22.4 Early Life on Earth
Main Idea
Ediacara Fossils
Use with pages 592–593.
(continued)
Details
Model your own Ediacara animal. Be sure that the
organism has all the features of Ediacaran fauna and that it lives
in the appropriate location. Make your drawing in the space below.
Label the different parts and describe how it lives.
Describe Ediacara fossils by completing the following sentences.
Some
fossils are similar to
,
,
arthropods, and echinoderms. Some scientists believe that these
animals were
of the modern look-alikes. Other scientists
think that Ediacaran fauna do not lead to any modern animals.
They had no
,
,
, and probably did not
Ediacaran fossils have been found
.
.
S YNTHESIZE
Tell where the Urey-Miller method of amino acid creation would
have had to occur. Describe how the same process could have happened at hydrothermal
vents and why scientists think life could have begun there.
The Precambrian Era
265
Name
Date
The Precambrian Era
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through
the chapter.
K
What I Wanted to Find Out
1.
W
What I Learned
1.
2.
Review
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of
each section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
After reading this chapter, list three things you have learned
about the Precambrian Era.
266
Chapter Wrap-Up
Name
Date
The Paleozoic Era
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to
list three things you know about the Paleozoic Era. Then list three
questions you have about the Paleozoic Era in the “What I Want
to Find Out” column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think about the Discovery Lab you did to observe how oil or water can be stored in solid
rock and record your response in this science journal.
Sketch a cross-section of the rock or brick. Include sketches of both before and after you
added the water to it. Include in your sketches what the inside of the brick might look like.
Infer what happened to the water.
The Paleozoic Era
267
Name
Date
The Paleozoic Era
Section 23.1 The Early Paleozoic
Main Idea
Details
Write each objective from the beginning of the section in the form
of a question. Answer your questions as you read your text.
1.
2.
3.
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
paleogeography
passive margin
transgression
regression
Burgess Shale
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
indicate
268
Section 23.1 The Early Paleozoic
Name
Date
Section 23.1 The Early Paleozoic
Main Idea
Continental
Setting
(continued)
Details
Analyze Laurentia in the Cambrian Period by completing the table.
Laurentia in the Cambrian Period
Use with pages 601–602.
Changes in Sea
Level
Location
Description
Characteristic Sediments
Tectonic Activity
Define the word “passive.” Explain how it relates to the term
“passive margin.”
Use with pages 603.
Categorize each characteristic as being a trait of a transgression
or a regression.
• deep-water deposits overlay shallow-water deposits
• shallow-water deposits overlay deep water deposits
• happens when sea level falls
• shoreline moves inland
• happens when sea level rises
• shoreline moves seaward
Transgression
Regression
The Paleozoic Era
269
Name
Date
Section 23.1 The Early Paleozoic
Main Idea
Early Paleozoic
Life
Use with pages 604.
(continued)
Details
Draw the cross-section of the shoreline of an ocean similar to
Figure 23-4 on page 603. Label the original shoreline position. Then
label the position of the shoreline after a transgression and the
position of the shoreline after a regression.
Describe why the beginning of the Cambrian Period often is called
the Cambrian “explosion.”
Identify three facts about the fossilized Cambrian organisms that
come from the Burgess Shale.
1.
2.
3.
S YNTHESIZE
Hypothesize what will happen to sediments that currently are
being deposited if sea level were to rise.
270
Section 23.1 The Early Paleozoic
Name
Date
The Paleozoic Era
Section 23.2 The Middle Paleozoic
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 2 of your text. Use the checklist below as a guide.
• Read all section titles.
• Read all bold words.
• Read all tables and graphs.
• Look at all the pictures and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about the Middle
Paleozoic Era.
Write three facts you discovered about the Middle Paleozoic Era.
1.
2.
3.
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
Taconic Orogeny
Caledonian Orogeny
Acadian Orogeny
Antler Orogeny
Paleozoic fauna
vascular plant
mass extinction
The Paleozoic Era
271
Name
Date
Section 23.2 The Middle Paleozoic
Main Idea
Sea Level
Changes Again
(continued)
Details
Describe the Middle Paleozoic paleography of Laurentia by
completing the paragraphs below.
Use with page 605.
During the early Ordovician, much of Laurentia’s margins were a
environment. In rock layers from this time,
overlain by small amounts of
is
and large amounts of
deposits. These deposits contain
.
Corals are confined to latitudes between 30° north and south of
the
. This means Laurentia was positioned across the
during the
Use with page 606.
Middle Paleozoic
Tectonics
Use with page 607.
Explain how reefs make it possible for depositions of evaporite
minerals to form.
Identify the forms of evidence that geologists look for to determine
that the Taconic Orogeny occurred. Describe each.
1.
2.
3.
4.
272
.
Section 23.2 The Middle Paleozoic
Name
Date
Section 23.2 The Middle Paleozoic
Main Idea
Middle Paleozoic
Life
(continued)
Details
Identify four different animals of the Paleozoic fauna in the concept map. Write a brief description of each fauna.
Use with page 609.
Paleozoic Fauna
Explain what scientists were able to learn about Earth as a result
of studying corals during the Paleozoic.
Life Moves
to Land
Use with page 609.
Identify three groups of vascular spore-bearing plants that were
living on land during the Middle Paleozoic.
1.
2.
3.
The Paleozoic Era
273
Name
Date
Section 23.2 The Middle Paleozoic
Main Idea
New Plants
Emerge
(continued)
Details
Explain how seeds allowed plants to colonize dry land by completing
the graphic organizer below.
Use with page 610.
Seeds
allowed plants to
spread out and
colonize dry land
because they have
Mass Extinctions
Use with page 611.
Organize information about the two mass extinctions during the
Middle Paleozoic.
Time of Mass
Extinction
Number of Species
that Became Extinct
Possible Cause
C OMPARE
Consider the growth lines of Devonian horn coral to the growth
rings of trees. Describe what the growth lines tell scientists about Earth in the
Devonian Period.
274
Section 23.2 The Middle Paleozoic
Name
Date
The Paleozoic Era
Section 23.3 The Late Paleozoic
Main Idea
Details
Consider the objectives at the beginning of Section 3. Restate each
objective in the form of a question. Answer your questions as you
read the text.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
4.
Use your text to define the following term.
glacier
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
Gondwana
amniote egg
cyclothem
ancestral Rockies
Alleghenian Orogeny
Ouachita Orogeny
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
major
The Paleozoic Era
275
Name
Date
Section 23.3 The Late Paleozoic
Main Idea
Sea Level and
Deposition
(continued)
Details
Organize information about the formation of cyclothems in the
graphic organizer below.
Use with page 613.
Glaciers
Sea level
Glaciation
Glaciers
Sea level
Reefs and
Evaporites
Use with page 614.
Examine the general rock sequence of the cyclothem in Figure 23-16
from base to top. Construct two review questions that can be
answered with information from the figure. Then give the answer to
each question.
1. Question:
Answer:
2. Question:
Answer:
Contrast the rocks and sediments of the Great Permian Reef
Complex with the evaporites associated with the Complex.
276
Section 23.3 The Late Paleozoic
Name
Date
Section 23.3 The Late Paleozoic
Main Idea
Continental
Collisions and
Mountain
Building
Use with page 614.
Late Paleozoic
Life
(continued)
Details
Sequence the events that describe the formation of Pangaea.
Ancestral Rockies formed.
What is now Africa began to collide with Laurasia, causing
the Alleghenian Orogeny.
Gondwana collides with the southeastern margin of Laurasia.
Pangaea formed.
Ouachita Orogeny formed the Ouachita Mountains.
The ocean between Gondwana and Laurasia closed.
Appalachian Mountains formed.
Sketch a representation of an amniote egg. Label each part of the
egg and describe the purpose of each part.
Use with page 616.
The Permwian
Mass Extinction
Use with page 614.
Explain the Permo-Triassic Extinction Event by completing the
graphic organizer below.
major
marine
regression
S YNTHESIZE
Describe why a major marine regression would have been more
critical to marine organisms when there was only one continent, as opposed to several
continents.
The Paleozoic Era
277
Name
Date
The Paleozoic Era
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through the
chapter.
K
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
W
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of
each section.
Look over the Chapter Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
After reading this chapter, list three things you have learned
about the Paleozoic Era.
278
Chapter Wrap-Up
Name
Date
The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras. Then
list three questions you have about these eras in the “What I Want
to Find Out” column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think about the Discovery Lab you did to determine the effect of shape on buoyancy and
record your response in this science journal.
What effect does the shape of the spheres have on their buoyancy?
Based on your observations, which microfossil do you think floated in the water? Which one
lived on the seafloor?
The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Era
279
Name
Date
The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras
Section 24.1 Mesozoic Paleography
Main Idea
Details
Skim Section 1. Look at the headings, photos, illustrations, and
captions. Write three questions you have about the information you
think may be covered in this section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
subduction
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
Cordillera
Show your understanding of the term by using it in a sentence of
your own.
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
define
280
Section 24.1 The Mesozoic Paleography
Name
Date
Section 24.1 Mesozoic Paleography
Main Idea
The Breakup of
Pangaea
(continued)
Details
Complete the flow chart about the breakup of Pangaea.
built up underneath
Use with page 625.
.
Pangaea
The
and
.
of Pangaea
.
As large cracks widened,
spread apart and the
.
New
flooded the
divided newly separated
.
Active Tectonism
in Western North
America
Sketch an outline of North America. Identify which coast had a
passive margin and which coast had an active margin during the
Mesozoic Era.
Use with page 626.
The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Era
281
Name
Date
Section 24.1 Mesozoic Paleography
Main Idea
Active Tectonism
in Western North
America
Use with page 626.
(continued)
Details
Organize information about the three major episodes of orogenies
along the western margin of North America during the Mesozoic Era.
Orogeny Characteristics of
the Orogeny
Area of North
America
Affected
Era the
Orogeny
Took Place
Oldest
Orogeny
Seaways and
Sand Dunes
Summarize what happened to sea levels and how they affected
North America during each of the three periods in the Mesozoic Era.
Use with page 627.
1.
2.
3.
S YNTHESIZE
Conclude where in North America you may find the most
dinosaur fossils. Use information from “Seaways and Sand Dunes” to help you reach
your conclusion. Support your conclusion with evidence from your text.
282
Section 24.1 The Mesozoic Paleography
Name
Date
The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras
Section 24.2 Mesozoic Life
Main Idea
Details
Read the title of Section 2. List three things that might be discussed
in this section.
1.
2.
3.
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following terms.
modern fauna
angiosperm
dinosaur
Ornithischia
Saurischia
ectotherm
endotherm
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
dominate
The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Era
283
Name
Date
Section 24.2 Mesozoic Life
Main Idea
Life in the
Oceans
Use with page 629.
Life on the Land
Use with page 630.
(continued)
Details
Explain why the abundance of ammonite fossils indicates that they
were successful predators. Describe what a small number of fossils
of a species may indicate about that species’ predator abilities.
Identify the three types of plants that dominated the landscape of
the Jurassic Period.
Jurassic
plants
Compare the lower jaw, middle ear, and teeth of a reptile and a
mammal.
Reptile
Number of
Lower Jawbones
Number of
Earbones
Description of
Teeth
284
Section 24.2 Mesozoic Life
Mammal
Name
Date
Section 24.2 Mesozoic Life
Main Idea
Dinosaurs Rule
the Land
Use with pages 632–633.
(continued)
Details
Distinguish between Ornithischia and Saurischia dinosaurs by
writing each trait in the Venn diagram.
• bird-hipped
• ischium and pubis parallel
• “lizard-hipped”
• includes sauropods and theropods
• three bones made up hip
• all were herbivores
• ischium and pubis at an angle to one another
Ornithischia
Both
Saurishchia
Explain the connection between dinosaurs and birds.
Fossils of
that
and a
was a
therapod-like
Mass Extinctions
Use with page 634.
provide evidence
even though it had
and a
.
Summarize the three main pieces of evidence that indicate a meteorite impact caused the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction event.
1.
2.
3.
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Choose one animal living today that is
an endotherm and one that is an ectotherm. Describe each animal.
The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Era
285
Name
Date
The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras
Section 24.3 Cenozoic Paleogeography
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 3 of your text. Use the checklist below.
• Read all section titles.
• Read all bold words.
• Read all charts and graphs.
• Look at all the pictures and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about oceans.
Write three facts you discovered about Cenozoic paleogeography as
you scanned the section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
climate
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
Basin and Range
Province
Tethys Sea
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
coincide
286
Section 24.3 Cenozoic Paleography
Name
Date
Section 24.3 Cenozoic Paleogeography
Main Idea
The Ice Ages
Use with page 635.
(continued)
Details
Organize information about the Ice Ages by completing the concept
map below.
Middle-to-Late
Eocene
Oligocene
Early Miocene
Middle to Late
Miocene
Pliocene
Late Pliocene
through the
Pleistocene
List the three main points about the glaciation that occurred in
North America during the Ice Ages.
1.
2.
3.
The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Era
287
Name
Date
Section 24.3 Cenozoic Paleogeography
Main Idea
Tectonic Events
Use with pages 636–638.
(continued)
Details
Contrast the different mountain ranges that were formed and the
causes of their formation during the Cenozoic Era. Part of the
chart has been completed for you.
Mountains or Fault How Formed
Formed
subduction of an
oceanic plate beneath
the western coast of
North America
When Formed
end of
San Andreas Fault
Yellowstone National
Park
after the breakup
of Pangaea
A NALOGY
Describe how hands slowly squeezing air out of a ball or balloon
can be used as an analogy for the drying up of the Tethys Sea.
288
Section 24.3 Cenozoic Paleography
Name
Date
The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras
Cenozoic Life Section 24.4
Main Idea
Details
Read the objectives at the beginning of the section. Write three
questions you think may be answered in the section, based on the
objectives.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
fossil
New
Vocabulary
Read the definitions below, then write the term for each in the left
column.
group of primates, including hominids and the great apes
mammal that developed specialized traits, such as opposable
thumbs and two eyes directed forward, primarily because of
arboreal ancestry
species to which human beings belong
group of upright, bipedal primates, including Homo sapiens
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
survive
The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Era
289
Name
Date
Section 24.4 Cenozoic Life
Main Idea
Life on Land
Use with page 639.
(continued)
Details
Compare the landscape of the Paleocene and Eocene to the
landscape of the late Eocene and the landscape of the Oligocene.
Construct a cause-and-effect chart that shows the changes in
animals in North America during the Cenozoic Era. List causes in
the left column and effects in the right column. Remember that an
effect of one event may be a cause of another event. The first one
has been completed for you.
Cause
Forests gave way to open land.
Primates and
Humans
Use with page 640.
290
Effect
Grassy savannas grew.
Describe in your own words why discovering the relationship
between humans and other primates is so difficult. Explain why the
discovery of one fossil can change our understanding so dramatically.
Section 24.4 Cenozoic Life
Name
Date
Section 24.4 Cenozoic Life 12
Main Idea
Use with page 640.
(continued)
Details
Identify the traits of primates. Write a different trait in each circle
of the concept map.
Primate Traits
Contrast hominids with hominoids. Complete the graphic organizer
about their differences.
Hominids have:
Hominoids
Hominids also use:
and are
S YNTHESIZE
Classify Neandertals based on what you have learned in this
section. Tell whether they are hominoids, hominids, or Homo sapiens, or more than
one of these. Explain your reasoning.
The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Era
291
Name
Date
The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through the
chapter.
K
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
W
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for on this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of
each section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
After reading this chapter, describe three things you have learned
about the Cenozoic and Mesozoic Eras.
292
Chapter Wrap-Up
Name
Date
Earth Resources
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to
list three things you know about Earth resources. Then list three
questions you have about Earth resources in the “What I Want
to Find Out” column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think of the Discovery Lab you did to identify the origins of some common materials and
record your responses in this science journal.
Which of the items were identified as coming from living things? Which came from
nonliving things?
Which are easily replaced? Which are not replaceable?
What criteria did you use to classify each item? Were you unable to classify any items using
just these categories? Explain.
Earth Resources
293
Name
Date
Earth Resources
Section 25.1 What Are Resources?
Main Idea
Details
Skim Section 1. Look at the headings, photos, illustrations, and
captions. Write three questions you have about the information that
you think may be covered in this section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
water cycle
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
natural resource
renewable resource
sustainable yield
nonrenewable resource
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
transform
294
Section 25.1 What Are Resources?
Name
Date
Section 25.1 What Are Resources?
Main Idea
Natural
Resources
Use with page 655.
Renewable
Resources and
Nonrenewable
Resources
(continued)
Details
Organize information about natural resources using the information chart.
Natural Resources
Definition:
What are some examples?
How are they changed?
How can they be classified?
Describe renewable resources and nonrenewable resources in your
own words. Distinguish between the two, and give an example of
each one.
Use with page 656.
Identify a renewable resource that exists in an inexhaustible supply.
Earth Resources
295
Name
Date
Section 25.1 What Are Resources?
Main Idea
Renewable
Resources and
Nonrenewable
Resources
Use with page 656.
(continued)
Details
Classify each of the following resources as renewable or
nonrenewable.
• air
• fossil fuels
• phosphorus
• carbon
• gold
• silver
• copper
• natural gas
• solar energy
• diamonds
• nitrogen
• trees
• fertile soil
• all living things
• water
• gemstones
Renewable Resources
Distribution of
Resources
Nonrenewable Resources
Analyze the graph in Figure 25-4. Write a short paragraph comparing oil use per day in the United States to the rest of the world.
Use with page 657.
S YNTHESIZE
As fossil fuels like oil become depleted, what do you think will
happen to the price of the gasoline we use to power our cars? Explain your reasoning.
296
Section 25.1 What Are Resources?
Name
Date
Earth Resources
Section 25.2 Land Resources
Main Idea
Details
Read the title of Section 2. List three things that might be discussed
in this section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
moraine
New
Vocabulary
Read the definitions below, then write the term on the blank in the
left column.
naturally accumulating mixture of sand, gravel, and crushed stone
found in floodplains, alluvial fans, or glacial deposits
mineral that contains a valuable substance that can be mined at a
profit; natural resource that may be associated with igneous rocks
or formed by processes at Earth’s surface
material left after ore is extracted that may release harmful
chemicals into surface water or groundwater
process by which productive land becomes desert; in arid areas this
can occur through the loss of topsoil
unweathered, solid parent rock that may consist of limestone,
marble, granite, or other quarried rock
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
volume
Earth Resources
297
Name
Date
Section 25.2 Land Resources
Main Idea
Protected Land
Use with page 659.
(continued)
Details
Complete the sentences that discuss land as a natural resource.
Materials that are derived from land include
,
, and
,
,
. Land provides
places for humans and other
to
.
Much of the land in the United States is certified
These lands exist to protect
,
.
,
, and
.
National forests are managed for
areas where
are used for many purposes. The national
park system protects wildlife
national
. They include
and
refuges protect habitats and
wildlife. Some also provide protection for
Bedrock and
Aggregates
areas for
species.
Organize information about bedrock and aggregates in the chart.
Bedrock
Use with page 660.
What is it made of ?
How is it used?
298
. The
Section 25.2 Land Resources
Aggregate
Name
Date
Section 25.2 Land Resources
Main Idea
(continued)
Details
Ores
Complete the concept map by listing five ways that ores can form.
Use with pages 661–662.
How Ores Form
Other Land
Resources
Use with page 662.
Identify other land resources found on Earth. Describe one use for
each resource.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Using Land
Resources
Use with page 662.
Analyze the negative impacts of extracting land resources.
Choose one of the negative impacts and connect it to how it could
negatively impact you in your everyday life.
S YNTHESIZE
Hypothesize how the natural resources of an area influence the
type of housing that is constructed. Provide several examples.
Earth Resources
299
Name
Date
Earth Resources
Section 25.3 Air Resources
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 3 of your text. Use the checklist below.
• Read all section titles.
• Read all bold words.
• Read all charts and graphs.
• Look at all the pictures and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about air resources.
Write three facts you discovered about air resources as you scanned
the section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
global warming
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
pollutant
air pollution
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
transport
300
Section 25.3 Air Resources
Name
Date
Section 25.3 Air Resources
Main Idea
Origin of Oxygen
Use with page 664.
Disrupting
Earth’s Cycles
(continued)
Details
Sequence the events that led to oxygen becoming part of Earth’s
atmosphere.
Earth’s atmosphere contained carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and
water vapor.
Rains washed carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and into
the oceans.
Early life forms in the seas used carbon dioxide during
photosynthesis.
Oxygen levels in the atmosphere built up.
Earth cooled and became more solid.
Early life forms released oxygen and water vapor.
Complete the concept map by describing the pollutants released
into the air by humans that are disrupting Earth’s cycles.
Use with page 664.
Ways
Humans are
Disrupting Earth’s
Cycles
Sources of Air
Pollution
Classify sources of air pollution as coming from human or natural
origins.
Use with page 666.
Human Origins
Natural Origins
Earth Resources
301
Name
Date
Section 25.3 Air Resources
Main Idea
Sources of Air
Pollution
(continued)
Details
Explain the importance of having clean air.
Use with page 666.
Identify the four things that can happen to pollutants in the
troposphere.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Indoor Air
Pollution
Use with page 667.
Examine the indoor pollutants shown in Figure 25-15 of your text.
Describe which of the sources of pollutants can be easily eliminated
from a house. Explain your reasoning.
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
to improve air quality in your area.
302
Section 25.3 Air Resources
Sketch a picture of one thing you can do
Name
Date
Earth Resources
Section 25.4 Water Resources
Main Idea
Details
Read the objectives for Section 3. Restate each objective as a question.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
molecule
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
desalination
Use “desalination” in a sentence that shows its meaning.
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
displace
Earth Resources
303
Name
Date
Section 25.4 Water Resources
Main Idea
The Importance
of Water
Use with page 669.
(continued)
Details
Complete the graphic organizer about the importance of water.
How are
oceans
important?
How is
freshwater
important?
Why is
water
important to
organisms?
Describe four desirable properties of water.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Location of
Freshwater
Resources
Compare the major uses of freshwater in areas of the United States
that receive a lot of precipitation to the major uses of freshwater in
areas of the United States that receive little precipitation.
Use with page 670.
304
Section 25.4 Water Resources
Name
Date
Section 25.4 Water Resources
Main Idea
Use of
Freshwater
Resources
(continued)
Details
Infer from the bar graph in Figure 25-21 on page 672 which
continent likely receives the most rainfall. Explain your reasoning.
Use with pages 671–672.
Managing
Freshwater
Resources
Complete the graphic organizer about managing freshwater
resources.
Managing Freshwater Resources
Use with pages 672–675.
Identify ways humans can reduce the need for freshwater
resources.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
A NALOGY
Construct an analogy between the drawdown of groundwater from
an aquifer and the drawdown of a glass of water using drinking straws. Explain your
reasoning.
Earth Resources
305
Name
Date
Earth Resources
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through the
chapter.
K
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
W
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of
each section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
After reading this chapter, describe three things you have learned
about Earth resources.
306
Chapter Wrap-Up
Name
Date
Energy Resources
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about energy resources. Then list three
questions you have about energy resources in the “What I Want to
Find Out” column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think about the Discovery Lab you did to observe a type of energy transfer that occurs
every day and record your response in this science journal.
Trace the energy source used to bring the water to a boil back to its origin. Describe what
happened to the energy as it was used to heat and boil the water. In your description,
include an explanation of the source of most energy on Earth. Infer where the energy went
when the water began to boil.
Energy Resources
307
Name
Date
Energy Resources
Section 26.1 Conventional Energy Resources
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 1 of your text. Use the checklist below.
• Read all section titles.
• Read all bold words.
• Read all charts and graphs.
• Look at all the pictures and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about conventional energy
resources.
Write three facts you discovered about conventional energy
resources as you scanned the section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
fossil
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
fuel
peat
fossil fuel
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
subsequent
308
Section 26.1 Conventional Energy Resources
Name
Date
Section 26.1 Energy Resources
Main Idea
Transfer of Solar
Energy
(continued)
Details
Identify the ultimate source of most energy on Earth.
Use with page 683.
Complete the graphic organizer about the flow of solar energy
in an ecosystem. In the circles, give an example of that type of
organism in an ecosystem.
Energy
flows from
to
Traditional
Sources of
Energy
to
Identify traditional fuels. Give an example of each type of fuel
whenever possible.
Use with page 684.
Traditional
Fuels
Energy Resources
309
Name
Date
Section 26.1 Energy Resources
Main Idea
Fossil Fuels
Use with page 687.
(continued)
Details
List and describe the four main types of fossil fuels.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Sequence the steps involved in the formation of coal in the
graphic organizer. Some of the steps have been completed for you.
When these plants died, the organic material settled to the
bottom of the swamp.
This compressed organic matter became coal.
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Explain how the energy you use to cook
your food at home originated from the Sun. Describe how the fuel you use was formed.
310
Section 26.1 Conventional Energy Resources
Name
Date
Energy Resources
Section 26.2 Alternative Energy Resources
Main Idea
Details
Skim through Section 2 of your text. Write three questions
that come to mind from reading the headings and the illustration
captions.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
electron
New
Vocabulary
Read the definitions below, then write the key term on the blank
in the left column.
biomass fuel that is a mixture of gasoline and ethanol and can be
used in conventional gasoline engines
thin, transparent wafers that convert sunlight into electric energy and
are made up of layers of boron- and phosphorus-enriched silicon
biomass fuel that is a mixture of gases, primarily methane,
produced when plant and animal wastes are acted on by anaerobic
bacteria in a digester
energy produced from Earth’s own internal steam and hot water
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
rely
Energy Resources
311
Name
Date
Section 26.2 Alternative Energy Resources
Main Idea
Solar Energy
Use with page 690.
Energy from
Water
Use with page 692.
Geothermal
Energy
(continued)
Details
Compare how solar energy is collected and used in passive solar
heating and in active solar heating.
Sequence the steps used in producing hydroelectric power.
The generator produces electric energy.
The water turns the turbines.
The turbines produce mechanical energy.
Water from a waterfall is diverted into massive turbines.
The mechanical energy drives a generator.
Analyze the photo in Figure 26-13. Describe why people are able to
bathe in the water even though it is cold outside.
Use with page 693.
Wind Energy
Use with page 693.
Complete the flow chart to show how a windmill turns wind
energy into usable energy.
energy
Nuclear Energy
Use with page 695.
312
energy
energy
Analyze how the two major nuclear accidents affected the growth
of the use of nuclear energy.
Section 26.2 Alternative Energy Resources
Name
Date
Section 26.2 Alternative Energy Resources
Main Idea
Biomass
Use with page 696.
(continued)
Details
List and describe the three types of biomass fuels.
1.
2.
3.
Energy from Oil
Shale and Tar
Sand
Summarize how tar sand is processed.
Use with page 697.
Identify a major advantage and a major disadvantage of each
alternative energy resource.
Energy Resource
Major Advantage
Major
Disadvantage
S YNTHESIZE
Justify the advantages of one of the alternative energy resources
over its disadvantages.
Energy Resources
313
Name
Date
Energy Resources
Section 26.3 Conservation of Energy Resources
Main Idea
Details
Read the objectives on the first page of Section 3. Restate each
objective as a question that will be answered with information from
the section.
1.
2.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
renewable resource
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
energy efficiency
cogeneration
sustainable energy
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
conclude
314
Section 26.3 Conservation of Energy Resources
Name
Date
Section 26.3 Conservation of Energy Resources
Main Idea
Energy Efficiency
Use with page 698.
(continued)
Details
Examine the graphs in Figure 26-18. Write three questions that can
be answered with information from the graphs. Write the answers
to each question.
1. Question:
Answer:
2. Question:
Answer:
3. Question:
Answer:
Use with page 700.
Complete the concept map about ways energy efficiency can be
improved.
buy
, more
old
appliances and
vehicles
models
companies
dependence
on
Ways to
Improve Energy
Efficiency
improve
efficiency of
older
add
install
panels
install new
buy new energy
efficient
government
offer
fund
savings
Energy Resources
315
Name
Date
Section 26.3 Conservation of Energy Resources
Main Idea
(continued)
Details
Getting More
for Less
Use with pages 700–702.
Classify information about improving efficiency in transportation,
industry, and at home. List as many things as you can under each
heading that can be done to conserve energy.
Transportation
Industry
At Home
Sustainable
Energy
Use with page 703.
A NALOGY
Restate the four key parts of a good plan for global management
of Earth’s natural resources to meet current and future energy
needs without causing environmental damage.
1.
3.
2.
4.
Develop an analogy to explain why it is important to conserve energy
resources.
316
Section 26.3 Conservation of Energy Resources
Name
Date
Tie-It-All-Together
Predict what the main source of fuel in the world will
be 100 years from now. Explain your reasoning.
F URTHER I NQUIRY
Connect If you had to choose an alternative energy resource to develop into an energy
resource to be used by the whole United States, which would you choose? Explain your
reasoning.
Develop a model to collect solar energy near your home. Draw a sketch of your idea and
explain how it works.
Energy Resources
317
Name
Date
Energy Resources
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through the
chapter.
K
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
W
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of
each section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
After reading this chapter, describe three things you have learned
about energy resources.
318
Chapter Wrap-Up
Name
Date
Human Impact on Earth Resources
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to
list three things you know about human impact on the Earth’s
resources. Then list three questions you have about it in the
“What I Want to Find Out” column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think of the Discovery Lab you did to explore the types of resources that you use and some
of the global impacts of using them and record your response in this science journal.
How many different resources are represented by the items in your collection?
What are the percentages of renewable and nonrenewable resources?
Where were each of the objects made?
Human Impact on Earth Resources
319
Name
Date
Human Impact on Earth Resources
Section 27.1 Populations and the Use of Natural Resources
Main Idea
Details
Skim Section 1 of your text. Look at the headings, photos,
illustrations, and captions. Write three questions you have about
the information you think may be covered in this section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
natural resource
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
exponential growth
carrying capacity
density independent
factor
density dependent
factor
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
initial
320
Section 27.1 Populations and the Use of Natural Resources
Name
Date
Section 27.1 Populations and the Use of Natural Resources
(continued)
Main Idea
Resources and
Organisms
Use with page 655.
Details
Identify the four main resources that organisms need.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Describe three ways humans alter their environment.
Resources and
Population
Growth
Explain how as a population increases, its demand for natural
resources increases as well.
Use with page 713.
Draw a typical population curve for a population that is
experiencing exponential growth.
Human Impact on Earth Resources
321
Name
Date
Section 27.1 Populations and the Use of Natural Resources
(continued)
Main Idea
Limits to
Population
Growth
Use with pages 713–714.
Details
Describe what happens to the number of births compared to the
number of deaths in the following populations.
A population below
carrying capacity
A population at carrying
capacity
A population that exceeds
carrying capacity
Classify factors that affect population growth as either densitydependent factors or density-independent. Draw a circle for each
factor you add.
Densitydependent
factors
Human
Population
Growth
Environmental
Limits
Densityindependent
factors
Identify the stage that human population growth on Earth is at—
early, middle, or late. Explain your reasoning.
Use with page 715.
S YNTHESIZE
Describe what would have to happen for the human population
on Earth to continue to grow exponentially. Explain why this is impossible.
322
Section 27.1 Populations and the Use of Natural Resources
Name
Date
Human Impact on Earth Resources
Section 27.2 Human Impact on Land Resources
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 2 of your text. Use the checklist below as a guide.
• Read all section titles.
• Read all bold words.
• Read all tables and graphs.
• Look at all the pictures and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about human impact on land
resources.
Write three facts you discovered about land resources as you
scanned the section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
wetland
New
Vocabulary
In the left margin, write the terms defined below.
use of organisms to clean up toxic waste
biological diversity of an ecosystem, which is determined by the
variety of species of plants and animals
process in which a mining company restores land used during
mining operations to its original contours and replants vegetation
removal of trees from a forested area without adequate replanting,
often using clear-cutting, which may result in loss of topsoil and
water pollution
planting of a single plant species, such as corn or wheat, in a field
Human Impact on Earth Resources
323
Name
Date
Section 27.2 Human Impact on Land Resources
Main Idea
Extraction of
Mineral
Resources
Use with page 716.
(continued)
Details
Explain the environmental impacts of each type of mineral
extraction.
Surface Mining
Underground Mining
Agriculture
Use with page 718.
Organize the information about the advantages, problems, and
solutions associated with agriculture and forestry.
Advantages
Monoculture
Pesticides
Topsoil
Forestry
324
Section 27.2 Human Impact on Land Resources
Problems
Solutions
Name
Date
Section 27.2 Human Impact on Land Resources
Main Idea
Urban
Development
Use with pages 721–723.
(continued)
Details
Illustrate the many ways urban growth impacts the environment.
Label each part of your drawing to identify the specific impact
shown in that part of your drawing.
Identify two methods for cleaning up industrial toxic-waste and
briefly describe each.
1.
2.
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Develop a plan for your family to create
less solid waste each day. Explain ways you could change your habits to eliminate
some of that solid waste.
Human Impact on Earth Resources
325
Name
Date
Human Impact on Earth Resources
Section 27.3 Human Impact on Air Resources
Main Idea
Details
Consider the title of Section 3 of your text. List three things that
might be discussed in this section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
atmosphere
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
smog
ozone
global warming
acid precipitation
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
detect
326
Section 27.3 Human Impact on Air Resources
Name
Date
Section 27.3 Human Impact on Air Resources
Main Idea
Use with page 724.
(continued)
Details
Identify three air pollutants that combine to produce ground-level
ozone and four types of air pollution in the form of particulate
matter.
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
4.
Global Impacts of
Air Pollution
Compare and Contrast global warming and the greenhouse
effect. Describe how they are similar and different.
Use with pages 725–726.
Sequence the order of reactions that occur as CFCs cause ozone
depletion. One of the steps has been completed for you.
The chlorine atom bonds with an oxygen atom,
leaving a molecule of oxygen gas.
Human Impact on Earth Resources
327
Name
Date
Section 27.3 Human Impact on Air Resources
Main Idea
Acid
Precipitation
Use with pages 727–728.
Reducing Air
Pollution
Use with page 728.
(continued)
Details
Organize the causes and effects of acid precipitation.
Causes of Acid Precipitation
Effects of Acid Precipitation
Identify five ways air pollution has been or can be reduced.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
A NALOGY
Formulate an analogy you can use to explain the greenhouse effect
to a group of younger students. Think about how the greenhouse effect warms Earth
and what kind of experiment could be used to show this.
328
Section 27.3 Human Impact on Air Resources
Name
Date
Human Impact on Earth Resources
Section 27.4 Human Impact on Water Resources
Main Idea
Details
Preview Section 4 of your text. Read the headings and captions of
photographs and illustrations. Write three questions you think may
be answered by the information in this section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
pollutant
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
point source
nonpoint source
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
generate
Human Impact on Earth Resources
329
Name
Date
Section 27.4 Human Impact on Water Resources
Main Idea
Use of Water in
the United States
Use with page 730.
(continued)
Details
Analyze the graph in Figure 27-23. Construct two questions that
can be answered by information in the graph. Write answers for the
questions.
1. Question:
Answer:
2. Question:
Answer:
Water Pollution
Use with page 730.
Contrast point sources of water pollution and nonpoint sources of
water pollution. Give an example of each.
Describe the causes and effects of different types of water pollution.
Causes
Pollution of
Groundwater
Pollution in
Oceans
330
Section 27.4 Human Impact on Water Resources
Effects
Name
Date
Section 27.4 Human Impact on Water Resources
Main Idea
Reducing Water
Pollution
Use with page 732.
(continued)
Details
Describe the two laws passed in the United States to fight water
pollution. Explain the purpose of each law and describe how each
law is working.
1.
2.
Water
Conservation
Identify ways to conserve water. In each box, list ways water can
be conserved in each of those areas.
Use with page 732.
Ways to Conserve Water
Irrigation
Industry
In the home
S YNTHESIZE
Create a journal entry about how you used water today. Also
include an explanation of how you conserved water today.
Today I used water to...
Human Impact on Earth Resources
331
Name
Date
Human Impact on Earth Resources Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through the
chapter.
K
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
W
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of
each section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
After reading this chapter, describe three things you have learned
about how humans impact Earth resources.
332
Chapter Wrap-Up
Name
Date
The Sun-Earth-Moon System
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about the Sun-Earth-Moon system. Then list
three questions you have about this system in the “What I Want to
Find Out” column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think about the Discovery Lab you did to compare relative sizes and distances within the
Sun-Earth-Moon system and record your response in this science journal.
Describe the sizes of your cutout Earth and Moon compared to the distance between them.
Infer why you were not instructed to cut out a scaled Sun and place it at the scaled distance.
How would you change this model so that it would fit in your classroom?
The Sun-Earth-Moon System
333
Name
Date
The Sun-Earth-Moon System
Section 28.1 The Tools of Astronomy
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 1 of your text. Use the checklist below as a guide.
• Read all section titles.
• Read all bold words.
• Look at all the pictures and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about the tools of
astronomy.
Write three facts you discovered about the tools that scientists use to
observe objects in space.
1.
2.
3.
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
refracting telescope
reflecting telescope
interferometry
spinoff
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
adapt
334
Section 28.1 The Tools of Astronomy
Name
Date
Section 28.1 Tools of Astronomy
Main Idea
Radiation
Use with page 748.
(continued)
Details
Sequence each type of electromagnetic radiation by order of
decreasing wavelength. Then write one fact about each type of
electromagnetic radiation in the space to the right.
Gamma rays:
Infrared radiation:
Microwaves:
Radio waves:
Ultraviolet radiation:
Visible light:
X-rays:
Telescopes
Use with page 748.
Identify the major benefits of telescopes by completing the graphic
organizer below.
Four major
benefits of
telescopes
Sketch how a magnifying glass collects light and brings it to a
focus. Refer to Figure 28-2 for help.
The Sun-Earth-Moon System
335
Name
Date
Section 28.1 Tools of Astronomy
Main Idea
Satellites,
Probes, and
Space-Based
Astronomy
Use with pages 751–752.
(continued)
Details
Classify Complete the chart by writing telescope, satellite, or
robot beside its description. Then give two examples of each.
Description
Observes wavelengths
blocked by Earth’s
atmosphere
Object
Two examples
Collects light from a
distant object and
focuses it at a point.
Collects objects from
other planets
Describe one advantage that space stations have over the space
shuttle when studying the effects of space.
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Payload is the term astronomers use to
describe all the equipment a satellite needs to do its job. Infer from the information in
your textbook what kinds of equipment might be on the Hubble Space Telescope.
336
Section 28.1 The Tools of Astronomy
Name
Date
The Sun-Earth-Moon System
Section 28.2 The Moon
Main Idea
Details
Consider the title of Section 2. List three things that might be discussed in this section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
interferometry
New
Vocabulary
In the left margin, write the terms defined below.
1. the amount of sunlight that the surface of the Moon reflects
2. mountainous regions of the Moon
3. dark, smooth plains of the Moon
4. craters that formed when objects from space crashed onto the
Moon’s surface
5. material that blasted out of the moon’s surface and fell back to
the surface
6. long trails of ejecta
7. Structures that resemble valleys
8. Loose, ground up rock on the surface of the moon
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
unique
The Sun-Earth-Moon System
337
Name
Date
Section 28.2 The Moon
Main Idea
Reaching for
the Moon
Use with page 753.
Details
Create a time line of the following developments in Moon
exploration. Be sure to mark the year that each development
took place.
• Alan B. Shepard Jr. becomes first American in space.
• The Soviet Union launches Sputnik I.
• Apollo 11 lands on the Moon.
• Yuri A. Gagarin becomes first human in space.
• Plans for a crewed lunar expedition begin.
Use with page 753.
Describe four unique features of Earth’s moon.
1.
2.
3.
4.
338
Section 28.2 The Moon
Name
Date
Section 28.2 The Moon
Main Idea
Use with page 754.
Details
Organize the characteristics of Earth and the Moon in the Venn
diagram.
• has an average albedo of about 7 percent
• has an average albedo of about 31 percent erosion
• mineral make up is mostly silicates
• surface has not been altered by erosion
• has no flowing water
• has very few craters
Moon
Earth
Both
altered by erosion
History of the
Moon
Use with page 757.
Sequence the stages in the process of the impact theory.
Material merged together to form the Moon.
The impact threw material from the body and Earth into space.
A mars-sized body collided with Earth.
Point out one piece of evidence that supports the idea of the
impact theory.
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Consider the following statement: The
study of Earth’s surface provides us with a more accurate history of our solar system
than the Moon’s surface. Explain why you agree or disagree with this statement.
The Sun-Earth-Moon System
339
Name
Date
The Sun-Earth-Moon System
Section 28.3 The Sun-Earth-Moon System
Main Idea
Details
Read the title of Section 3. List three things that might be discussed
in this section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
rilles
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
summer solstice
winter solstice
autumnal equinox
vernal equinox
solar eclipse
lunar eclipse
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
distribute
340
Section 28.3 The Sun-Earth-Moon System
Name
Date
Section 28.3 The Sun-Earth-Moon System
Main Idea
Daily Motions
Use with page 758.
Details
Complete the flow chart below to show how a Focault pendulum
demonstrates that Earth is rotating.
1. The pendulum swings in a constant direction.
2.
3.
Sketch your own example of the Coriolis effect using air flow. Be
sure to label your sketch and use arrows to indicate air direction.
Briefly explain your work in the lines below.
Annual Motions
Use with page 759.
Describe the tilt of Earth’s axis during winter and summer in the
northern hemisphere.
winter
summer
The Sun-Earth-Moon System
341
Name
Date
Section 3 The Sun-Earth-Moon System
Main Idea
Phases of
the Moon
Use with page 763.
Details
Sequence the phases of the moon as it orbits Earth. The first
phase has been done for you.
first quarter
waning crescent
full moon
waning gibbous
1 new moon
third quarter
Solar and Lunar
Eclipses
Use with page 765.
waxing crescent
waxing gibbous
Identify the eclipses below as either solar or lunar. Then label Earth,
the Moon, the Sun, the umbra, and the penumbra in each figure.
Eclipse
Eclipse
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Hypothesize the effect there would be on
the tides if Earth’s and the Moon’s rotations were not synchronous.
342
Section 28.3 The Sun-Earth-Moon System
Name
Date
Tie-It-All-Together
Relate how you think the phrase “the dark side of the
Moon” originated.
F URTHER I NQUIRY
Compare the Moon’s properties with the properties of one other planet in our solar system.
How are they different? How are they the same?
Design a page for a middle school science book describing the Moon’s effect on Earth’s tides.
Explain in simple terms how the Moon effects the tides. Include a sketch with labels and a
caption. Share your page with the class.
The Sun-Earth-Moon System
343
Name
Date
The Sun-Earth-Moon System
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through the
chapter.
W
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
L
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of
each section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
After reading this chapter, list three things you have learned
about Earth, the Sun, and the Moon.
344
Chapter Wrap-Up
Name
Date
Our Solar System
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about fossils. Then list three questions you
have about fossils in the “What I Want to Find Out” column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think about the Discovery Lab you did to learn about space missions and their discoveries
and record your responses in this science journal.
Make an outline for each mission. Include the type of mission (flyby, lander, or orbiter),
the scientific goals, the launch date and the date of arrival at the planet, and a summary
of what was learned, or what scientists hope will be learned.
Our Solar System
345
Name
Date
Our Solar System
Section 29.1 Overview of Our Solar System
Main Idea
Details
Skim Section 1 of your text. Focus on the headings and the
illustration captions. List three topics that might be discussed in this
section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
maria
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
retrograde motion
astronomical unit
perihelion
aphelion
eccentricity
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
focus
346
Section 29.1 Overview of Our Solar System
Name
Date
Section 29.1 Overview of Our Solar System
Main Idea
Early Ideas
Use with pages 775–778.
(continued)
Details
Compare the geocentric model with the heliocentric model using
the table.
Geocentric Model
Description:
Heliocentric Model
Description:
Identify six early ideas about planetary motion.
Early ideas
about planetary
motion
Confirm Kepler’s second law using Mercury, which has an orbital
period of about 0.24 and a semimajor axis of about 0.387. Explain
your findings.
Our Solar System
347
Name
Date
Section 29.1 Overview of Our Solar System
Main Idea
Gravity and
Orbits
Use with page 779.
(continued)
Details
Explain Newton’s law of universal gravitation by completing the
following sentence.
Every pair of bodies in the universe
with a
each other
that is proportional to the
their masses and inversely
of
to the square of the
distance between them.
Illustrate the center of mass using two people on a see-saw, where
one person is much heavier than the other. Be sure to include the
balance point in your sketch. Refer to Figure 29-5 on page 779 for
help.
Compare the masses of two people on a see-saw if the balance
point is near the middle of the see-saw. Explain your reasoning.
A NALOGY
Relate how one car passing another car on a highway might be
similar to the retrograde motion of planets.
348
Section 29.1 Overview of Our Solar System
Name
Date
Our Solar System
Section 29.2 The Terrestrial Planets
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 2 of your text. Use the checklist below as a guide.
• Read all section titles.
• Read all bold words.
• Read all tables.
• Look at all the photos of each planet and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about Mercury, Venus, Mars,
and Earth.
Write three facts you discovered about Mercury, Venus, Mars, and
Earth as you scanned the section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
interferometry
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the each term.
aphelion
terrestrial planets
gas giant planet
precession
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
similar
Our Solar System
349
Name
Date
Section 29.2 The Terrestrial Planets
Main Idea
Mercury, Venus,
Earth, Mars
(continued)
Details
Describe four characteristics of Venus using the graphic organizer.
Use with pages 780–785.
Venus
Compare the features of the terrestrial planets by completing the
table below.
Feature
Relative
position
from the Sun
Size
Atmosphere
Weather
Surface
# of moons
350
Section 29.2 The Terrestrial Planets
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Name
Date
Section 29.2 The Terrestrial Planets
Main Idea
Mercury, Venus,
Earth, and Mars
Use with pages 780–785.
(continued)
Details
Describe Mercury by completing the following sentences.
Unlike Earth, Mercury has little
made up of mostly
to the
and
. What does exist is
. Mercury’s surface is similar
surface because it is covered with craters and plains.
The surface gravity is
than that of the Moon. The
of Mercury suggests the planet has a large
core.
Identify three reasons why life can exist on Earth.
1.
2.
3.
Create a postcard describing the atmosphere and the surface
of Mars. Imaging that you are visiting Mars and sending your
postcard to a friend at home.
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Hypothesize what conditions on the terrestrial planets would be like today if their atmospheres had been warmer and richer
in carbon dioxide.
Our Solar System
351
Name
Date
Our Solar System
Section 29.3 The Gas Giant Planets
Main Idea
Details
Consider the title of Section 3. List three topics that might be
discussed in this section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
Synchronous rotation
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the each term.
liquid metallic
hydrogen
belt
zone
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
hypothesize
352
Section 29.3 The Gas Giant Planets
Name
Date
Section 29.3 The Gas Giant Planets
Main Idea
(continued)
Details
Jupiter
Use with page 786.
Compare the four largest moons of Jupiter by completing the table.
State at least three facts about each moon.
Io
Saturn
Use with page 788.
Europa
Callisto
Describe Saturn’s rings by completing the following paragraph.
Saturn’s rings are composed of pieces of
that range from
are
and
to the size of
. There
major rings, but each ring is actually made up of
narrower rings, called
Uranus and
Neptune
Ganymede
, and many open
.
Examine Figures 29-21B and 29-23 in your book. Then fill in the
missing information below.
Use with page 789.
Uranus
CH4
Neptune
%
CH4
%
He
%
He
%
H2
%
H2
%
Our Solar System
353
Name
Date
Section 29.3 The Gas Giant Planets
Main Idea
(continued)
Details
Use with page 789.
Describe several characteristics of each planets atmosphere and
moons and rings.
Uranus
Neptune
Atmosphere
Moons and Rings
Pluto
Use with page 791.
Identify five unique characteristics of Pluto.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
There is a possibility that Europa, one
of Jupiter’s moons, may have oceans. Astronomers already know that Europa has a variety
of basic chemicals and a source of heat energy. Assess the possibility that life may have
developed on Europa. Explain your reasoning.
354
Section 29.3 The Gas Giant Planets
Name
Date
Our Solar System
Section 29.4 Formation of Our Solar System
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 4 of your text. Use the checklist below to preview.
• Read all section titles.
• Read all bold words.
• Read all tables and graphs.
• Look at all the pictures and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about how the formation of
our solar system.
Write three facts you learned about the formation of our solar
system as you scanned the section.
1.
2.
3.
New
Vocabulary
In the left margin, write the terms defined below.
space object built of solid particles
bodies that orbit the Sun within the planetary orbits
interplanetary material that falls toward Earth and enters Earth’s
atmosphere
streak of light produced as a meteoroid burns up in Earth’s
atmosphere
meteoroid that strikes Earth’s surface
small, orbiting body made of rock and ice
glowing gas that forms when a comet’s nucleus is heated
small, solid core of a comet
occurs when comet particles burn up entering Earth’s upper
atmosphere
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
eventual
Our Solar System
355
Name
Date
Section 29.4 Formation of Our Solar System
Main Idea
A Collapsing
Interstellar Cloud
Use with page 793.
Sun and Planet
Formation
(continued)
Details
Sequence the events of a collapsing interstellar cloud. The first
one has been done for you.
The cloud becomes denser at the center.
Rotation slows and the cloud flattens
The cloud spins faster and faster.
The cloud becomes a rotating disk.
1 The collapse of the cloud begins to accelerate.
Compare the formation and composition of the planets in the data
table below. Refer to Figure 29-28 for help.
Use with page 795.
Planet
Temperature
Range (K) at
Formation
0 – 100
Uranus
Jupiter
Distance from
Sun (AU)
Composition
about 30
Ices
about 10
Ices
about 1
Iron
0 – ~150
200 – 400
Mars
400 – 1000
Venus
356
Section 29.4 Formation of Our Solar System
Name
Date
Section 29.4 Formation of Our Solar System
Main Idea
Asteroids
Use with page 795.
(continued)
Details
Identify the events that are associated with the formation of a
meteorite by filling in the blanks below.
orbit, collide, and break into fragments.
These fragments enter Earth’s atmosphere and become
.
Meteoroids burn up in Earth’s atmosphere, producing a streak
of light called a
.
If the meteoroid does not completely burn up, part of it will
collide with the ground and is then called a
.
Comets
Use with page 797.
Sketch a comet in the space below. Label the nucleus, coma, and
tail.
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Draw a time line starting 4.6 billion
years ago. Indicate the times of the formation of Earth and the Moon, the appearance
of oceans on Earth, and the beginnings of life on Earth. Explain what you notice about
the location of these events.
Our Solar System
357
Name
Date
Our Solar System
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through the
chapter.
K
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
W
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
photos.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of
each section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
After reading this chapter, list three things you have learned
about our solor system.
358
Chapter Wrap-Up
Name
Date
Stars
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about stars. Then list three questions you
have about stars in the “What I Want to Find Out” column.
K
What I Know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think of the Discovery Lab you did to monitor the Sun and record your response in this
science journal.
Is the sun near the peak of its activity cycle?
Do the solar images that you observed fit with your expectation of where the Sun is in its
activity cycle? Compare and contrast the images obtained at different wavelengths.
Stars
359
Name
Date
Stars
Section 30.1 The Sun
Main Idea
Details
Skim Section 1 of your text. Write three questions that come to
mind from reading the headings and the illustration captions.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
perihelion
New
Vocabulary
In the left margin, write the terms defined below.
the lowest visible layer of the Sun’s atmosphere and the surface of
the Sun
layer of the Sun’s atmosphere above the photosphere and below the
corona
top layers of the Sun’s atmosphere
a stream of high-speed, ionized particles flowing outward through
the solar system from the Sun's corona
relatively cool, dark spots appearing on the surface of the
photosphere
a sudden eruption of particles and radiation from the surface of
the Sun
an arc of flaming gas rising from the chromosphere
a nuclear reaction in which lightweight nuclei combine into heavier
nuclei
a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus splits into smaller,
lighter nuclei releasing energy
visible light arranged according to wavelengths
360
Section 30.1 The Sun
Name
Date
Section 30.1 The Sun
Main Idea
Properties of the
Sun
(continued)
Details
Identify four unique characteristics of the Sun.
Use with page 805.
The Sun
The Sun’s
Atmosphere
State three facts about each layer of the Sun’s atmosphere in the
table below.
Use with page 806.
Photosphere
Chromosphere
Corona
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
3.
3.
3.
Stars
361
Name
Section 30.1 The Sun
Date
(continued)
Main Idea
Solar Activity
Use with page 808.
Details
Sequence the solar activity cycle by completing the flow chart.
1. The Sun’s magnetic field reverses in polarity.
2.
3.
4. The magnetic field returns to its original polarity.
The Solar Interior
Use with page 811.
Analyze Figure 30-7 in your text. Make your own sketch of a cross
section of the Sun. Label the following in your sketch:
• the core
• radiation
• the radioactive zone
• convection
• the convective zone
362
Section 30.1 The Sun
Name
Date
Section 30.1 The Sun
Main Idea
Spectra
Use with page 811.
(continued)
Details
Compare continuous, emission, and absorption spectra. Write each
characteristic in the correct location in the diagram below.
• appears as bright lines
• has no breaks in spectrum
• appears as a series of dark
bands
• produced by a solid, liquid, or
gas
• comes from a non-compressed
gas
• visible light arranged by
wavelength
Emission
Continuous
All
non-compressed
Absorbtion
Solar
Composition
Use with page 812.
Explain solar composition by completing the sentence.
The Sun consists of
and
,
, about
percent by mass,
percent, as well as a small amount of other
.
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
Hypothesize how the planets would be
affected if the Sun did not make up more than 99% of the mass of the entire solar system.
Stars
363
Name
Date
Stars
Section 30.2 Measuring the Stars
Main Idea
Details
Consider the objectives on the first page of the section. Write three
questions you think may be answered in the section based on the
objectives.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
astronomical unit
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
constellation
binary star
parallax
apparent magnitude
absolute magnitude
luminosity
Hertzsprung-Russell
diagram
main sequence
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
isolate
364
Section 30.2 Measuring the Stars
Name
Date
Section 30.2 Measuring the Stars
Main Idea
Groups of Stars
Use with page 813.
(continued)
Details
Organize information about star clusters by completing the
diagram below.
Star clusters are
or
either
clusters
clusters
because
the stars
because
the stars
are not
packed
Basic Properties
of Stars
Use with pages 815–816.
are densely packed
into a
shape
Identify the six basic properties that scientists use to categorize
stars.
1.
4.
2.
5.
3.
6.
Sequence the celestial objects in order of increasing absolute
magnitude. The first one has been done for you.
1
Sirius
most luminous galaxies
most luminous stars
Uranus
Pluto
Venus
Sun
Full moon
Stars
365
Name
Date
Section 30.2 Measuring the Stars
Main Idea
Spectra of Stars
Use with pages 817–818.
(continued)
Details
Write review question related to the classification of stars. Then
write a second review question related to wavelength shifts. Give
the answer to each of your questions.
1. Question:
Answer:
2. Question:
Answer:
Analyze Figure 30-17 in your text. Describe the general characteristics of stars found in different locations on the H-R diagram. The
first one has been done for you.
Upper-left corner Upper right-corner
large, hot and
luminous
S UM M ARIZE
In your own words, summarize how scientists calculate distances from
Earth to stars.
366
Lower-left corner
Section 30.2 Measuring the Stars
Name
Date
Stars
Section 30.3 Stellar Evolution
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 3 of your text. Use the checklist below to preview.
• Read all section titles.
• Read all bold words.
• Read all tables and graphs.
• Look at all the pictures and read their captions.
• Think about what you already know about stellar evolution.
Write three facts you discovered about stellar evolution as you
scanned the section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
In the left magrgin, write the terms defined below.
a cloud of interstellar dust or gas or both, which collapses on itself
as a result of its own gravity
the hot condensed disk-shaped object at the center of a collapsing
star
collapsed, dense core of a star that forms quickly while its outer
layers are falling inward
massive explosion that occurs when the outer layers of a star are
blown off
small, extremely dense remnant of a star whose gravity is so
immense that not even light can escape its gravity field
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
dynamic
Stars
367
Name
Date
Section 30.3 Stellar Evolution
Main Idea
Basic Structure
of Stars
Use with page 821.
Stellar Evolution
and Life Cycles
(continued)
Details
What if you were explaining hydrostatic equilibrium to a middle
school student. Draw a diagram in the space below, that you could
use to illustrate the concept then write a brief explanation.
Sequence the steps in the formation of a star by completing the
flow chart.
Use with page 822.
The cloud’s rotation
forces it into a disk
shape, with a hot
condensed object at the
center called a protostar.
368
Section 30.3 Stellar Evolution
Name
Date
Section 30.3 Stellar Evolution
Main Idea
The Sun’s Life
Cycle
Use with page 822.
Life Cycles of
Massive Stars
Use with page 824.
(continued)
Details
Sequence the steps in the life cycle of the Sun.
converts hydrogen into helium in its core
star contracts back to normal size and becomes stable
As the core runs out of hydrogen and then helium, the core
contacts and the outer layers expand, cool, and become less
bright.
Stars are born in nebulae.
outer layers expand again and are driven off entirely leaving a
planetary nebula
the star becomes a red giant, the core becomes hot enough
for the core to become carbon
the core becomes exposed and is a white dwarf
the star loses gas from its outer layers
Huge clouds of dust and gas collapse under gravitational
forces, forming protostars.
Compare the evolution of a massive star with the evolution of the
Sun. Write each description in the correct place in the Venn diagram.
• begins as a nebula
• loses less of its mass
• becomes a red giant once
• loses much of its mass
• becomes a red giant several times • more reaction phases
• fewer reaction phases
Massive Star
The Sun
Both
A NALOGY
Compare a star that is using up its nuclear fuel with a tire that has a
leak. Explain your reasoning.
Stars
369
Name
Date
Stars
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through the
chapter.
K
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
W
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of
each section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
about stars.
370
Chapter Wrap-Up
After reading this chapter, describe three things you have learned
Name
Date
Galaxies and the Universe
Chapter Preview
Before you read the chapter, use the “What I Know” column to list
three things you know about galaxies and the universe. Then list
three questions you have about them in the “What I Want to Find
Out” column.
K
What I know
W
What I Want to Find Out
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Science Journal
Think about the Discovery Lab you did to model the Milky Way.
Describe what your model of the Milky Way would look like if you actually built it.
Explain why it would be a problem to show the size of our solar system in comparison to
the Milky Way.
Explain how you would change your model to include the size of Earth.
Galaxies and the Universe
371
Name
Date
Galaxies And the Universe
Section 31.1 The Milky Way Galaxy
Main Idea
Details
Scan Section 1 of your text. Use the checklist below as a guide.
• Read all section titles.
• Read all bold words.
• Read all graphs and equations.
• Look at all the pictures and read their captions.
Write three facts you discovered about the Milky Way as you
scanned the section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
corona
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
variable star
RR Lyrae variable
Cepheid variable
halo
spiral density wave
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
interpret
372
Section 31.1 The Milky Way Galaxy
Name
Date
Section 31.1 The Milky Way Galaxy
Main Idea
Discovering the
Milky Way, The
Shape of the
Milky Way
Use with page 835.
Mass of the
Milky Way
(continued)
Details
Sketch the Milky Way below. Be sure to include the following
parts:
• Sun
• Halo
• Globular clusters
• Disk
• Nuclear bulge
Organize the masses of different locations of the Milky Way by
completing the chart below.
Use with page 836.
Location
Within the circle of the Sun’s
orbit
Description of the Mass
100 billion times the mass of
the Sun
The halo
2.6 million times the mass of
the Sun
Stars in the
Milky Way
Describe the evidence that is used to indicate the extreme age of
globular cluster stars.
Use with page 836.
Galaxies and the Universe
373
Name
Date
Section 31.1 The Milky Way Galaxy
Main Idea
Stellar
Populations
Use with page 837.
(continued)
Details
Classify the populations of stars by completing the table below.
Classification Location of
of Stars
Stars
Brief Description
of Elements
Population
I
Stars
Population
II
Stars
Formation and
Evolution of the
Milky Way,
Maintaining
Spiral Arms
Sequence the steps in the evolution of the Milky Way by
completing the information below.
Step One:
Use with page 837.
Step Two:
Step Three:
Step Four:
Step Five:
C OMPARE
Explain how the composition of a star that will form a billion
years in the future will differ from the composition of our Sun.
374
Section 31.1 The Milky Way Galaxy
Name
Date
Galaxies And the Universe
Section 31.2 Other Galaxies in the Universe
Main Idea
Details
Predict Read the title of Section 2. List three topics that might be
discussed in this section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following term.
mass
New
Vocabulary
Read the definitions below. Then write the term for each one in
the left column.
cluster of galaxies
formulaic method of representing the expansion of the universe
giant galaxies that emit more radio waves than waves of
visible light
core of a galaxy where a highly energized object is located
star-like objects with emission lines in their spectra
Academic
Vocabulary
Define the following term.
positive
Galaxies and the Universe
375
Name
Date
Section 31.2 Other Galaxies in the Universe
Main Idea
Discovering
Other Galaxies
Use with page 839.
(continued)
Details
Classify and describe the different galaxies discovered by Hubble.
Three of the boxes have been completed for you.
Type of Galaxy Description
Subclasses Subdivisions
none
none
The Expanding
Universe
Use with page 842.
none
Make your own simple graph representing Hubble’s Law by following
the directions given in the Problem-Solving Lab. Label the horizontal
axis “Distance”, and label the vertical axis “Speed.” Include a straight
line from the lower-left corner to the upper-right corner.
Explain what Hubble’s graph shows us about the expanding universe.
376
Section 31.2 Other Galaxies in the Universe
Name
Date
Section 31.2 Other Galaxies in the Universe
Main Idea
Active Galaxies
Use with page 844.
(continued)
Details
Describe three unusual properties of radio galaxies.
1.
2.
3.
Quasars
Use with page 844.
Compare and Contrast two characteristics of stars and two
characteristics of quasars in the organizer below.
Stars:
Quasars:
1.
1.
2.
2.
S YNTHESIZE
Hypothesize what the stars at night would look like at night if we
lived in an irregular galaxy instead of an elliptical galaxy.
Galaxies and the Universe
377
Name
Date
Galaxies And the Universe
Section 31.3 Cosmology
Main Idea
Details
Skim Section 3 of your text. Look at the headings, photos,
illustrations, and captions. Write three questions you have about
the information you think may be covered in this section.
1.
2.
3.
Review
Vocabulary
Use your text to define the following terms.
radiation
New
Vocabulary
Use your text to define each term.
cosmology
Big Bang theory
steady-state theory
cosmic background
radiation
inflationary universe
Academic
Vocabulary
correspond
378
Section 31.3 Cosmology
Define the following term.
Name
Date
Section 31.3 Cosmology
(continued)
Main Idea
Models of the
Universe
Details
Discuss models of the universe.
The theory that the universe began as a
Use with pages 847–849.
ever since is called the
theory is not an
going along for the ride.
Supporters of the
overall
theory. The Big Bang
into space, but instead is an
of space with
is
and has been
theory propose that new matter
and added to the universe as it
, and thus, the
of the universe does not change.
Sequence the steps involved in the explanation of cosmic
background radiation. The last step has been done for you.
1.
2.
3. The universe expands and cools, and radiation is Doppler
shifted to lower energies and longer wavelengths.
State one of the major reasons why some astronomers do not
accept the steady-state universe theory.
Galaxies and the Universe
379
Name
Date
Section 31.3 Cosmology
(continued)
Main Idea
The Big Bang
Model
Use with pages 849–851.
Details
Identify the three possible outcomes of a constantly expanding
universe.
Open Universe Closed Universe
Flat Universe
Examine Make a basic sketch of the inflationary model of the
universe, as shown in Figure 31-20. Label the two parts of the
graph where expansion is increasing more slowly. Then label the
part of the graph where expansion is increasing drastically.
R EAL-W ORLD CONNECTION
like in a flat universe scenario.
380
Section 31.3 Cosmology
Hypothesize what the universe might be
Name
Date
Tie-It-All-Together
F URTHER I NQUIRY
Compare The Sun is the center of our solar system,
controlling the motions of the planets and other objects. Point out how the universe differs
from the Sun in this respect.
Connect The Milky Way is a spiral-shaped galaxy. Describe some real-world objects that
also have a spiral shape. Include objects that are controlled by a rotational movement.
Relate how astronomers are “looking back in time” when they observe light from far away
places such as the Andromeda Galaxy.
Galaxies and the Universe
381
Name
Date
Galaxies and the Universe
Chapter Wrap-Up
In the “What I Wanted to Find Out” column, copy the questions you
listed in the Chapter Preview. In the “What I Learned” column,
write down the answers you discovered as you worked through the
chapter.
K
What I Wanted to Find Out
Review
W
What I Learned
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
Use this checklist to help you study.
Study your Science Notebook for this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Reread the chapter and review the tables, graphs, and
illustrations.
Review the Section Assessment questions at the end of
each section.
Look over the Study Guide at the end of the chapter.
S UM M ARIZE
After reading this chapter, list three things you have learned
about galaxies and the universe.
382
Chapter Wrap-Up