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Exam
Name___________________________________
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) How were the British colonies of the southern Atlantic coast of North America different from the
Latin American colonies?
1)
A) Manumission of slaves tended to be more common in the British colonies.
B) The British colonies depended less on imported Africans because of the positive rate of growth
among the slaves.
C) The British colonies were primarily industrial.
D) Although urban slavery was common, there was no plantation agricultural system on the
North American mainland.
E) There was no slavery there.
2) Which of the following Indian institutions was retained by the Spanish in Mexico and Peru to serve
European administrative purposes?
2)
A) The Aztec emperor
B) Native American religion
C) The Indian nobility
D) Inca warriors
E) The priestly class
3) The ultimate task of all the explorations launched by the Europeans from the 14th century onward
was
3)
A) perfecting European knowledge of navigation and astronomy.
B) establishing European political dominion over all of Asia.
C) finding a sea link between Europe and the wealthy civilizations of Asia.
D) winning their long-standing competition with Islam.
E) spreading knowledge of European civilization to Asia.
4) What was the primary difference between the Spanish and Portuguese empires?
A) Portuguese colonies lacked the bureaucratic structure that characterized the Spanish colonies
after the middle of the 16th century.
B) Unlike the Spanish empire that was almost exclusively American, the Portuguese empire
included colonies and outposts in Asia and Africa as well as Brazil.
C) The Portuguese treated their slaves better than did the Spanish due to the influence of the
Catholic church.
D) The Portuguese colony of Brazil was more intellectually independent of the mother country
than were the Spanish colonies in Latin America.
E) Portuguese colonies did not have the heavy influence of the Catholic church found in Spanish
colonies.
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4)
5) How successful was the Portuguese monopoly on Asian products?
5)
A) The Portuguese monopoly was rigidly enforced over Asian products for almost two centuries.
B) Though they managed to monopolize some spices grown in limited locales, the Portuguese
lacked the manpower and ships to sustain a monopoly.
C) The Portuguese were unable to achieve control over any Asian products due to competition
from the Chinese commercial navy.
D) For some decades they were able to maintain a complete monopoly over Asian products
shipped to Europe.
E) Other European trade powers were frozen out of the market due to the success of the
Portuguese establishing fortified trade ports.
6) What was the African contribution to the "Colombian Exchange"?
6)
A) Potatoes
B) Tapioca
C) Manioc
D) Slaves
E) Large mammals
7) In terms of literature, what was the chief accomplishment of the Ming era?
7)
A) Poetry
B) The novel
C) Haiku
D) Narrative history
E) The short story
8) How did the profitability of the slave trade compare to that of other contemporary business
ventures?
A) The slave trade was less profitable in the Sahara trade but extremely profitable for the Atlantic
slave traders.
B) Profits from the slave trade in the 18th century were so lucrative that capital derived from the
trade in human beings was used to capitalize the European Industrial Revolution.
C) The slave trade was less profitable on the whole than other business ventures because of the
high costs and risks involved.
D) The slave trade became increasingly dangerous and risky, so that by the 18th century its
returns were minimal and most participants were bankrupted.
E) The slave trade was little more profitable than most business activities of the age and was not a
major source for the Industrial Revolution of Europe.
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8)
9) Why did the Chinese abandon the commercial voyages of the Zhenghe expeditions?
9)
A) Many of the ships were lost as a result of poor ship design and inadequate sailing technology.
B) There was little of value for the Chinese to import in trade, and the voyages were expensive to
carry out.
C) Chinese commerce was not competitive enough due to competition from the Europeans.
D) The size of the fleets was so limited that they could not compete with the greater capacity of
the European voyages.
E) The trade with foreign regions produced a negative balance of trade for China that drained
bullion from imperial coffers.
10) How did the Dutch commercial strategy within the Asian trade network differ from that of the
Portuguese?
10)
A) The Dutch lacked a substantial navy, and could not use warships to maintain their commercial
advantage.
B) The Dutch were more humane in their treatment of island peoples who cultivated the spices.
C) The Dutch were more systematic in their monopoly control of a limited number of specific
spices.
D) The Dutch did not make use of fortified towns and factories.
E) The Dutch were more interested in establishing permanent settlements such as Batavia.
11) What was the state of the Mughal empire following Aurangzeb's death in 1707?
11)
A) The empire included more territory than ever before and there was greater religious
homogeneity than earlier in the reign.
B) The empire managed to arrange treaties with western powers which in the long run provided
enough resources for the empire to grow.
C) The Mughal empire had shrunken so much during Aurangzeb's reign that the dynasty
controlled only Bengal.
D) The empire was far larger than earlier, but control and state revenues passed increasingly to
regional lords who gave little more than tribute payments to the emperors.
E) The empire collapsed in the face of a Safavid invasion from the Indus River valley.
12) What accounts for the general failure of 18th century colonial revolutions against Spanish and
Portuguese rule?
12)
A) The various racial and social groups, fearful of unsettling the social hierarchy, failed to work
together to unseat the colonial governments.
B) The Spanish reforms were generally so successful that there were few dissatisfied elements in
the colonies.
C) Rebel armies enjoyed no success against the military forces of the colonial government.
D) They were challenging popularly elected governments led by the Creoles.
E) Indians were so little incorporated into American society that they were not interested in
changing the political organization of their masters.
13) What area of the Philippines were the Spanish NOT able to conquer?
A) Java
B) Leyte
C) Luzon
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D) Mindanao
13)
E) Suhong
14) What was the Portuguese lesson learned at Calicut?
14)
A) Western products brought for trade were of little or no value.
B) Indian markets had little of interest to Western consumers.
C) European goods were much sought after in India.
D) Indians refused to trade with Europeans.
E) Western bullion was of no use in the East.
15) What was the impact of Aurangzeb's religious policies?
15)
A) Aurangzeb's religious policies gravely weakened the internal alliances between Hindus and
Muslims and disrupted the social peace that Akbar had established.
B) More freedom for all religious groups with the exception of Christians
C) The emperor succeeded in reestablishing the political and social dominance of the Hindu
majority in India.
D) Aurangzeb's religious policies succeeded in removing Buddhism from India.
E) Aurangzeb's introduction of Christianity to India began the process by which millions of
Indians were converted to the new religion.
16) Which of the following was NOT a European contribution to the Asian sea trading network?
16)
A) The introduction of sea warfare into the Asian trade network
B) The establishment of new trading centers such as Goa, Calicut, and Batavia
C) The addition of new routes, including the link to Europe around the Cape of Good Hope
D) A global flow of silver starting in the Americas and ending in China
E) The establishment of an exchange of new crops and diseases similar to the "Columbian
Exchange" with the Americas
17) Which of the following was NOT a result of the Ottoman loss of monopoly over the Indian trade?
17)
A) Internal unrest further undermined Ottoman rule.
B) Direct carriage of eastern goods to ports in the West implied loss of revenues in taxes in
Muslim trading centers.
C) Military setbacks revealed the obsolescence of the Muslim fleets.
D) Spices carried by Europeans around Africa enriched the Ottomans' Christian rivals.
E) Bullion caused by a negative balance of trade flowed out of the Ottoman Empire to the West.
18) What was the nature of the sea routes in the Asian trading network?
A) The only sea-going routes crossed the Indian Ocean from the Swahili ports of east Africa to
India.
B) Well-established routes directly crossing the major oceans were maintained from ancient
times.
C) Only the Chinese and Arabs practiced navigation in the Asian trading network.
D) Most of the navigation consisted of sailing along the coastlines and avoiding open seas.
E) They were restricted to the South China Sea and the Sea of Japan.
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18)
19) How was the commercial experience of the Portuguese extended to the Americas?
19)
A) The Portuguese began commercial trade after the Spanish discovered gold in the Americas.
B) The Portuguese were familiar with the routes to the Far East that resulted in the
circumnavigation of the globe.
C) The Portuguese experience in Africa and their involvement in slave trading was extended to
the Americas.
D) The Portuguese were responsible for the use of galleys in the Atlantic passage.
E) The Portuguese introduction of tobacco estate agriculture into the Caribbean was a significant
factor in American colonization.
20) In what sense was the Spanish conversion of the Filipinos similar to their experience in the
Americas?
20)
A) Filipino conversion to Christianity was predicated on political equality with the Spanish
conquerors.
B) Like the Amerindians, the Filipinos' brand of Christianity represented a creative blend of
earlier beliefs and practices with Christianity.
C) Few Filipinos were converted to Christianity.
D) Filipinos were easily converted to Protestant faiths.
E) All Christian tenets were taught in the language of the indigenous peoples.
21) What was the basis for the social hierarchy that developed in the Americas?
21)
A) Wealth
B) Education
C) The prestige associated with one's occupation
D) The Spanish cultural hierarchy
E) Racial origins
22) Which of the following statements concerning Ming social organization is most accurate?
22)
A) Among the groups granted almost total freedom from the bonds of social status were the
students seeking entry into the scholar-gentry.
B) Under the continued influence of neo-Confucian ideology, Ming society remained rigidly
stratified with emphasis on deference of youth to elders and women to men.
C) Social roles were more flexible than before due to the influence of Jesuit missionaries such as
Matteo Ricci.
D) Occupational alternatives for women of all social levels dramatically expanded during the
Ming era.
E) The adoption of more Buddhist beliefs began to break down the strict patterns of deference
that had been customary in Han and Song China.
23) The tremendous decline of the Indian population in Mexico was matched by the rapid increase in
A) European livestock.
B) silver imports.
C) imports of cotton cloth.
D) technological development.
E) Spanish women.
5
23)
24) Why did the Portuguese believe they could successfully enter the Asian sea trading by force?
24)
A) The Portuguese had fewer ships, but they were more maneuverable and better armed than
those of their Asian opponents.
B) The Portuguese realized that their armies were more numerous than those of the Asian
opponents.
C) There was little military force in any of the Muslim or Asian empires.
D) The Asian empires lacked navies.
E) The European trade zones were easily dominated by force.
25) In what way did the Jesuit missionaries maintain their positions at the court of the Ming emperors?
25)
A) By demonstrating knowledge of scientific and technological skills
B) By converting Yunglo to Christianity
C) By maintaining a small but powerful European army in the Chinese capital
D) By accepting the support of the scholar-gentry
E) By becoming eunuchs
26) Why were the Portuguese unwilling to exchange bullion for products within the Asian commercial
system?
26)
A) There was little merchandise that the Portuguese considered of value in the Asian trade
network.
B) The doctrine of mercantilism equated possession of bullion with power and argued against
negative trade balances.
C) They had none.
D) They were sending bullion to England to pay for weapons.
E) All of Portuguese bullion was exchanged for slaves in the African commercial system.
27) Which of the following statements concerning the Spanish commercial system is most accurate?
27)
A) All trade from Spain after the mid-16th century was funnelled through the city of Madrid.
B) The merchant guild in Seville had virtual monopoly rights over goods shipped to America and
handled much of the silver received in return until the 18th century.
C) The intent of the consulado was to keep prices in the Spanish colonies low.
D) Nearly all trade with the Spanish colonies was carried in ships built in the New World and
captained by colonists.
E) The Council of the Indies regulated all trade and established a sub-council in Spanish
America.
28) In what manner did the Portuguese seize most of the slaves that were transported from Africa?
A) They traded for them with African rulers.
B) They purchased them from the Muslim slave traders of the east African trading cities.
C) They captured them in raids into the African interior.
D) They traded for slaves from other European powers such as France and England.
E) As a result of the defeat of most of the African kingdoms, the Portuguese obtained a ready
supply of slaves.
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28)
29) Following the model established by the Portuguese, which of the following was NOT one of the
principal patterns of European contact with Africa?
29)
A) The predominance of commercial relations
B) Widespread European colonization
C) The combination of force and diplomacy including alliances with local leaders
D) A system of fortified trading stations
E) Fair trade with native peoples for free-access goods
30) The Catholic church introduced all of the following to American life EXCEPT
30)
A) establishing missions in outlaying areas.
B) universities.
C) monasteries.
D) the construction of baroque churches.
E) the sense of independence from the state.
31) Which of the following descriptions of the accomplishments of Babur is NOT accurate?
31)
A) He wrote one of the great histories of India and was a fine musician.
B) He defeated a much larger force in 1526 at the Battle of Panipat which led to the establishment
of his dynasty.
C) He was a fine musician and designed gardens for his new capital at Delhi.
D) He reformed the ineffective Lodi bureaucracy to create a streamlined administration.
E) He was a fine military strategist and fierce fighter who went into battle alongside his troops.
32) Which of the following statements concerning the men who conquered much of Latin America for
Spain is NOT accurate?
32)
A) Leadership was based on reputation and past achievement.
B) An agreement was drawn up between the leader and the Spanish crown that granted
authority for the expedition in return for a promise to pay one-fifth of all treasure to the
crown.
C) Few of the conquerors were professional soldiers.
D) The conquerors, many of humble origins, came to see themselves as a new nobility entitled to
dominion over a new peasantry, the Indians.
E) Most conquerors were cruel and ambitious and many were of humble origins.
33) Which of the following statements concerning the reign of Akbar is NOT accurate?
A) He attempted to purify Islam by removing Hindu influences.
B) He personally oversaw the building of the military and administrative system.
C) He patronized the arts.
D) He extended the Mughal conquests in central and northern India.
E) He encouraged intermarriage between the Mughal aristocracy and the Hindu Rajput rulers.
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33)
34) Which of the following statements concerning the early Portuguese trade forts is most accurate?
34)
A) They were intended as the first step toward inland colonization and domination.
B) Where Portuguese trade forts were established, large European colonies rapidly developed.
C) Most of the forts were established with the agreement or license of local rulers.
D) The Portuguese trade forts were the nodal points for colonial administration on the model of
the American colonies.
E) The Portuguese trade forts permitted the political control of much of the African interior.
35) What area of Africa was least affected by the slave trade?
35)
A) West Africa
B) Central and west Africa
C) East Africa
D) Southern Africa
E) The savanna and the Sudan
36) Which of the following represents a difference between the origins of the Ottomans and the
Safavids?
36)
A) The Safavids were originally frontier warriors.
B) The Safavids were of Chinese origin.
C) The Safavids represented a highly militant strain of Islam.
D) The Safavids originated from a Turkish nomadic group.
E) The Safavids represented the Shi'a strain of Islam.
37) Which of the following statements concerning the volume of the slave trade to the American
colonies is most accurate?
37)
A) Demand for slaves continued to remain high due to the competing demand for slaves in
Europe.
B) The volume of the slave trade decreased as mortality rates increased and the American
economy shifted to manufacturing.
C) The volume of the slave trade dwindled rapidly after the 17th century because the plantation
economies of the Americas collapsed.
D) The high volume of the slave trade was a necessity because slave mortality was high and
fertility was low leading to a loss of slave population.
E) The shift from plantation economies to mining economies in which slaves were not utilized
rapidly diminished the American demand for slaves.
38) Which of the following was NOT considered a factor in the development of large kingdoms in
Africa?
A) A population expansion that followed the diffusion of iron tools and improved agriculture
B) The use of firearms
C) European demand for slaves
D) Improved agriculture
E) The collapse of the Christian kingdom in Ethiopia in the face of Muslim advance
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38)
39) Which of the following statements concerning Ottoman naval power is most accurate?
39)
A) Powerful Ottoman galley fleets captured major island bases in the eastern Mediterranean, but
were unable to prevent Western advances in the Indian Ocean.
B) The Ottoman Empire was sufficiently powerful at sea that until the 18th century they were
able to monopolize the Arabian Sea.
C) The Ottoman Empire used both Western and Chinese naval technologies and established
naval bases in Italy.
D) The Ottomans retained their naval dominance in the Indian Ocean, but almost immediately
lost all of their Mediterranean possessions.
E) The Ottoman Empire never developed a navy, thus were unable to control the Mediterranean
or challenge the growing naval supremacy of the West.
40) Which of the following statements most accurately describes the state of the Portuguese and
Spanish American colonies by the middle of the 18th century?
40)
A) The American colonies of Spain and Portugal were experiencing considerable growth in
population and productive capacity.
B) Following the disruption of the plantation economies, the Portuguese and Spanish American
colonies experienced population loss and economic depression.
C) While the population of the American colonies was growing, largely due to the importation of
African slaves, the economy was largely stagnant.
D) The population of the American colonies never recovered from the initial loss of Indian
population.
E) England was threatening to take over the Caribbean colonies and Spain fell into economic
dependency status.
41) What was the significance of the mainland kingdoms and island states of southeast Asia that
surrounded the three great manufacturing zones of the Asian sea trading network?
41)
A) These regions fed raw materialsĪ€precious metals and forest productsĪ€into the trading
network.
B) These regions provided the medium of exchange in the form of gold and silver.
C) These regions were virtually the sole consumers of goods made in the manufacturing regions.
D) These regions provided the military defense for the manufacturing regions.
E) These regions had no relationship to the three main manufacturing zones of the Asian sea
trading network.
42) Why did the earliest of the Japanese military centralizers accept Christian missionaries?
42)
A) The Portuguese supplied a large army to rulers who offered to accept Christianity.
B) Christianity was seen as a counterforce to the Buddhist orders that opposed the imposition of
central rule.
C) He was intimidated by the military might of the Portuguese.
D) Prior to his first military victory, Hideyoshi saw a cross in the sky.
E) His wife was a Christian who was able to exert her influence throughout his household.
43) The Safavid dynasty had its origins in the 14th century in a family devoted to what variant of
Islam?
A) Sunni
B) Sikh
C) Sufi
D) Ismaili
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E) Kurd
43)
44) What led to the rapid demise of the Safavid empire?
44)
A) The Safavid defeat at the battle of Panipat at the hands of a Russian army stripped the empire
of its military forces just as pressure from outside enemies increased.
B) The threat of Mongol conquest destabilized the government which led to a revolt of the
Janissaries.
C) The successful conquest of the Ottoman Empire overextended the Safavid resources, so that
the central government became increasingly inefficient.
D) The collapse of the Safavid economy in the 18th century diminished the revenues of the
empire to the point that the central government could no longer function.
E) Like the Ottoman Empire, the lack of a principle of succession led Abbas the Great to eliminate
all capable rivals, leaving no capable ruler following his death.
45) Which of the following was NOT one of the early modern Islamic empires?
45)
A) Ottoman
B) Abbasid
C) Safavid
D) Mughal
E) Followers of Shi'a Islam in former Persian territory
46) Which of the following statements concerning Ming reforms in favor of the peasantry is most
accurate?
A) The Ming reforms resulted in a reduction in the authority of the local landlords and the
establishment of small farming operations throughout China.
B) The early Ming emperors were completely uninterested in the plight of the peasantry.
C) Peasants were made exempt from all taxation due to Hongwu being a peasant himself.
D) The first Ming emperor attempted to increase the forced labor demands on the peasantry in
order to restore the Chinese economy following the expulsion of the Mongols.
E) Despite some attempts to improve economic conditions for the peasantry, the growing power
of the rural landlords led to increased tenancy and landless laborers.
10
46)
Answer Key
Testname: UNIT 4 TEST_19_22
1)
2)
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32)
33)
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42)
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44)
45)
46)
B
C
C
B
B
D
B
E
B
C
D
A
D
A
A
E
E
D
C
B
E
B
A
A
A
B
B
A
B
E
D
A
A
C
D
E
D
E
A
A
A
B
C
E
B
E
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