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Chapter Assessment
Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Laboratory Manual, SE and TE
Lesson Plans
GeoLab and MiniLab Worksheets
Block Scheduling Lesson Plans
Exploring Environmental Problems, SE and TE
Section Focus Transparencies and Masters
Study Guide for Content Mastery, SE and TE
Teaching Transparencies and Masters
Chapter Assessment
MindJogger Videoquizzes, VHS/DVD
Performance Assessment in Earth Science
Puzzlemaker Software, Windows/Macintosh
ExamView™ Pro CD-ROM Windows/Macintosh
Guided Reading Audio Program
Cooperative Learning in the Science Classroom
Interactive Teacher Edition CD-ROM
Performance Assessment in the Science Classroom
Interactive Lesson Planner CD-ROM
Alternate Assessment in the Science Classroom
Using the Internet in the Science Classroom
Credits
ART CREDITS
Navta Associates: 6, 52, 83, 95, 111, 112, 117, 118, 119, 126, 136, 137, 159; MacArt Design: 12, 15, 16,
29, 36, 41, 47, 59, 64, 65, 89, 99, 101, 124, 130, 143, 144, 146, 148, 149, 154, 155, 161, 166, 171, 177,
183, 185; Morgan-Cain and Associates: 34, 40, 46, 58, 87, 88, 94, 129, 143, 153
PHOTO CREDITS
165 courtesy of NASA; 173 courtesy of NASA
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained
herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students, teachers, and families
without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with the Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe program.
Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher.
Send all inquiries to:
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
8787 Orion Place
Columbus, OH 43240
ISBN 0-07-824586-9
Printed in the United States of America.
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 045 08 07 06 05 04 03 02
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Glencoe Science Web Site: science.glencoe.com
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Contents
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
To the Teacher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
1 The Nature of Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
16 The Marine Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
2 Mapping Our World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
17 Plate Tectonics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
3 Matter and Atomic Structure . . . . . . . . . . . 13
18 Volcanic Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
4 Minerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
19 Earthquakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
5 Igneous Rocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
20 Mountain Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
6 Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks . . . . 31
21 Fossils and the Rock Record . . . . . . . . . . . 121
7 Weathering, Erosion, and Soil . . . . . . . . . . . 37
22 The Precambrian Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
8 Mass Movements, Wind, and Glaciers . . . . 43
23 The Paleozoic Era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
9 Surface Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
24 The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras . . . . . . . 139
10 Groundwater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
25 Earth Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
11 Atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
26 Energy Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
12 Meteorology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
27 Human Impact on Earth Resources . . . . . 157
13 The Nature of Storms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
28 The Sun-Earth-Moon System . . . . . . . . . . 163
14 Climate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
29 Our Solar System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
15 Physical Oceanography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
30 Stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
31 Galaxies and the Universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Answer Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T187
Chapter Assessment
Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
iii
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
To the Teacher
This Chapter Assessment book provides materials to assess your students’
learning of concepts from each of the thirty-one chapters of Earth Science:
Geology, the Environment, and the Universe. Each chapter test includes
several sections that assess students’ understandings at different levels.
The Reviewing Vocabulary section tests students’ knowledge of the chapter’s
vocabulary. A variety of formats is used, including matching, multiple
choice, true/false, completion, and comparison of terms.
The Understanding Main Ideas section consists of two parts: Part A tests
recall and basic understanding of facts presented in the chapter. Part B is
designed to be more challenging and requires deeper comprehension of
concepts than does Part A. Students may be asked to explain processes
and relationships or to make comparisons and generalizations.
The Thinking Critically section requires students to use several different
higher-order learning skills. For some questions, students will need to
interpret data and discover relationships presented in graphs and tables.
Other questions may require them to apply their understanding of concepts
to solve problems, to compare and contrast situations, and to make
inferences or predictions.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
In the final section, Applying Scientific Methods, students are put into the
role of researcher. They may be asked to read about an experiment,
simulation, or model and then apply their understanding of chapter
concepts and scientific methods to analyze and explain the procedure and
results. Many of the questions in this section are open-ended, giving
students the opportunity to demonstrate both reasoning and creative
problem-solving skills. This section, as well as the other sections of each test,
begins on a separate page, so that if you wish to omit it from a particular
test, you can easily do so.
Answers or possible responses to all questions are provided on the reduced
pages at the back of the book.
iv
Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
Class
CHAPTER
1
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
The Nature of Science
Reviewing Vocabulary
In the space at the left, write the word or phrase in parentheses that makes
the statement correct.
meteorology
1. The branch of Earth science that studies the blanket of air that surrounds
Earth is (tectonics, meteorology).
SI
2. Most scientific studies use a standard system of units called (SI, scientific
notation), which is a modern version of the metric system.
geology
3. Identifying rocks, studying glacial movements, and interpreting clues to
Earth’s history are all topics studied in (geology, oceanography).
A hypothesis
4. (An experiment, A hypothesis) is a suggested explanation for
an observation.
astronomy
hydrosphere
5. The study of objects beyond Earth’s atmosphere is (ecology, astronomy).
6. The water in Earth’s oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, glaciers, and in Earth’s
atmosphere makes up the (hydrosphere, biosphere).
control
7. Researchers use a (constant, control) in an experiment to show that the
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
results of the experiment are actually due to the condition being tested.
technology
8. The application of scientific discoveries is called
(technology, paleontology).
Contrast each pair of related terms.
9. lithosphere, asthenosphere
10. independent variable, dependent variable
11. scientific theory, scientific law
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 1 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
1
Name
Class
1
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
Write the letter of the measurement in Column B next to its matching unit of measurement in Column A.
Column A
Column B
b
1. gram per milliliter
a. area
e
2. Kelvin
b. density
d
3. kilogram
c. length
g
4. liter
d. mass
c
5. meter
e. temperature
h
6. newton
f.
f
7. second
g. liquid volume
a
8. square centimeter
h. weight
time
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
true
9. Astronomers study Earth, its neighbors, and other matter in the
interact with 10. Earth’s four main systems are independent of one another.
Geology
11. Meteorology is the study of materials that make up Earth and the
processes that form and change these materials.
true
12. Scientific methods are planned and organized, but are not rigid, step-by-
step outlines to solve problems.
true
nitrogen
true
13. Earth’s core consists of an outer, liquid part and an inner, solid part.
14. Earth’s atmosphere contains about 78 percent carbon dioxide.
15. Oceanographers study creatures that inhabit salty water, measure
physical and chemical properties of the oceans, and examine the effects
of human activities on the oceans.
true
16. The biosphere includes all organisms that live within a few meters of
Earth’s surface, at the bottom of oceans, and on the tops of mountains.
2
can
17. Scientific laws and theories cannot change.
true
18. About 97 percent of Earth’s water is salt water.
Chapter 1 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
universe.
Name
CHAPTER
Class
1
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Complete the table by filling in the missing information.
Number
1. 1 000 000
Equivalent in Scientific Notation
106
2.
0.000 001
106
3.
40 000 000
4 107
4. 0.029
2.9 102
5. 3356
3.356 103
6.
118.722
1.18722 102
Answer the following questions.
7. What do paleontologists study?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
8. What is studied by Earth scientists who specialize in tectonics?
9. What is meant by the statement “technology is transferable”? Give an example to
support the statement.
10. What should you wear during a science classroom investigation that involves
pouring chemicals?
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 1 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
3
Name
CHAPTER
Class
1
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Thinking Critically
Imagine you are a member of a research team that is preparing to explore a planet named
Telos. Before traveling to Telos, you must learn as much as you can about the planet. Some of
the information that scientists have gathered about Telos is summarized below.
Surface gravitational acceleration (the rate at which a falling object speeds up): 3.3 m/s2
Composition of atmosphere: 42% carbon dioxide, 25% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 10% water, 2% argon
Maximum temperature: 258 K
Answer the following questions.
1. Your team plans to collect 100 kg of rocks on Telos and to bring the rocks back to Earth for
analysis. What will be the mass of the rocks on Earth? Explain your reasoning.
2. The rock transporter you will use on Telos is designed to carry a maximum weight of 343 N.
3. One test you will perform on each rock is to determine its density. Suppose a rock
has a mass of 6.25 kg and a volume of 0.855 L. What is the density of the rock?
4. How are the compositions of the atmospheres of Telos and Earth similar?
How are they different?
5. Are you likely to find liquid water on the surface of Telos? Explain. Hint: Assume two facts:
water freezes at 0°C on Telos; and Kelvin temperature Celsius temperature 273.
4
Chapter 1 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Can the transporter carry the weight of all of the rocks you plan to collect? Explain.
Hint: weight (in N) = mass (in kg) gravitational acceleration (in m/s 2).
Name
CHAPTER
Class
1
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods
A group of students wanted to find out if changing the composition of the atmosphere could
affect the growth rate of plants. After researching the problem, they formed two hypotheses.
Hypothesis 1: Will increasing the percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere make plants grow
more rapidly?
Hypothesis 2: Will increasing the percentage of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere make
plants grow more rapidly?
Using a mixing valve and tanks of pure oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen, the students
created artificial atmospheres with varying percentages of the three gases. They adjusted the
percentage of nitrogen to compensate for changes in the other two gases. In the first experiment, the students varied the percentage of oxygen and kept the carbon dioxide level at 0.03
percent, the value in normal air. In the second experiment, the students varied the percentage
of carbon dioxide and kept the oxygen level at 21 percent, the value in normal air.
The students grew pea plants in airtight chambers, replacing the air in the chambers with
the artificial atmospheres. The students assessed the growth rate of the plants by measuring the
plants’ heights each day for 10 days.
1. Identify the independent variable and the dependent variable in Experiment 1.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. Identify the independent variable and the dependent variable in Experiment 2.
3. The students could have done just one experiment in which they varied both the oxygen and
carbon dioxide percentages at the same time. Why do you think they chose instead to vary
the oxygen and carbon dioxide percentages in separate experiments?
4. Are the carbon dioxide level in the first experiment and the oxygen level in the second
experiment controls, constants, dependent variables, or independent variables?
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 1 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
5
Name
Class
1
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
The table below show the results of the students’ two experiments.
Experiment 1
Experiment 2
Percent
Carbon
Dioxide
Percent
Nitrogen
Growth
Rate
(mm/day)
Percent
Oxygen
Percent
Carbon
Dioxide
Percent
Nitrogen
Growth
Rate
(mm/day)
1
0.03
98.97
10
21
1
78
15
10
0.03
89.97
11
21
10
69
25
20
0.03
79.97
10
21
20
59
35
30
0.03
69.97
12
21
30
49
43
40
0.03
59.97
11
21
40
39
44
50
0.03
49.97
10
21
50
29
44
Percent
Oxygen
5. On the grids below, plot the data for each experiment. Connect the data points on
each graph with a line.
Experiment 1
Experiment 2
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
10
20 30 40
Percent oxygen
50
40
30
20
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Growth rate (mm/day)
Growth rate (mm/day)
50
10
0
0
10 20 30 40 50
Percent carbon dioxide
6. Describe the relationship between growth rate and the percentage of oxygen or
carbon dioxide in these experiments.
7. Which of the students’ hypotheses correlate with the results?
8. The growth of plants also depends upon other factors, including temperature, soil
water content, and light intensity. What should the students have done with such
factors in these two experiments? Why?
6
Chapter 1 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
Class
CHAPTER
2
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Mapping Our World
Reviewing Vocabulary
In the space at the left, write the word or phrase in parentheses that makes
the statement correct.
cartography
prime meridian
180° meridian
1. The science of mapmaking is called (cartography, remote sensing).
2. The (equator, prime meridian) represents 0° longitude.
3. The International Date Line is another name for the
(equator, 180° meridian).
Mercator
topographic
4. A (Mercator, conic) projection distorts areas near the poles.
5. A contour line on a (topographic, world) map connects points
of equal elevation.
map legend
6. A (map legend, map scale) explains what the symbols on a
map represent.
frequency
7. The (frequency, wavelength) of an electromagnetic wave is the
number of waves that pass a particular point each second.
position
8. Satellites in the Global Positioning System help users determine
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
their exact (position, weight).
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
9. latitude, longitude
10. conic projection, gnomonic projection
11. Landsat satellite, Topex/Poseidon satellite
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 2 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
7
Name
Class
CHAPTER
2
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. What is the latitude of the north pole?
a. 0° north
b. 90° north
c. 180° north
2. Each degree of latitude or longitude is divided into 60 smaller units called
a. meridians.
b. grids.
c. seconds.
d. 360° north
d. minutes.
3. Which statement about lines of longitude is true?
a. They converge at the equator.
b. They converge at the poles.
c. They are parallel.
d. They locate positions in north and south directions.
4. Into how many time zones is Earth divided?
a. 12
b. 15
c. 24
d. 360
5. All flat maps distort either the shapes or the areas of landmasses because
a. the boundaries of landmasses are not known with certainty.
b. such large structures cannot be drawn accurately.
c. lines of latitude are not perfectly parallel.
d. Earth is a curved, three-dimensional object.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
6. On a topographic map, the difference in elevation between two side-by-side
contour lines is called the
a. contour interval.
b. index contour.
c. depression contour.
d. hachure.
7. What is a graphic scale?
a. a statement that expresses distance, such as one centimeter equals one kilometer
b. a ratio that expresses distance, such as 1:50 000
c. a line broken into sections that represent units with each section representing
a distance on Earth’s surface
d. a diagram that shows the elevation of the hills and valleys of an area
8. GPS satellites can relay information about all of the following EXCEPT
a. position.
b. elevation.
c. direction.
8
Chapter 2 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
d. weather.
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
2
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Answer the following questions.
1. Time zone boundaries do not always line up perfectly with lines of longitude. Why?
2. Why does a Mercator projection exaggerate the areas of landmasses near the poles?
3. Why do contour lines never cross?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
4. Why are map scales useful?
5. How does the Topex/Poseidon satellite collect data?
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 2 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
9
Name
CHAPTER
Class
2
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Thinking Critically
Use the table to answer the following questions.
City
Latitude
Longitude
34S
18E
0
109E
Nome, Alaska
65N
165W
Quito, Ecuador
0°
79W
Stockholm, Sweden
59N
18E
Wellington, New Zealand
41S
175E
Cape Town, South Africa
Pontianak, Indonesia
1. Which city is closest to the International Date Line?
2. Which city is farthest from the equator?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. What is the approximate distance between Stockholm and Cape Town? Explain your answer.
4. What is the approximate distance between Pontianak and Quito? Explain your answer.
5. When it is Thursday in Wellington, what day is it in Nome? Explain your answer.
Answer the following question.
6. Suppose you were given a topographic map that did not show index contours. What would the
map indicate about the terrain of the area shown? What would the map not indicate?
10
Chapter 2 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
2
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods
Mapping techniques can be used on other planets besides Earth. In 1996, the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched a satellite called the Mars Global
Surveyor toward Mars. One of the purposes of the satellite was to collect data about the surface
of Mars. The satellite reached Mars in 1997 and then gradually slowed into a low, circular orbit
around the planet. It finally began mapping the surface of Mars in 1999, a process that was
scheduled to last nearly two years.
The Mars Global Surveyor carries a camera that can distinguish objects on the surface of
Mars that are less than 1.5 m across. It also has an instrument that measures surface elevation
as well as sensors that analyze the heat radiating from the planet’s surface. These sensors provide data about the composition of different areas of the planet. All of the information collected by the Mars Global Surveyor is transmitted to Earth in the form of radio waves. The
satellite will continue to orbit Mars for at least 50 years after its mission is completed. It does
not carry enough propellant to return to Earth.
1. The distance from Earth to Mars ranges between 78 000 000 km and 380 000 000 km,
depending on the time of year. The speed of light is 300 000 km/s. Calculate the minimum
and maximum time it takes for data transmitted by the Mars Global Surveyor to reach Earth.
2. What are the advantages of using a satellite for this project instead of sending
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
a team of astronauts to Mars to map the surface?
3. It takes Mars 24.6 hours to rotate once on its axis. How wide in degrees is a time
zone on Mars if each time zone represents a different hour? (Hint: Like Earth, Mars
is a sphere.)
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 2 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
11
Name
CHAPTER
Class
2
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
This map was prepared from data collected by the Mars Global Surveyor. The dashed lines on
the map surround the base of the Martian volcano Olympus Mons.
150°W
30°N
140°W
130°W
120°W
30°N
20°N
20°N
10°N
10°N
0°
150°W
140°W
130°W
0°
120°W
4. In which hemisphere is the area on the map?
5. The circumference of Mars is 21 200 km. What is the approximate distance of each
degree of latitude on Mars?
(Hint: Use your answer from question 5 to convert degrees to kilometers.)
7. Can you estimate how far the base of Olympus Mons stretches from east to west
with the same accuracy? Explain why or why not.
8. The top of Olympus Mons is the highest point on Mars. It is 27 km above the average elevation on
Mars. (Because Mars has no oceans, its elevations cannot be defined with respect to sea level.) By
comparison, the highest point on Earth, Mt. Everest, is 8850 m above sea level. How many times
higher than Mt. Everest is Olympus Mons?
12
Chapter 2 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
6. How far does the base of Olympus Mons stretch from north to south?
Name
Class
3
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Matter and Atomic Structure
Reviewing Vocabulary
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Column A
Column B
j
h
i
1. The outermost electrons of an atom
a. atom
2. The center of an atom
b. atomic mass
3. Hot, highly ionized, electrically conducting gas
a
c. chemical reaction
4. The smallest particle of an element that retains that
element’s characteristics
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
d
g
c
f
e
b
k
d. condensation
5. The change from a gas to a liquid
e. electron
6. A homogeneous mixture
f.
7. The change of one or more substances into other substances
g. solution
8. The attractive force between two ions of opposite charge
h. nucleus
9. A tiny particle with a negative electrical charge
i.
plasma
j.
valence electrons
10. The average of the mass numbers of an element’s isotopes
11. The spontaneous process through which unstable
nuclei emit radiation
ionic bond
k. radioactivity
In the space at the left, write the word or phrase in parentheses that makes the statement correct.
mass number
12. The combined number of protons and neutrons is the
(atomic number, mass number).
energy level
13. An (energy level, isotope) represents the area in an
atom where an electron is most likely to be found.
A covalent bond
14. (An ionic bond, A covalent bond) is the attraction of
two atoms for a shared pair of electrons that holds the
atoms together.
an ion
15. An atom that gains or loses an electron is a charged
particle called (an ion, a molecule).
An element
16. (An element, A compound) is a substance that cannot
be broken down into simpler substances.
proton
17. A tiny particle that has mass and a positive electrical
charge is a (neutron, proton).
Bases
18. (Acids, Bases) are solutions characterized by the
formation of hydroxide ions (OH).
evaporation
19. The process of changing from a liquid into a gas is
called (evaporation, sublimation).
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 3 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
13
Name
CHAPTER
Class
3
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. The basic building blocks of matter are
a. atoms.
b. elements.
c. molecules.
2. The nucleus of an atom is made up of
a. electrons and neutrons.
b. protons, neutrons, and electrons.
c. protons and electrons.
d. protons and neutrons.
3. Many elements are mixtures of
a. solids.
b. isotopes.
c. molecules.
d. compounds.
d. valence electrons.
4. Chemical behavior is determined by the number of electrons located in the
a. innermost energy level.
c. third energy level.
b. second energy level.
d. outermost energy level.
5. Solutions containing a substance that produces hydrogen ions (H) in water are
a. bases.
b. solids.
c. elements.
d. acids.
6. A combination of two or more components that retain their identity is a(n)
a. mixture.
b. solution.
c. acid.
d. base.
7. Densely packed arrangements of particles that take the shape of their containers are
a. solids.
b. liquids.
c. gases.
d. plasmas.
9. What type of bonding takes place when
a. ionic
b. hydrogen
10. Soil is an example of a
a. homogeneous mixture.
b. solid solution.
Na
and
d. evaporation
Cl
combine to form NaCl?
c. covalent
d. metallic
c. solution.
d. heterogeneous mixture.
11. In how many physical states does matter exist in the universe?
a. two
b. three
c. four
d. five
12. An atom in which the outermost energy level is more than half full tends to form
which of the following ions?
a. positive ions
b. negative ions
c. both positive and negative ions
d. neither positive nor negative ions
13. Tomatoes have a pH of 4. They are considered to be
a. acidic.
b. basic.
c. neutral.
14
Chapter 3 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
d. both acidic and basic.
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
8. Which of the following changes of state releases thermal energy?
a. melting
b. sublimation
c. condensation
Name
CHAPTER
Class
3
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Study the diagram, which shows the formation of the compounds calcium fluoride
and nitrogen gas. Then answer the questions.
e e
e e
e
ee
e
e –
e
e
ee ee
e e
e e
e e
e
e
e e e e e
Ca
e
e
e
e
ee
ee
e
e
F
e
e e e
e e e e e e
e
N
N
eee
F
e e
e
e e
e e
e
e
ee e e e e e e e e
e eee ee e
e e e e e e
e e
e
e
e e
CaF2
e e
e e e
e
ee e
e
e
N2
e e
e
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1. Which compound is formed by ionic bonding? Explain.
2. Which compound is formed by covalent bonding? Explain.
3. How many electrons are in the fourth level of a calcium atom?
4. Which atom forms an ion by the loss of electrons?
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 3 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
15
Name
CHAPTER
Class
3
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Thinking Critically
Use the information from the periodic table to complete the table below. Then answer
the questions that follow.
Oxygen
Fluorine
Neon
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
15.999
18.998
20.180
Element
Number
of Protons
Number
of Neutrons
Number
of Electrons
Atomic
Number
Atomic Mass
(rounded off)
1. Oxygen
8
8
8
8
16
2. Fluorine
9
10
9
9
19
10
10
10
10
20
3. Neon
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
4. The isotopes neon-20 and neon-22 have the same chemical properties. Explain why.
5. The atomic number of chlorine is 17. Draw all the electrons for an atom of
chlorine in the following diagram. Make sure that the electrons are in the
appropriate energy levels.
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
Nucleus
e
e
16
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
Chapter 3 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
3
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods
Two students are presented with a problem in science class. They need to identify specific compounds in an unknown mixture. This “mystery” mixture could include one or more of the following compounds: cornstarch, baking powder, powdered sugar. All of these compounds are
white and are difficult to distinguish by using sight alone.
To analyze the mixture, the students must first find ways to identify the individual compounds. Their teacher gives them four test tubes; distilled water; samples of cornstarch, baking
powder, and powdered sugar; dropper bottles; iodine solution; white vinegar; a shallow pan; a
candle, and matches.
The students place small amounts of cornstarch, baking powder, powdered sugar, and a few
drops of water in separate piles in the shallow pan. They add a drop of vinegar to each sample
and record what happens in a data table. Only the baking soda shows any change. It begins to
fizz as a result of a gas being given off.
Then the students place small amounts of each compound on the pan a second time. This
time, they add a drop of iodine to each sample and record their results. Only the sample of
cornstarch turns blue.
Finally, the students place a small amount of each compound in three separate test tubes.
They use a lit candle to gently heat the bottom of each test tube. Only the sugar shows any
signs of melting. The other compounds are unaffected.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
After finding the three unique ways described above of testing for each compound, the
students then repeat all three tests on the mystery mixture. The following data table shows
their results. Answer the questions that follow.
Material Tested
Addition of Vinegar
Addition of Iodine
Heated with Candle
Distilled water
No change
No change
Boiled
Cornstarch
No change
Turns blue
No change
Sugar
No change
No change
Melts
Baking soda
Fizzing takes place
No change
No change
Mystery mixture
Fizzing takes place
Turns blue
No change
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 3 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
17
Name
CHAPTER
Class
3
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
1. Did the students conduct quantitative (numerical) or qualitative (descriptive)
research? Explain your answer, using examples from the students’ investigation.
2. Was a control used in this experiment? Explain your answer.
3. What safety rules should the students have followed when heating the compounds
and mixture?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
4. Which compound or compounds were present in the mystery mixture? Explain
how you arrived at your conclusion.
5. How would you determine if all three compounds were absent from the sample?
6. Why would tasting the mystery mixture NOT be an appropriate way of identifying
its components?
18
Chapter 3 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
Class
4
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Minerals
Reviewing Vocabulary
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Column A
d
Column B
1. Naturally occurring, inorganic solid with specific
chemical composition and crystalline structure
a
2. Solid in which the atoms are arranged in repeating
patterns
a. crystal
b. gem
c. magma
c
3. Molten material found beneath Earth’s crust
d. mineral
f
4. Mineral that contains silicon and oxygen
e. ore
e
5. Mineral that contains a useful substance that can be
f.
silicate
mined for profit
b
6. Valuable mineral prized for its rarity and beauty
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
7. cleavage, fracture
8. density, specific gravity
9. hardness, texture
10. luster, streak
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 4 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
19
Name
Class
4
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
true
1. There are at least 3000 known minerals in Earth’s crust.
solutions
2. Minerals form from cooled magma and from elements in gases.
true
3. Minerals can be identified based on their physical and chemical
properties.
true
4. The most reliable way to identify a mineral is by using a combination
of several tests.
can change
5. The classification of a mineral as an ore does not change once it has
been mined.
can affect
6. Trace elements in a mineral do not affect the color or the value
of mineral.
Write the term that best completes the statement.
cleavage
crystal
fracture
hardness
luster
magma
inorganic
silicates
specific gravity
streak
, in
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
inorganic
7. A mineral, such as salt, is naturally occurring but
contrast to sugar, which comes from plants.
crystal
8. A mineral can take the shape of one of the six major
9.
Silicates
systems.
make up the most common mineral group.
10. When compounds in cooling
magma
no longer move freely, they
may interact chemically to form minerals.
11.
Luster
12. A mineral’s
is described as either metallic or nonmetallic.
streak
rarely changes, but sometimes does not match
its external color.
13. Mohs scale is used to compare the
14. Mica has perfect
cleavage
hardness
in one direction; it breaks in sheets.
15. When flint and opals break, they have a unique
16. Geologists commonly use
of minerals.
specific gravity
fracture
with arclike patterns.
as a measure of density for
accurate identification of a mineral.
20
Chapter 4 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
4
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Answer the following questions.
1. What are three characteristics of a mineral?
2. If you took random samples of minerals from several locations, which type of
mineral would you likely have more of—oxides, silicates, or carbonates. Why?
3. What accounts for the large diversity of silicates?
4. Why is color one of the least reliable tests for identifying minerals? Give an example
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
to support your answer.
5. Why are some minerals classified as gems? Give three examples of gems.
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 4 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
21
Name
CHAPTER
Class
4
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Thinking Critically
Answer the following questions.
1. A solution is nearly saturated with dissolved minerals. What will happen if
50 percent of the water in the solution evaporated?
2. What conditions typically result in the formation of large, well-shaped mineral crystals?
3. What can you conclude about the atomic bonds along a plane of cleavage?
4. Why do geologists usually use a combination of tests to identify a mineral?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. What mineral would you use to polish a piece of corundum? Why?
6. Which mineral would react to iron filings—magnetite or graphite? What special
property would that mineral have?
7. What three factors should be considered before mining a newly found mineral deposit?
22
Chapter 4 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
4
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods
Three pairs of mineral samples are brought to you for testing. Both samples in one pair look
like gold, but one is pyrite, or fool’s gold. Both samples in the second pair look like emeralds,
but one is nonprecious apatite. Both samples in the third pair look like rubies, but one is a less
valuable garnet. Use the information in the table to complete the dichotomous key to
identify each mineral.
Mineral
Color
Hardness
Gold
Metallic gold
2.5–3
Apatite
Blue, green
5
Pyrite
Metallic pale brass, gold
6–6.5
Garnet
Red, deep red, brown
6.5–7.5
Beryl
Bluish green, green
7.5–8
Corundum
Red, deep red
9
Dichotomous Key
1. a. The mineral has a metallic luster. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Go to 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
b. The mineral does not have a metallic luster. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Go to 3
2. a. The mineral can scratch at least one of the green stones. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
b. The mineral can scratch neither green stone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
pyrite
gold
3. a. The mineral is green. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Go to 4
b. The mineral is not green. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Go to 5
4. a. The mineral can scratch at least one of the red stones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
beryl
b. The mineral can scratch neither red stone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
apatite
5. a. The mineral can scratch only one of the green stones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
garnet
b. The mineral can scratch both green stones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter Assessment
corundum
Chapter 4 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
23
Name
CHAPTER
Class
4
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
Use this table for the six mineral samples to answer the following questions.
Mineral
Specific Gravity
Chemical Formula
Gold
19.3
Au
Apatite
5
Pyrite
5.2
Garnet
3.5–4.3
Beryl
2.75
Corundum
4
Breakage Pattern
Hackly
Ca5(PO4)3(F, OH, Cl)
Uneven fracture
FeS2
Uneven fracture
(Mg, Fe, Ca)3 (Al2Si3O12)
Be3Al2Si6O18
Al2O3
Conchoidal fracture
Uneven fracture
Fracture
6. If the volume of the sample of pyrite equals the volume of the sample of gold, how many
times greater is the mass of the gold sample than the mass of the pyrite sample?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
7. How can the breakage pattern be used to distinguish between gold and pyrite?
8. Which of the six minerals is a native element?
9. List the six minerals in order from most dense to least dense.
24
Chapter 4 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
Class
5
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Igneous Rocks
Reviewing Vocabulary
Write the term that best completes the statement.
Bowen’s reaction series
igneous rock
kimberlite
pegmatite
porphyritic
ultramafic
1. Rock formed from the crystallization of magma is called
2.
igneous rock
.
Bowen’s reaction illustrates the relationship between cooling magma and
series
mineral formation.
3. A(n)
ultramafic
rock, such as dunite, has low silica content and very
high iron and magnesium content.
4. A rock that has grains of two different sizes has
5. A(n)
pegmatite
porphyritic
is a vein of extremely large-grained minerals.
6. A rare, ultramafic rock that might contain diamonds is a(n)
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
texture.
kimberlite
.
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
7. intrusive igneous rock, extrusive igneous rock
8. magma, lava
9. felsic, mafic
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 5 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
25
Name
Class
CHAPTER
5
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
1. Igneous rocks are formed when magma
a. erodes.
b. undergoes radioactive decay.
c. crystallizes.
d. weathers.
2. Igneous rocks that cool slowly beneath Earth’s crust are
a. extrusive.
b. intrusive.
c. sedimentary.
d. always magnetic.
3. Igneous rocks that cool quickly on Earth’s surface are
a. extrusive.
b. intrusive.
c. metamorphic.
d. always magnetic.
4. Extrusive rocks, which cool more rapidly than intrusive rocks, are generally more
a. coarsely grained.
b. finely grained.
c. radioactive.
d. magnetic.
5. Factors that affect a rock’s melting point include
a. pressure and water content.
c. rarity.
b. value as a gem.
d. usefulness as a building material.
6. Valuable ore deposits and gem crystals are often associated with
a. oceans.
c. thin crustal areas.
b. oil deposits.
d. igneous intrusions.
true
7. Different minerals melt and crystallize at different temperatures.
true
8. Igneous rocks can be identified by their physical properties of
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
crystal size and texture.
often
9. Igneous rocks are rarely used as building materials because
of their strength, durability, and beauty.
true
10. Diamonds are sometimes found in igneous intrusions known
as kimberlites.
26
Chapter 5 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
5
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Answer the following questions.
1. What is partial melting? Explain how partial melting affects igneous rock formation.
2. What is fractional crystallization? Does it add or remove elements from magma? Explain your answer.
3. What relationship does Bowen’s reaction series illustrate? What crystallization
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
patterns did Bowen discover in feldspars and iron-rich minerals?
4. What are the three main groups of igneous rocks? What are the characteristics of each group?
5. Why would crystals formed early in magma crystallization have larger, better-shaped crystals
than those that formed later?
6. What is porphyritic texture? What sequence of events produces porphyritic texture in rocks?
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 5 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
27
Name
Class
5
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Thinking Critically
Complete the table with the following terms or phrases.
Composed of distinct bands of minerals
Extrusive rock
Porphyritic texture
Veins of extremely large-grained minerals
Mafic rock
Zoned crystal
Light color with high silica content
Rock Type or Feature
Extrusive rock
1.
Characteristics
Fine-grained, glassy
Intrusive rock
Coarse-grained
Felsic rock
2.
Intermediate rock
Medium color with moderate silica content
Mafic rock
3.
Ultramafic rock
4.
Porphyritic texture
Light color with high silica content
Dark color with low silica content; high iron/magnesium content
Very dark color with very high levels of iron/magnesium
Large and small crystals in same rock
5.
Composed of distinct bands of minerals
Pegmatite
6.
Vein of extremely large-grained minerals
Kimberlite
Long pipelike intrusion; may contain diamonds
7.
Zoned crystal
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Layered intrusion
Sodium-rich outer layers, calcium-rich core
Answer the following questions.
8. Which rock type or feature forms when rapid cooling of magma does not allow its
calcium-rich core to react completely with the magma?
9. Which rock type or feature forms when crystallization begins slowly and then
becomes rapid?
10. Which rock type or feature may be formed when magma is forced rapidly upward,
creating pipelike intrusions?
11. In general, do intrusive rocks crystallize more rapidly or less rapidly than do
extrusive rocks?
28
Chapter 5 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
Class
5
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods
The diagram shows the proportions of minerals in common igneous rocks. Use the diagram
to answer the following questions.
Table 5-2 Classification of Igneous Rocks
Extrusive
Felsic
Intermediate
Intrusive
Obsidian
Mafic
Ultramafic
Texture
Basaltic glass
Glassy
(non-crystalline)
Fine-grained
Rhyolite
Andesite
Basalt
Granite
Diorite
Gabbro
Peri- Dun- Coarse-grained
dotite ite
Very
coarse-grained
Pegmatite
Mineral composition
(percentage by volume)
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
100%
75%
Potassium feldspar
(pink to white)
Quartz
(clear to white)
Plagioclase feldspar
(white to gray)
50%
Biotite (black)
Pyroxene
(green)
25%
Amphibole
(black)
Olivine
(green)
0%
1. What four groups of igneous rocks are shown in the diagram?
2. Which rocks are lighter in color—those on the left side of the diagram or those on
the right?
3. What categories of rock grain are shown on the diagram?
4. How are silica content and color related in this diagram?
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 5 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
29
Name
CHAPTER
Class
5
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
5. Do the groups of igneous rocks shown in the diagram exhibit an abrupt change
from one group to another or a continuous change from one rock type to the next?
Explain your answer.
6. Rock Sample A is coarse-grained, 90 percent olivine, and 10 percent pyroxene.
What is the name of the rock? What group is it in?
7. Is rock Sample A dark or light in color?
8. Rock Sample B is coarse-grained, 25 percent quartz, 65 percent feldspar, and 10 percent
unidentified minerals. What is the name of the rock? What group is it in?
9. If a rock sample with the same mineral content as Sample B was fine-grained
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
instead of coarse-grained, what would its name be?
10. Do calcium-rich feldspars occur in felsic rocks or in mafic rocks?
11. What is the primary mineral component of felsic rocks? Ultramafic rocks?
30
Chapter 5 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
Class
6
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Sedimentary and
Metamorphic Rocks
Reviewing Vocabulary
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Column A
c
Column B
1. Physical and chemical processes that compact and
a. clastic
transform sediments into sedimentary rocks
b. deposition
d
2. Percentage of open spaces between grains in a rock
f
3. Continuous changing and remaking of rocks
c. lithification
b
4. Process of sediments being laid down on the ground
d. porosity
or sinking to the bottom of water
g
5. Pieces of solid material deposited on Earth’s surface
e
6. Produced when high temperature and pressure affect
large areas of Earth’s crust
a
e. regional metamorphism
f.
rock cycle
g. sediment
7. Type of sediment made up of rock and mineral
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
fragments produced by weathering
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
8. sedimentary, metamorphic
9. conglomerate, evaporite
10. foliated, nonfoliated
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 6 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
31
Name
Class
CHAPTER
6
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
Write the term that best completes the statement.
bedding
clastic
erosion
limestone
porosity
sediments
sorted deposits
1. Much of Earth’s surface is covered not by solid rock, but by
sediments
.
2. Weathering of rock produces worn surfaces and rounded corners that are
characteristic of some
clastic
sediment particles.
3. Landslides, moving water, wind, and glaciers cause
erosion
of
surface materials.
4.
Sorted deposits are characteristic of sediments transported by water and wind.
5. The primary feature of sedimentary rocks is horizontal layering called
bedding
6. The percentage of open spaces between mineral grains in clastic rocks is its
7. The most abundant organic sedimentary rock is calcite-rich
.
porosity
limestone
.
.
true
downhill
unsorted
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
8. The porosity of sandstone allows it to hold oil, gas, and water.
9. Eroded materials are almost always carried uphill.
10. Landslides create sorted deposits when sediment moves downhill
in a jumbled mass.
true
11. When the concentration of minerals dissolved in water reaches
saturation, crystals precipitate out of solution.
true
12. Sedimentary rocks form from rock and mineral fragments, and
metamorphic rocks form from existing rock.
32
Chapter 6 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
6
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Answer the following questions.
1. What is the sequence of events that form clastic sedimentary rocks from solid rocks?
2. How do chemical sedimentary rocks form?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. Why might sandstone act as a reservoir for groundwater or oil, while shale would not?
4. When does contact metamorphism occur?
5. How does foliation form?
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 6 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
33
Name
CHAPTER
Class
6
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Thinking Critically
Use the diagram below to answer the following questions.
Evaporation
Freshwater
inflow (small)
Replenishment
from open ocean
Ocean
Evaporating shallow basin
(high salinity)
Evaporite sediment:
gypsum and halite
Barrier bar
or other
flow restriction
Crystals of gypsum
or halite settle to bottom
1. How would a decrease in the level of the barrier to freshwater inflow affect the rate
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
of evaporation formation? Explain your answer.
2. Even though flow from the ocean would add saltwater to the basin, the formation
of evaporites depends on a barrier to flow to and from the ocean. Why is this so?
3. What might happen over geologic time if the shallow basin was to evaporate completely?
34
Chapter 6 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
Class
6
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods
A geology class is on a summer field trip to observe many different types of geological
phenomena. The students have been given an incomplete chart to help them understand
processes that occurred in the past that produced geological features visible today.
Use the words and phrases below to complete the chart.
Asymmetrical ripple marks
Glacier
Graded bedding
Presence of a sea
Symmetrical ripple marks
Wind action
Feature
1.
Probable Cause
Asymmetrical ripple marks
Cross bedding
Wind or water action
Deposition of only fine sands
2.
Wind action
Deposition of marine fossils
3.
Presence of a sea
Deposition of four-footed animal fossils
Presence of dry land
4.
Graded bedding
Sorted deposition
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
One-way wave action of wind or water
5.
Symmetrical ripple marks
Marine landslide
Wind or water action
Back-and-forth wave action
Unsorted deposition
Landslide
Unsorted deposition
6.
Chapter Assessment
Glacier
Chapter 6 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
35
Name
CHAPTER
Class
6
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
The figure below represents sedimentary layers in a single geographic location. Use your
completed Feature and Probable Cause chart and the diagram below to answer the questions.
More than one item from the chart may be required to answer some of the questions.
C
B
A
1. Layer C is a fine-grained sandstone with cross-bedding and land animal fossils.
No marine fossils are present. Under what conditions did it most likely form?
2. Layer B is a coarse-grained sandstone with graded bedding. It contains marine
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
fossils throughout. Under what conditions did it most likely form?
3. Layer A is a fossiliferous limestone. The fossils are of marine organisms. Under
what conditions did the rock most likely form?
4. Based on the data and your deductions, what do you think occurred in the location
over time? Write a brief description beginning with events that happened first.
36
Chapter 6 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
Class
7
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Weathering, Erosion, and Soil
Reviewing Vocabulary
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Column A
f
Column B
1. The loose covering of broken rock particles and decaying
a. residual soil
organic matter overlying the bedrock of Earth’s surface
i
2. The repeated thawing and freezing of water in the
cracks of rocks
c. exfoliation
g
3. A vertical sequence of soil layers
h
4. The process by which rocks and minerals undergo
d. oxidation
e. hydrolysis
changes in their composition as the result of
chemical reactions
f.
d
5. The chemical reaction of oxygen with other substances
b
6. Soil that has been moved to a location away from its
parent bedrock
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
b. transported soil
soil
g. soil profile
h. chemical weathering
e
7. The reaction of water with other substances
a
8. Soil located above its parent material
c
9. The process by which outer layers of a rock are
i.
frost wedging
stripped away
Write the term that best completes the statement.
deposition
10. In a process known as
11. A major problem in farming areas is
, eroded materials are dropped in another location.
gully erosion
, which is the deepening and
widening of rill channels.
12. A(n)
13.
soil horizon
Erosion
is a distinct layer, or zone, within a soil profile.
is the removal and transportation of weathered material from one
location to another.
14. The process by which rocks on or near Earth’s surface break down and change is
15.
Rill erosion
Chapter Assessment
weathering
.
is the erosion by running water of a small channel on the side of a slope.
Chapter 7 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
37
Name
CHAPTER
Class
7
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. Which of the following characteristics of water can be responsible for mechanical weathering?
a. Water flows downstream under gravity.
b. Water expands when it freezes.
c. Water combines with atmospheric gases to form acid precipitation.
d. Water reacts with and can dissolve many kinds of minerals.
2. In which of the following areas is wind a major erosional agent?
a. grasslands
b. temperate forests
c. deserts
d. tropical rain forests
3. Which of the following statements is NOT true of soil?
a. It is a loose covering of broken rock particles and decaying organic matter.
b. There is one kind of soil in the United States.
c. Living organisms add nutrients to it.
d. It takes a long time to form.
5. Which of the following happens when a river enters a large body of water?
a. The river water slows down and deposits large amounts of sediments.
b. The river water increases its speed and carries out gully erosion.
c. The river water flows over the delta, causing exfoliation.
d. The river water erodes the shoreline and deposits barrier islands.
6. The color of a soil
a. is a reliable indicator of its fertility.
b. is always dark brown or black.
c. is not dependent on the amount of humus.
d. is determined by its composition and climate.
7. Which of the following statements is NOT true about the deposition of eroded
materials in bodies of water?
a. It improves the quality of ecosystems.
b. It limits the availability of water for hydroelectric energy.
c. It reduces water supplies for personal consumption.
d. It can restrict navigation through the water bodies.
8. Which of the following statements is NOT true of soils in sloped areas?
a. Smaller particles remain on the slopes, while coarser particles move downslope.
b. Soils on slopes tend to be infertile.
c. Valley soils are usually thick.
d. South-facing slopes have somewhat thicker soils than slopes facing other directions.
9. There can be no stream erosion or glacial erosion without
a. gravity.
b. hydrolysis.
c. wind.
38
Chapter 7 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
d. deposition.
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
4. Which of the following could increase the rate of chemical weathering of a rock?
a. moving it to a location with few plants and animals
b. moving it to a drier climate
c. increasing its total surface area
d. moving it to a colder climate
Name
CHAPTER
Class
7
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Answer the following questions.
1. How does climate influence the rate of weathering of earth materials?
2. Describe how soil forms.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. How do living things impact weathering and erosion?
4. Contrast mechanical and chemical weathering, and give examples of each.
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 7 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
39
Name
CHAPTER
Class
7
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Thinking Critically
Study the diagram. Then answer the questions.
90
10
20
80
Clay
70
30
40
60
Clay (percent) 50
40
30
20
Clay
loam
Sandy clay
loam
Sandy loam
10 Loamy
0 Sand sand
90
Silty
clay
Sandy
clay
80
70
Loam
Silt (percent)
50
Silty clay
loam
60
Silt loam
70
80
Silt
60
50 40 30 20
Sand (percent)
10
90
100
1. What property of soil does the diagram illustrate?
2. Name the three sizes of soil particles, from largest to smallest.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. How would you classify a soil that contains 60 percent sand, 30 percent silt,
and 10 percent clay?
4. How would you classify a soil that contains equal percentages of all three sizes of
soil particles?
5. About what proportion of sand/silt/clay makes up sandy clay?
6. In general, soil drainage is determined by particle size: the larger the particle size,
the better the drainage. Compare the drainage of sand, sandy clay, and clay soils.
40
Chapter 7 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
7
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods
A golf course designer, who is about to build a championship golf course, has come to you
with a problem. He tells you that parts of his developing course cannot grow grass and tend
to flood. After testing the soil, you decide that the reason it drains poorly and doesn’t retain
adequate moisture is because it has too much nonporous clay. You tell him that by adding soil
conditioners, the new soil will improve its drainage and retain more water. You mention that
water retention is important because water supplies are low in the hot summer months, and
grasses need water to stay green. Improved drainage will also allow more rainfall to be soaked
into the soil, thus lessening runoff and water erosion.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
You develop a simple setup to test various soil combinations for drainage and water retention. You will add dry soil, which was heated to expel all moisture, to a beaker. The beaker has
a drain hole in the bottom to allow the drainage of excess water to a measuring cylinder. You
add 200 ml of water to the beakers with the various soil combinations. After one hour, you
then reweigh the soil and measure the drainage water.
The clay is the unsuitable soil from the golf
course. Humus and sand were picked up from
a local nursery, and soils A and B are higher
priced synthetic soils produced by a chemical
company. Most of the soil combinations drained
in less than 30 minutes. When the drain time is
greater than 60 minutes, this indicates poor
drainage and some of the water will remain on
top of the soil, where it either evaporates or runs
off. All water weights are given in grams. One
gram of water is approximately equal to one
milliliter.
Clay
Clay +
Humus
Clay +
Sand
Clay +
Soil A
Clay +
Soil B
Dry soil weight
600 g
600 g
600 g
600 g
600 g
Water added
200 g
200 g
200 g
200 g
200 g
Wet soil weight
690 g
730 g
640 g
730 g
760 g
Water drainage
20 g
70 g
160 g
70 g
35 g
>60 min
30 min
20 min
30 min
>60 min
Time to drain
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 7 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
41
Name
CHAPTER
Class
7
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
1. The water added to the dry soil should equal the weight of the wet soil plus the drainage weight.
If it doesn’t, it’s because some of the water evaporated or ran off. Using the data from the chart
on page 41, write on the table below, the amount of water that either evaporated or ran off.
Clay
Water evaporated/
runoff
Clay +
Humus
Clay +
Sand
Clay +
Soil A
Clay +
Soil B
0
0
10
5
90
2. Compare the use of sand and humus as far as their ability to retain water and
improve drainage.
3. How does Soil A and B compare to humus as far as their ability to retain water and
4. Why do you suppose clay has such a high evaporation rate?
5. Why is sand not a good soil conditioner?
6. What soil combination would you recommend to the golf course designer? What are some
other factors that might influence the selection of the best soil conditioner?
42
Chapter 7 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
improve drainage.
Name
Class
8
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Mass Movements, Wind,
and Glaciers
Reviewing Vocabulary
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Column A
Column B
c
1. A mass of ice that forms in mountainous areas
a. continental glacier
f
2. A downslope movement of loose sediment and rock
b. outwash plain
under gravity
a
3. A broad, continent-sized mass of ice
c. valley glacier
g
4. Windblown deposits composed of silt
d. cirque
d
5. A deep depression carved out by an alpine glacier
e. drumlin
h
6. Occurs when sand particles rub against the surface
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
of rocks
f.
mass movement
b
7. Where meltwater flows and deposits
g. loess
i
8. Swiftly moving mixture of mud and water sometimes
h. abrasion
triggered by an earthquake
j
9. A landslide in which earth material rotates and slides
along a curved surface
e
i.
mudflow
j.
slump
10. An elongated landform produced when glaciers move
over older moraines
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
11. The slow, steady, downhill flow of loose, weathered earth materials is called
a. deflation.
b. slump.
c. creep.
d. loess.
12. Rocks that are shaped by windblown sediment are known as
a. dunes.
b. ventifacts.
c. striations.
d. drumlins.
13. Streams flowing under a melting glacier deposit long, winding ridges of layered
sediments called
a. moraines.
b. eskers.
c. avalanches.
d. landslides.
14. The lowering of the land surface that results from the wind’s removal of surface
particles is known as
a. suspension.
Chapter Assessment
b. deposition.
c. abrasion.
d. deflation.
Chapter 8 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
43
Name
CHAPTER
Class
8
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. Which of the following is NOT an indication that creep has occurred?
a. Parallel grooves form in bedrock.
c. Trees become bent.
b. Vertical structures become tilted.
d. Underground pipelines break.
2. Slumps are common after a rainfall because the water
a. reduces friction between soil grains.
c. causes snow to melt.
b. breaks the underlying rock.
d. washes away the vegetation cover.
3. Which of the following causes deflation?
a. glacial erosion
b. deposition by meltwaters
c. wind deposition
d. wind erosion
4. Glaciers covered 30 percent of Earth during the last ice age that began about
a. 10 000 years ago.
c. 2000 years ago.
b. 1.6 million years ago.
d. 50 million years ago.
6. When two cirques on opposite sides of a valley meet, they form a(n)
a. arête.
b. drumlin.
c. moraine.
d. avalanche.
7. A landslide that occurs on steep slopes in mountainous area is called a(n)
a. rockslide.
b. slump.
c. avalanche.
d. mudflow.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. Which of the following is NOT true about glaciers?
a. Glaciers can form along the equator.
c. Only valley glaciers flow.
b. Glaciers carve U-shaped valleys.
d. Glaciers produce moraines.
Answer the following questions.
8. Name and describe the four main classifications of mass movements.
9. What are eskers and how do they form?
44
Chapter 8 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
8
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Answer the following questions.
1. Explain how and where valley glaciers form. Why do they move?
2. Explain how water can both limit and increase a material’s potential for
movement on a slope.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. Compare and contrast erosion by wind and by glaciers.
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 8 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
45
Name
Class
CHAPTER
8
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Thinking Critically
Answer the following questions.
A
B
1. Identify the landforms shown in the diagrams above. Then compare and contrast them.
2. A family has decided to build their dream house on a dune on the shore of Lake Michigan. Their
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
plans call for the natural vegetation to be dug up and construction begun. What are some possible
consequences of their actions? What would you do differently to minimize these consequences?
3. “People impact mass movement just as mass movement impacts people.”
Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Explain your answer.
46
Chapter 8 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
Class
8
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods
Glaciers are similar to great rivers of ice. Glaciers certainly move slower, but they experience
changes in flow rate much like rivers do. In order to determine a glacier’s flow rate, measurements
are taken by a variety of methods. Some include the measurement of the movement of stakes
placed in the ice, while other methods might include the observation of crevasses in the ice.
The table below contains measurements taken over 5 years. Two measurements were taken
each year, one in April and the other in October. Measurements 1–3 are from the top of the
glacier. Measurements 4–6 are from the bottom of the glacier. The numbers, in millimeters,
represent the movement since the last measurement. Positive numbers mean the glacier is
advancing. Negative numbers mean the glacier is retreating.
3
2
6
5
1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
4
Movement In Millimeters
Point 1
Year 1
Year 2
Year 4
Point 6
141
164
139
132
147
130
October
8
22
7
12
18
13
April
163
173
162
139
156
138
8
11
7
3
5
2
April
2
3
1
14
15
15
October
34
46
31
55
59
54
0
5
1
3
6
3
14
19
13
32
49
31
April
80
106
78
68
92
68
October
2
7
3
1
4
1
April
October
Year 5
Bottom of Glacier
Point 4
Point 5
April
October
Year 3
Top of Glacier
Point 2
Point 3
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 8 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
47
Name
CHAPTER
Class
8
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
Answer the following questions.
1. What general statement can you make about the movement of the top of the glacier
relative to that at the bottom of the glacier? Explain why this might happen.
2. Make a general statement about the movement of the glacier over the 5 years of
measurements. Explain your results.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. Why might scientists wish to measure and track the movement of a glacier?
48
Chapter 8 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
Class
9
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Surface Water
Reviewing Vocabulary
Write the word or phrase that best completes the statement.
runoff
1. Water that flows downslope along Earth’s surface is called
watershed
2. A stream system has a(n)
.
, which is the land area whose
water drains into the stream system.
3. Any high land area that separates one watershed from another is termed
divide
a(n)
4. Material is carried in
.
solution
after it becomes dissolved in
a stream’s water.
5. All particles small enough to be held up by the turbulence of a stream’s moving
water are carried in
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
6. A stream’s
suspension
bed load
.
consists of all sand, pebbles, and cobbles that
the stream’s water can roll or push along the bed of the stream.
Discharge
7.
is the volume of stream water that flows over a particular
location within a given period of time.
8. Flowing surface water carves a narrow pathway, called a(n)
stream channel , into rock.
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Column A
c
Column B
9. The ground that borders a stream and holds the
water within the confines of the channel
e
10. A bend or curve in a stream channel
f
11. A triangular deposit that forms where a stream enters
a large body of water
a. rejuvenation
b. lake
c. stream banks
d. flood
a
12. A stream resumes the process of downcutting
e. meander
b
13. A depression in the land that holds water
f.
g
14. An area periodically saturated with water
g. wetland
d
15. Water spills over the sides of a stream’s banks
Chapter Assessment
delta
Chapter 9 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
49
Name
Class
9
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. Potholes form in the stream bottom when
a. the water dissolves the bedrock.
b. turbulence causes pebbles to swirl.
c. an increase in suspended load occurs.
d. the stream’s carrying capacity decreases.
2. The carrying capacity of a stream is its
a. ability to transport sediment.
b. rate of runoff entering the channel.
c. volume of flow.
d. stream bank height.
3. Streams lengthen through
a. eutrophication.
b. suspension.
c. headward erosion.
d. upstream flooding.
4. V-shaped channels like the Grand Canyon are formed by
a. a sudden decrease in stream gradient.
c. streams overflowing their banks.
b. stream downcutting.
d. streams capturing another stream.
c. an oxbow lake.
d. an alluvial fan.
6. Which of the following statements is NOT true about wetlands?
a. Wetlands result from the eutrophication of a lake.
b. Lack of oxygen and lack of minerals create an atmosphere that is inhospitable to many plants.
c. Freshwater marshes often form along the stream’s mouth and in areas with deltas.
d. Wetlands only exist in freshwater areas.
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word to make it true.
suspension
7. In a stream, small particles, such as silt, clay, and sand
are carried in solution.
Alluvial fans
8. Deltas are fan-shaped deposits found on valley floors
at the base of mountains.
true
9. Heavy accumulations of excess water from large
regional drainage systems can result in downstream
floods.
50
Chapter 9 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. A blocked-off meander eventually becomes
a. part of the stream again.
b. rejuvenated.
Name
CHAPTER
Class
9
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Answer the following questions.
1. Describe what causes a stream to stop downcutting its bed and what causes it to
start again.
2. Compare the velocity of water, the erosion, and the deposition along the inside and
outside of a meander curve.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. Describe three ways a natural lake can form.
4. How does an increase in a stream’s velocity affect its discharge and carrying capacity?
5. How do vegetation and slope affect runoff?
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 9 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
51
Name
Class
9
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Thinking Critically
The graph shows the discharge of a river that flows through two cities, Frankston and Wet
Gulch. At either city, the river’s banks cannot handle a discharge of 3.5 thousand cubic
meters per second or more. At that point, the river reaches its flood stage. Study the graph
and answer the questions.
Discharge
(thousand cubic meters per second)
Discharge at Frankston and Wet Gulch
4
3.5
3
KEY
Frankston
Wet Gulch
2.5
2
1.5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Date in March, 1999
1. During how many days in March did the river at Wet Gulch and Frankston
2. Wet Gulch is downstream from Frankston. How might this account for the
difference in discharge between the two towns after March 10?
3. Both cities were founded as farming communities during the 1800s on the
floodplain. Describe the physical features of a floodplain, and hypothesize as to
why people wanted to live on them.
probably wanted to live on floodplains because they could farm the fertile soil
52
Chapter 9 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
overflow its banks?
Name
CHAPTER
Class
9
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods
The table lists water quality measurements that were taken over a 40-year period at Lake Smith.
Measurements included dissolved oxygen, pH, phosphate, nitrogen, the number of largemouth
bass, and mosses and grasses. Dissolved oxygen is the measure of the amount of oxygen available
to life-forms in the water. Largemouth bass is a common variety of fish found in healthy lakes.
Mosses and grasses start to appear as the pH of the water becomes more acidic.
Water Quality at Lake Smith
1950
1955
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
Dissolved oxygen
(parts per million, or ppm)
20
19
18
18
16
17
15
11
9
pH
7.6
7.2
7.1
7.0
6.8
6.8
6.5
6.1
5.8
Phosphate (ppm)
0.0
0.10
0.20
0.25
0.28
0.28
0.45
0.55
0.55
Nitrogen (ppm)
0.05
0.18
0.19
0.25
0.28
0.28
0.35
0.40
0.45
Largemouth bass
450
455
448
338
235
220
155
125
50
0
0
2
5
15
18
29
35
55
Mosses and grasses
Answer the following questions.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1. What is eutrophication? Did it occur at Lake Smith? Explain your answer.
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 9 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
53
Name
CHAPTER
Class
9
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
2. After 1950, farmers in the Lake Smith area increased their use of fertilizers. Does
the data support this statement? Explain your answer.
3. How do changes in phosphate, nitrogen, and dissolved oxygen content over time
compare? Explain the changes that took place.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
4. What do you predict will happen to the lake in the next 40 years?
5. The table shows that the number of largemouth bass decreased as the number of mosses
and grasses increased. From this data, can you conclude that the increase of mosses and
grasses caused the largemouth bass population to decline? Explain your answer.
54
Chapter 9 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
Class
10
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Groundwater
Reviewing Vocabulary
Write the word or phrase that best completes the statement.
infiltration
1. Through the process of
, much of the precipitation that falls
on land becomes groundwater.
2. The percentage of pore space, or
3. The
porosity
, of well-sorted sand is about 30 percent.
zone of saturation is an area below Earth’s surface that is completely
saturated with water.
4. The upper boundary of the zone of saturation is the
water table
.
5. Materials, such as sand, with large, connected pores have a high
permeability
.
aquifers
6. Most groundwater flow takes place through
, which are
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
permeable layers of material.
caves
7. Many
are three-dimensional underground passages, shafts,
and chambers that stretch for many kilometers.
8. Calcium carbonate deposits that hang from the ceiling of a cave are called
stalactites
.
9. Dripstone formations are composed of
travertine
, which is a type
of limestone.
10. Localized natural discharges of groundwater at Earth’s surface are called
springs
Chapter Assessment
.
Chapter 10 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
55
Name
Class
10
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Column A
c
1. Limestone regions with sinkholes and sinking
streams
a
2. Heated water discharged from the ground
b
3. Water under pressure from a confined aquifer
d
4. Major source of freshwater for human use
Column B
a. hot spring
b. artesian well
c. karst topography
d. groundwater
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
runoff
5. Only a small portion of precipitation becomes groundwater and is
returned directly to the oceans through streams and rivers.
slope
dissolves
6. The depth of the water table in stream valleys is close to Earth’s surface.
7. The flow velocity of groundwater depends on the height of the water table.
8. Groundwater is slightly acidic and evaporates limestone.
carbonic
acid (H2CO3)
9. The combination of water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) produces
true
10. Common sources of groundwater pollution include sewage and harmful
hydrogen (H).
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
true
chemicals.
56
Chapter 10 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
10
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Answer the following questions.
1. What two things can happen to a raindrop after it falls on land?
2. What type of subsurface material is able to store groundwater?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. How are caves formed?
4. How do hard water and soft water differ?
5. How can groundwater resources be protected from pollution plumes?
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 10 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
57
Name
CHAPTER
Class
10
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Thinking Critically
Use the diagram illustrating mineral size and porosity to help you answer the following questions.
1 millimeter
Sample A
Sample B
1. Describe the porosity and mineral size of Sample A and Sample B.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. Describe groundwater flow through the two samples. Explain your answer.
3. Which of the two samples has the greater permeability? Why?
58
Chapter 10 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
Class
10
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods
You would like to build a house in a wooded area close to your school. Since city water is not
available, you will need to drill a well. The well-drilling company you hired did test drillings to
find a clean, accessible, and maintainable aquifer. After completing its work, the company gave
you a map of four available drill sites, numbered 1, 2, 3, and 4. Use the illustration to make
your analysis. Then answer the questions that follow.
Factory
Your
house
Well
1
Industrial
waste
Sewage
Water table
Rubble
Well
2
Clay
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Sandstone
Clay
Well
3
Limestone
Clay
Well
4
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
Limestone
Shale
1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500
Meters
Flow Rate in Meters Per Year
Material
Flow Rate
Chapter Assessment
Shale
Clay
Limestone
Sandstone
Rubble
0.5
0.01
100
50
200
Chapter 10 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
59
Name
CHAPTER
Class
10
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
1. Compare and contrast wells 1, 2, and 3. Analyze the potential of each well for a
clean, accessible, and maintainable water supply.
2. What is the potential for a clean, accessible, and maintainable water supply from
well 4? Could there be a problem with the water?
3. Use the flow rate table to determine when the sewage from the broken septic tank
4. Use the flow rate table to determine when the industrial waste will contaminate the water in
well 2. Is it possible that the waste could be made harmless before it reaches the well?
5. Which site has the best potential for your well? Explain your decision.
60
Chapter 10 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
will contaminate the water in well 3.
Name
Class
11
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Atmosphere
Reviewing Vocabulary
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Column A
e
Column B
1. The temperature to which air must be cooled at
constant pressure to reach saturation
c
2. The gas formed by adding a third oxygen atom to
an oxygen molecule
a
3. Heat that is stored in a substance
b
4. An air mass’s ability to resist rising
f
5. All forms of water that fall from clouds
d
6. The transfer of energy through space by
a. latent heat
b. stability
c. ozone
d. radiation
e. dew point
f.
precipitation
electromagnetic waves
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
7. heat, temperature
8. humidity, relative humidity
9. condensation, evaporation
10. conduction, convection
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 11 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
61
Name
Class
11
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
nitrogen
1. The atmosphere is composed mostly of helium and
oxygen, with traces of other gases such as carbon
dioxide and water vapor.
ozone
2. The stratosphere is important because it contains
nitrogen, which blocks harmful ultraviolet radiation
from the Sun.
true
3. Both temperature and pressure generally decrease with
height in the troposphere.
humidity
4. The amount of water vapor in a given volume of air is
its relative humidity.
true
5. The height in the atmosphere at which condensation
occurs is the lifted condensation level.
increase
6. A temperature inversion is a decrease in temperature
with height in the atmosphere.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
7. Condensation nuclei are particles of atmospheric dust around which
a. ozone collects.
c. evaporation occurs.
b. cloud droplets form.
d. winds form.
8. In orographic lifting, clouds form when moist winds
a. flow over the sea.
c. encounter mountains.
b. become drier.
d. warm up the ground.
9. Cloud droplets collide to form larger droplets in a process called
a. coalescence.
c. condensation.
b. convection.
d. composition.
10. What is the constant movement of water between the atmosphere and Earth’s surface?
a. precipitation cycle
c. cloud cycle
b. water cycle
d. atmosphere cycle
62
Chapter 11 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
11
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Answer the following questions.
1. Compare and contrast cumulus and cirrus clouds.
2. What is moving air called? Why does air move in the atmosphere?
3. Explain how a temperature inversion might form on a clear winter night.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
4. A temperature inversion hangs over a city area. Is the formation of a towering
cumulonimbus cloud likely? Explain your answer.
5. Compare and contrast the troposphere and the stratosphere.
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 11 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
63
Name
CHAPTER
Class
11
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Thinking Critically
Use the graph to answer the following questions.
Atmospheric pressure (millibars)
120
Altitude above sea level (kilometers)
110
100
0
200
400
600
800
1000
Temperature
Pressure
Thermosphere
90
80
Mesopause
70
Mesosphere
60
Stratopause
50
Stratosphere
40
Tropopause
30
Ozone layer
20
Troposphere
10
0
(Sea level) 80
40
0
40
80
120
Temperature (C)
Pressure 1000 millibars
at ground level
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1. Do air pressure and temperature change in the same way with altitude? Explain your answer.
2. Describe the temperature changes that take place in each layer of the atmosphere.
3. Why does temperature increase with height in the stratosphere?
64
Chapter 11 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
11
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods
A group of students decided to make a simple model of the atmosphere. To create their
model, they used a clean glass jar, hot water, and a tray of ice cubes.
The students poured hot water into the jar to a level of about 4 cm. They then filled a
small metal container with ice cubes and placed it over the jar’s opening, as shown in the
illustration below.
Within a few seconds, the students observed white ribbons of mist forming in the center
of the jar. Soon a larger white, misty area had formed inside the jar between the surface of
the water and the jar’s opening.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Answer the following questions.
1. What formed inside the jar? Explain how it formed.
2. How does the temperature of the air in the model atmosphere vary with height?
Explain your answer.
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 11 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
65
Name
CHAPTER
Class
11
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
3. How might the results have been different if the tray and ice had not been placed
over the opening of the jar?
4. How might the results have been different if students had put cold water in the
bottom of the jar instead of hot water?
5. Based on your knowledge of cloud formation, compare the model with the
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
formation of clouds in Earth’s atmosphere.
6. Describe how you would change the design of the model to create a continuous
water cycle. Explain how water would cycle through the new model.
66
Chapter 11 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
12
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Meteorology
Reviewing Vocabulary
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
1. weather, climate
2. trade winds, prevailing westerlies
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. air mass, front
4. thermometer, barometer
5. anemometer, hygrometer
6. digital forecast, analog forecast
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 12 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
67
Name
CHAPTER
Class
12
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
1. Low-pressure systems that heavily influence weather in the middle latitudes are
a. polar easterlies.
c. air masses.
b. wave cyclones.
d. warm fronts.
2. A weather instrument that measures the height of clouds and estimates the amount
of cloud cover is a(n)
a. hygrometer.
b. anemometer.
c. ceilometer.
d. barometer.
3. A balloon-borne package of sensors that gathers upper-level temperature, air
pressure, and humidity is
a. a radiosonde.
b. a satellite.
c. a hygrometer.
d. Doppler radar.
4. The change in wave frequency of energy as it moves toward or away from an
observer is the
a. Coriolis effect.
b. Doppler effect.
c. convergence effect.
d. radar effect.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. Polar and tropical regions maintain fairly constant average temperatures because
a. the Sun always strikes these regions at the same angle.
b. air masses remain stationary near the poles and equator.
c. Earth radiates extra energy back into space.
d. the continual motion of air and water reallocates heat energy throughout Earth.
6. Differences in thermal energy can be detected with
a. ultraviolet imagery.
c. infrared imagery.
b. visible light.
d. sonar imagery.
7. A record of weather data for a particular site at a particular time is a(n)
a. station model.
c. isopleth model.
b. topographic map.
d. climate map.
8. Lines on a map that connect points of equal or constant values are
a. boundaries.
c. fronts.
b. isopleths.
d. station models.
9. The exchange of heat or moisture with the surface over which an air mass travels
is known as
a. intertropical convergence.
b. air mass modification.
68
c. occlusion.
d. air mass exchange.
Chapter 12 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
12
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Answer the following questions.
1. Explain how air masses form, and how they help redistribute energy on Earth’s surface.
2. Describe the formation and location of jet streams.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. Identify the four types of fronts and the weather conditions associated with each one.
4. Compare and contrast a continental polar air mass and a maritime tropical air mass.
5. What problems are associated with long-term weather forecasts?
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 12 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
69
Name
CHAPTER
Class
12
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Thinking Critically
Answer the following questions.
1. You examine two weather maps of your area for two different days. One map shows
isobars that are closely spaced; the other shows isobars that are far apart. Predict
the difference in weather conditions for those days.
2. How would Earth’s wind systems be different if the whole planet were heated equally?
3. Your town is experiencing a drought in which the weather has been hot and dry for
4. There are six weather instruments collecting weather data in a city you are about to visit: an
anemometer, a barometer, a ceilometer, a hygrometer, a radiosonde, and a thermometer.
You need information that will allow you to dress properly when you arrive. You can have
the data from just three of the instruments. Which ones would you pick and why?
5. Explain how infrared imagery has the potential to save lives.
70
Chapter 12 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
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weeks. Infer which type of pressure system is stalled over the area. Explain your answer.
Name
CHAPTER
Class
12
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods
A meteorology class has set up a small weather station outside of school. It has a few
simple instruments: a thermometer, a barometer, a rain gauge to measure rainfall, and
a hygrometer. The students took measurements with the instruments once a day for a
week. They then filled in the chart below. The barometer broke, so they were not able to
finish collecting air-pressure data.
Use the chart and what you know about weather systems and weather forecasting to
answer the following questions.
Mon
Tue
Wed
Thurs
Fri
Sat
Sun
23.3
22.2
22.2
15.6
16.7
16.7
17.8
0
0
3.31
0
0
0
0
Relative humidity
40%
60%
100%
80%
60%
50%
40%
Air pressure (mb)
1000
998
—
—
—
—
—
Average temperature ( C)
Rainfall (cm)
1. A cold front passed through the students’ city during the week. Showers occur at
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
fronts. On which day did the front pass through?
2. What evidence does the data provide of the arrival of the front?
Give two examples.
3. The students did not record cloud cover data. If they had, what would their
observations have been as the front arrived?
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 12 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
71
Name
CHAPTER
Class
12
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
4. Low-pressure systems are associated with clouds and precipitation. If the students’
barometer had continued to work, would the air pressure reading for Wednesday
have been higher or lower than the one for Tuesday, when the weather was clearer?
5. Given the relative humidity on Thursday, would you expect clear or cloudy skies?
6. Would the students be able to make an accurate digital forecast based on the data
they have collected? Explain your answer.
7. Use the data in the chart to make an analog forecast of the weather for the Monday
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
following the last day in the chart. Explain your answer.
72
Chapter 12 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
13
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
The Nature of Storms
Reviewing Vocabulary
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
1. air-mass thunderstorm, frontal thunderstorm
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. supercell, downburst
3. Fujita tornado intensity scale, Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale
4. tornado, tropical cyclone
5. eye, eyewall
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 13 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
73
Name
Class
CHAPTER
13
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. A mound of water driven toward coastal areas by hurricane winds is called a
a. cyclone.
c. storm surge.
b. supercell.
d. cold front.
2. An extended period of well-below-normal rainfall is a
a. flood.
c. heat wave.
b. drought.
d. tropical cyclone.
3. The phenomenon in which the effects of cold air are worsened by wind is the
a. supercell.
c. wind chill factor.
b. sea breeze.
d. cold wave.
4. Which of the following conditions does NOT contribute to the formation of hail?
a. the ability of water droplets to exist in a liquid state in parts of a cloud
where the temperature is below freezing
b. the encounter between supercooled water droplets and ice pellets
c. the dissipation of warm, moist air at Earth’s surface by downdrafts
d. the existence of strong updrafts and downdrafts side by side within a cloud
5. The conditions needed for the towering clouds of thunderstorms to develop include:
very low humidity
✓
strong winds
✓
unstable air
large area of high air pressure
abundant moisture
6. The dangers associated with severe thunderstorms include:
✓
✓
lightning
tornadoes
thunder
✓
✓
✓
hail
high winds
flooding
drought
7. Places where a tropical cyclone is most likely to develop include:
Arctic Ocean
✓
74
✓
tropical Pacific Ocean
Chapter 13 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
tropical Atlantic Ocean
central United States
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Put a check next to the correct responses to each question.
Name
CHAPTER
Class
13
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Answer the following questions.
1. Describe the life cycle of a thunderstorm.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. What makes some thunderstorms more severe than others?
3. Explain how a hurricane forms.
4. Describe the weather pattern that causes droughts, and explain how it is similar to
the weather pattern that causes a heat wave.
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 13 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
75
Name
CHAPTER
Class
13
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Thinking Critically
Answer the following questions.
1. A community in Texas broadcasts public service announcements on tornado safety.
Would the broadcasts be more effective right before winter, spring, summer, or fall?
Explain your answer.
2. Could a hurricane form over the northern Atlantic, off the eastern coast of Canada?
Explain your answer.
v
3. Why are people who live along the coast or other low-lying areas often in more
danger from hurricanes than people who live inland?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
4. A Category 4 hurricane has just become a Category 5. Explain what has happened
to air pressure in the storm and the strength of its winds.
5. Could the atmospheric conditions that cause a drought also cause the formation of
a supercell? Explain your answer.
6. Why do weather forecasters often report the wind chill factor in winter?
76
Chapter 13 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
13
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods
Table 1 shows the effect on water level of a strong thunderstorm moving through the Green
River area. The normal level of Green River at Wilson Bend is about 3 m. Three houses are
located near the bank of the river along Wilson Bend. Their elevations are shown in Table 2.
Table 1: Water Level at Wilson Bend, Green River
Time
Water Level (m)
10:00 A.M.
11:00 A.M.
NOON
1:00 P.M.
2:00 P.M.
3:00 P.M.
3
3.1
3.4
4.0
5.0
5.2
Table 2
House
Elevation (m)
X
8.0
Y
3.5
Z
4.0
Answer the following questions.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1. What general effect did the thunderstorm have on the river level?
2. By what time did the river rise 0.4 meters above its normal level?
3. How high above its normal level did the river rise by 3:00 P.M.?
4. Which houses most likely flooded as a result of the storm? Explain your answer.
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 13 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
77
Name
CHAPTER
Class
13
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
5. The thunderstorm was moving over the area at about 3 km/h. How would the
weather and its effects on the area have been different if the storm had moved
over the area at 7 km/h?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
6. Why is the accurate forecasting of storms such as this one important?
78
Chapter 13 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
Class
14
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Climate
Reviewing Vocabulary
Compare and contrast each pair or group of related terms.
1. climate, normal
2. tropics, temperate zones, polar zones
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. microclimate, heat island
4. greenhouse effect, global warming
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Column A
c
Column B
5. The study of Earth’s climate and the factors that
affect past, present, and future climate changes
a
6. A short-term period of climatic change caused by regular
variations in daylight, temperature, and weather patterns
b
7. Period when much of Earth’s surface was covered by vast
a. season
b. ice age
c. climatology
d. El Niño
sheets of ice
d
8. A warm ocean current that develops off the west coast of South America
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 14 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
79
Name
Class
CHAPTER
14
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false,
change the italicized word to make it true.
true
1. The Koeppen classification system classifies climate based on mean
monthly values of temperature and precipitation.
south
2. One of the effects of El Niño is that the jet stream shifts farther north.
sunspot
3. The Maunder minimum is a period of very low precipitation activity
that closely corresponded to an unusually cold climatic episode.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
4. Types of climate data include annual variations in temperature, precipitation, and
a. air pollution.
c. wind.
b. water cycle.
d. topography.
5. Two climates that are at the same latitude may be different because of
a. bodies of water.
c. Earth’s magnetic field.
b. distance from the poles.
d. soil type.
6. When moist winds approach a mountain, they often drop rain as they rise over the
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
mountain, and come down the other side of the mountain much
a. cooler and drier.
c. warmer and drier.
b. cooler and wetter.
d. warmer and wetter.
7. The climatic zone that receives the least solar radiation and has the coldest climate
is the
a. polar zone.
b. tropical zone.
80
c. equatorial zone.
d. temperate zone.
Chapter 14 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
14
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Answer the following questions.
1. How can the periodic change in the shape of Earth’s orbit cause a change in climate?
2. Compare and contrast a continental and a polar climate.
3. List several natural cycles that could cause climatic change on Earth.
4. Explain how a huge volcanic eruption can cause a change in Earth’s climate.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Describe the change.
5. Explain how the greenhouse effect influences Earth’s climate.
6. List two major reasons for climate variation.
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 14 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
81
Name
CHAPTER
Class
14
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Thinking Critically
Answer the following questions.
1. Why would knowing the climate of an area be important for architects? Explain your answer.
2. Explain how an area in the tropics might typically experience abundant snowfall.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. Why can’t you use normals to predict the daily weather?
4. How would seasonal climatic changes be different if Earth were not tilted on its axis?
5. How might taking a bus instead of driving a car help ease global warming?
6. Why might temperature data recorded inside a large city be inaccurate for a rural
region located just a few kilometers outside the city?
82
Chapter 14 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
Class
14
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods
Average temperature (C)
Average precipitation (cm)
50
40
30
20
10
0
10
20
City X Data
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
J
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
90
City X Data
F M A M J J A S O N D
Month
J
F M A M J J A S O N D
Month
90
City Y Data
50
Average precipitation (cm)
Average temperature (C)
The graphs below compare the annual average temperature and precipitation of two cities,
City X and City Y. Use them to answer the questions that follow.
40
30
20
10
0
10
20
City Y Data
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
J
F M A M J J A S O N D
Month
J
F M A M J J A S O N D
Month
1. Describe the temperature and precipitation for City X.
2. Based on the yearly data, classify the climate of City X. Explain your answer.
3. Based on your answer to question 2, on what part of Earth’s surface is City X
probably located?
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 14 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
83
Name
CHAPTER
Class
14
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
4. Describe the temperature and precipitation at City Y.
5. Based on the yearly data, classify the climate of City Y. Explain your answer.
6. If graphs were to show temperature and precipitation for a city in a dry climate,
how would the data differ?
7. In which climate would City Y be located if its average yearly temperature was below 0C
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
and its annual precipitation was less than 2 cm? Explain your answer.
8. Contrast the vegetation you might find in or around City X and City Y.
84
Chapter 14 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
Class
CHAPTER
15
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Physical Oceanography
Reviewing Vocabulary
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Column A
Column B
d
1. Measure of the amount of dissolved salts in seawater
a. oceanography
k
2. Periodic rise and fall of sea level
b. side-scan sonar
b
3. Technique that directs sound waves toward the ocean
c. sea level
floor at an angle to map its topographic features
m
4. Current caused by wind
e. temperature profile
j
5. Collapsing wave
e
6. Set of data that plots changing water temperature
f.
with depth
thermocline
g. wave
i
7. Lowest point of a wave
h. crest
l
8. Current caused by differences in the temperature
i.
trough
j.
breaker
and salinity of ocean water
h
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
d. salinity
9. Highest point of a wave
k. tide
a
10. Scientific study of Earth’s oceans
l.
c
11. Level of the ocean’s surface
m. surface current
n
12. Upward motion of ocean water
n. upwelling
g
13. Rhythmic movement that carries energy
density current
through matter
f
14. Transitional layer of the ocean characterized by
rapidly decreasing temperatures with depth
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 15 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
85
Name
Class
CHAPTER
15
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
In the space at the left, write the word or phrase in parentheses that makes the statement correct.
volcanism
1. The mechanism by which water deep within Earth’s interior
is brought to the surface is (radiation, volcanism).
freshwater
2. The oceans contain 97 percent of Earth’s water, and
(saltwater, freshwater) sources contain 3 percent.
melting
3. Today, the (melting, thickening) of glaciers is causing
a slow rise in the average global sea level.
landlocked
4. Seas are smaller than oceans and are partly or mostly
(landlocked, submerged).
ions
5. Dissolved salts, gases, and nutrients are present
in seawater in the form of (organic material, ions).
removed from
6. As marine organisms die, their solid parts drift
to the bottom of the ocean, causing salts to be
(added to, removed from) seawater.
lower
7. The freezing point of salt water is somewhat
(higher, lower) than that of freshwater.
100 m
8. Oceans are dark below the depth of about
(1000 m, 100 m).
thermocline
9. The surface layer and the (bottom layer, thermocline)
Antarctic Bottom
Water
Moon
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
are absent in polar seas.
10. The coldest and densest water mass in all the oceans is
(Antarctic Bottom Water, North Atlantic Deep Water).
11. Earth’s tidal bulges are always aligned with the
(Sun, Moon).
gyres
12. Closed, circular surface current systems are called
(density currents, gyres).
nutrients
13. Upwelling waters bring (warm water, nutrients) to
the ocean’s surface.
86
Chapter 15 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
15
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Describe the concept or process that is shown in each diagram.
1. Absorption
of Light
Visible light
V BGYO R
Surface
of ocean
50 m
100 m
150 m
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. Cause of Tides
3. Sources of Sea Salt
Volcano
River
discharge
Formation of
evaporites
Sea
Biological spray
processes
Bottom
sediments
Chemical
reactions
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 15 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
87
Name
Class
15
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Thinking Critically
Use the diagram of Earth’s gyres to answer the following questions.
nt
re
ur
y Current
n ar
N. Equatorial Current
E
South Atlantic Gyre
rre
nt
Cu
S. Equatorial
Current
rial Countercur
ren
ato
qu
t
S. Equatorial
Current
Indian Ocean
Gyre
Agulhas
t
ur
re
n
Br
az
il C
South Pacific Gyre
ela Current
ngu
Be
E. Aus
tra
li a
n
C
Per
u
t
rren
Cu
Tropic of
Capricorn
S. Equatorial Current
ti c
Equatorial
Countercurrent
Equatorial Countercurrent
nt
rre
Cu
an
Ca
North Pacific Gyre
N. Equatorial Current
0° Equator
tl
th A
G
A
O
Cu y
rr
N or
m
ea
Str
ulf
North Atlantic Gyre
N. Equatorial Current
Cal
Curriefornia
nt
n
E
Cu . G
r
e
Curre
ka
las
N. Pacific
C urrent
oshio
Kur rrent
Cu
Tropic
of Cancer
nt
h io
as ent
nt
Japan
la
en
re nt
e
r
r
Cur
or
Korea
d
Lab
ra
d
Arctic Circle
Antarctic Circumpolar Current
Antarctic Circumpolar Current
120° E
150° E
180°
150° W
120° W
90° W
60° W
30° W
0° W
30° E
60° E
90° E
120° E
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Antarctic Circle
1. What might be the course of the South Atlantic Gyre if Africa did not exist?
2. How might the absence of South America affect the size and course of the
South Atlantic and South Pacific gyres?
3. What would be the likely effect on the currents near Japan and Korea if the
prevailing midlatitude winds blew from east to west instead of west to east?
88
Chapter 15 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
15
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods
Your Earth science class is conducting an experiment to determine the salt concentrations in an estuary, a place where a
freshwater river flows into the salty seawater of an ocean. You
have been told that in the inland portion of an estuary, the
less-dense river water overrides the denser seawater.
You have collected seven samples of water from different
locations in the estuary. You have also collected a sample of
pure river water and a sample of pure seawater. You make
concentrated samples by boiling each estuary sample until it is
reduced to 250 mL. Then you fill seven test tubes halfway with
each concentrated sample. Next, you make reference samples
in seven more test tubes. The table shows the contents of each
reference test tube.
Reference Samples
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Study the illustration and table and answer the questions
that follow.
Test Tube
Percentage of River Water
Percentage of Seawater
1
100
0
2
80
20
3
60
40
4
50
50
5
40
60
6
20
80
1. Knowing that river water is usually brownish in color and seawater is clear, how
could you use the river water/seawater samples to determine the composition of
the estuary water samples?
2. Would the method described in question 1 provide a precise measurement of the
ratio of river water to seawater in the estuary samples? Why or why not?
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 15 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
89
Name
CHAPTER
Class
15
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
3. What property of seawater might you use to determine the actual ratio of river
water to seawater in the estuary samples? Explain your answer.
4. Would you expect the concentration of salt to be the same or different in each
estuary sample? Explain your answer.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. How might estuary samples taken from deep water affect your results?
90
Chapter 15 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
16
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
The Marine Environment
Reviewing Vocabulary
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
1. The bending of wave crests as they reach shallow water is
a. a longshore current. b. wave refraction.
c. a rip current.
d. erosion.
2. The submerged parts of continents are called
a. continental shelves.
b. continental slopes. c. continental crust.
d. continental margins.
3. A rapid, flowing current along the bottom of the ocean is a(n)
a. longshore current.
b. rip current.
c. estuary.
d. turbidity current.
4. The smooth part of the ocean floor at 5 or 6 km below sea level is the
a. mid-ocean ridge.
b. deep-sea trench.
c. abyssal plain.
d. continental rise.
5. As a headland is eroded, the flat surface formed is called a
a. wave-cut platform.
b. sea stack.
c. sea cave.
d. barrier island.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
6. longshore bar, longshore current
7. ooze, deep-sea mud
8. seawalls, groins
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 16 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
91
Name
Class
CHAPTER
16
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
Write the term that best completes the statement.
abyssal plains
barrier islands
beach erosion
hydrothermal vent
ooze
turbidity currents
1.
Barrier islands
are long ridges separated from the mainland and are made
of sediment deposited by longshore currents.
2. Seawalls, groins, jetties, and breakwaters are built to prevent
3.
Abyssal plains
beach erosion
.
are perhaps the flattest places on Earth and are covered
with hundreds of meters of fine-grained sediments and sedimentary rocks.
4. Deep-sea sediments formed by shells and hard parts of marine organisms are
ooze
called
.
5. Submarine canyons are formed by
turbidity currents .
6. A hole in the seafloor through which fluid heated by magma erupts is
a(n) hydrothermal vent .
sedimentation
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false,
change the italicized word or phrase to make it true.
7. Once a seafloor structure, such as a seamount, is formed, the
only process that modifies it is erosion.
hydrothermal vents 8. Black and white smokers are submerged basalt volcanoes.
true
9. The area where a freshwater river or stream enters the ocean is
an estuary.
true
10. A ridge of sand called a tombolo connects an island to the
mainland to form the tip of a peninsula.
92
Chapter 16 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
Class
16
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Write the letter of the effect in the second column next to the action that causes
it in the first column.
Cause
Effect
b
1. Melting ice-age glaciers
a. submarine canyons
e
2. Rising coastline
b. rise in sea level
a
3. Rapidly flowing turbidity currents
c. turbidity currents
c
4. Underwater landslides, earthquakes, or
d. harbor entrance closes
large storm waves
d
e. drop in sea level
5. Sand drifting around jetties
Write the terms to complete the network tree concept map.
abyssal plain
warm water
volcanic activity
fractures
mid-ocean ridges
deep-sea trench
black smoker
hydrothermal vent
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Ocean Basin
smooth ocean floor
prominent feature
of ocean floor
narrow, long depressions
in ocean floor
abyssal plain
6. ____________________
mid-ocean ridges
7. ____________________
deep-sea trench
8. ____________________
hydrothermal
fractures
10. ___________________
vent
9. ____________________
black smoker
11. _________________
white smoker
metal oxides
and sulfides
warm water
13. _________________
Chapter Assessment
earthquake activity
volcanic
activity
12. _______________
Chapter 16 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
93
Name
CHAPTER
Class
16
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Thinking Critically
Answer the following questions.
1. Researchers find that sediments along the ocean bottom seem to be sorted by size. Coarse gravel
and sand are found close to shore. Fine particles are deposited at a greater distance from shore.
What can you infer about the movement of sediments from these observations?
2. What observations support the fact that turbidity currents help form the
topography of the seafloor?
3. How would the data in this graph change if the polar ice sheets melted?
Surface Elevations on Earth
Land
29.2%
8
6
Ocean
70.8%
Mountains
4
2
Ocean surface
Sea level 0
Average elevation
of continents
840 m (2750 ft)
Continents
2
Depth (km)
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Elevation (km)
10
Trenches
Continental
margins
4
6
Average depth
of ocean
3730 m (2.32 mi)
Ocean basins
8
10
0
20
40
60
80
100
Percentage of Earth's surface
94
Chapter 16 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
16
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods
Research has shown that the temperature of the ocean varies with ocean depth. Use data from
the table and graph to help you with the activities that follow.
Ocean depth (m)
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
Water temperature (°C)
23
23
23
15
5.5
5
5
5
5
4.5
4.5
4
Water temperature (°C)
25
20
15
Co
n
m tine
ar n
gi ta
n l
10
5
0
100 200 300 400 500
600 700
800 900 1000 1100 1200
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Ocean depth (m)
1. Describe the relationship between water temperature and ocean depth.
2. Formulate a hypothesis to explain why water temperature decreases as water
depth increases.
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 16 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
95
Name
CHAPTER
Class
16
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
3. Plan an experiment to prove your hypothesis. Your plan should include variables,
controls, and expected results.
4. Once the cause of the temperature difference has been identified, researchers may
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
want to determine what effect, if any, the temperature difference has on ocean
organisms. Suggest questions or phenomena that might be investigated.
5. Which question or phenomenon that you wrote for question 3 would you like
to investigate? Why?
96
Chapter 16 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
Class
17
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Plate Tectonics
Reviewing Vocabulary
Write the term that best completes the statement.
continental drift
magnetic reversal
divergent boundaries
transform boundaries
Slab pull
1.
2. Wegener’s hypothesis of
magnetometer
seafloor spreading
rift valley
convection
paleomagnetism
theory of plate tectonics
convergent boundaries
subduction
Pangaea
isochron
slab pull
ridge push
is a process that occurs at convergent boundaries.
continental drift stated that Earth’s continents had once been
joined as a single landmass.
3. The study of Earth’s magnetic record is known as
paleomagnetism .
4. A map line connecting points that have the same age is a(n)
theory of plate
tectonics
5. The
isochron
.
states that Earth’s crust and rigid upper mantle are
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
broken into enormous slabs called plates that move slowly over Earth’s surface.
6.
7.
Transform
boundaries
Ridge push
are places where plates slide horizontally past each other.
is a process whereby the weight of an uplifted ocean ridge
pushes an oceanic plate toward a subduction zone.
convection
8. The transfer of thermal energy by the movement of heated matter is
9. Places where plates move apart are
10.
Subduction
divergent
boundaries
.
occurs when one tectonic plate descends beneath another.
11. Earth’s continents were once joined as a single landmass called
12. A(n)
magnetometer
13. The theory of
.
Pangaea
.
detects small changes in Earth’s magnetic field.
seafloor spreading explains how new ocean crust is created at
ocean ridges and destroyed in deep-sea trenches.
14. Plates come together at
convergent boundaries .
15. A long, narrow, fault-bounded, continental depression is a(n)
16. A change in Earth’s magnetic field is called a(n)
Chapter Assessment
rift valley
.
magnetic reversal .
Chapter 17 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
97
Name
CHAPTER
Class
17
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. Many early mapmakers thought Earth’s continents had moved based on
a. plate boundary locations.
c. climatic data.
b. fossil evidence.
d. matching coastlines.
2. Continental drift was not widely accepted when it was first proposed because
a. Wegener couldn’t explain why or how the continents moved.
b. continental landmasses were too big to move slowly over Earth’s surface.
c. magnetic and sonar data proved that Wegener’s hypothesis was incorrect.
d. mantle convection currents weren’t in motion at that time.
3. Compared to ocean crust near deep-sea trenches, crust near ocean ridges is
a. younger.
c. the same age.
b. older.
d. magnetically reversed.
4. The magnetic pattern of ocean-floor rocks on one side of an ocean ridge is
a. a mirror image of that of the other side.
b. younger than on the other side.
c. much different from the magnetic pattern found in rocks on land.
d. at right angles to the ocean ridge.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. Isochron maps of the seafloor indicate that ocean crust is
a. oldest near ocean ridges.
c. youngest near ocean ridges.
b. youngest at deep-sea trenches.
d. thinnest in subduction zones.
6. Each cycle of spreading and intrusion of magma during seafloor spreading results in
a. magnetic reversals.
c. subduction.
b. new ocean crust.
d. plates colliding.
7. Features found at divergent boundaries include
a. ocean ridges.
b. deep-sea trenches.
c. crumpled mountains.
d. island arc volcanoes.
8. Subduction results in the formation of
a. a deep-sea trench.
b. a magnetic reversal.
c. a rift valley.
d. new continental crust.
9. Continental-continental plate collisions produce
a. island arcs.
c. deep-sea trenches.
b. rift valleys.
d. very tall mountain ranges.
10. Crust is neither destroyed nor formed along which of the following boundaries?
a. convergent
c. transform
b. divergent
d. magnetic
11. The driving forces of tectonic plates are related to convection currents in Earth’s
a. crust.
c. inner core.
b. mantle.
d. outer core.
98
Chapter 17 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
Class
17
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Match each letter that appears on the diagram with the appropriate feature below.
Then answer the questions.
D
1. Subduction zone
A
2. Rift valley
C
3. Volcanoes
B
4. Highly-folded mountains
C
B
A
Y
Continental
crust
Continental
crust
R
X
Continental
crust
D
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Mantle
Y
S
Oceanic
crust
5. Where is the divergent boundary? Mark its position on the diagram with the letter X.
6. Locate the convergent plate boundaries and mark them with the letter Y.
7. Where is the process of ridge push occurring? Mark this area with the letter R.
8. Where is the process of slab pull taking place? Mark this area with the letter S.
9. Draw arrows to show the direction of flow of convection currents beneath the plates.
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 17 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
99
Name
Class
CHAPTER
17
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Thinking Critically
Answer the following questions.
1. Even Alfred Wegener acknowledged that the apparent fit of continents or
“matching” of continental coastlines was crude at best. Propose an explanation
for this inexact fit.
2. Evolution is adaptation, or change, of organisms in response to environmental
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
changes. The theory of evolution states that similar organisms evolved from a
common ancestor. Scientists hypothesize that marsupials like koalas and kangaroos,
which are native only to Australia, evolved from the same ancestor as the
marsupials known as opossums, which are native to North and South America.
Does the theory of plate tectonics support the theory of evolution in this case?
Explain your answer.
3. About 200 million years ago, extensive tropical swamps existed in North America.
At the same time, glaciers covered southern Africa, southeastern South America,
much of India, portions of Australia, and nearly all of Antarctica. How does this
information support Wegener’s idea of continental drift?
100
Chapter 17 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
Class
CHAPTER
17
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods
Scientists have studied the motions of Earth’s tectonic plates and recorded many of their
findings as maps. Based on the assumption that the direction and rate of plate movement
taking place today will continue for the next 50 million years, researchers have made
predictions about the world’s future geography. The results of those predictions are
presented in the diagram below, which shows the configuration of the continents
50 million years from the present. The shaded areas of the diagram represent the
present positions of the continents.
80°
North
American
Plate
60°
Eurasian Plate
40°
20°
African Plate
120°
80°
South
American
Plate
40°
0°
40°
120°
160°
20°
40°
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
80°
Indian Plate
Madagascar
Plate
Australian
Plate
60°
80°
Antarctic Plate
Answer the following questions.
1. In which compass direction have North and South America moved in relation to Africa?
2. How does the size of the future Atlantic Ocean compare with its present size?
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 17 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
101
Name
Class
CHAPTER
17
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
3. What will probably happen to Australia if the plate upon which it sits continues to
move in the direction shown?
4. Describe the changes taking place in East Africa.
5. How does the size of the Pacific Ocean on this map compare with its present size?
6. Describe the geographic position of Europe on the map in relation to its present position.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
7. What might happen if Africa collides with Europe?
8. Locate the small strip of land off the northwestern coast of the North American
plate. Describe where you think this land came from and how it got there.
102
Chapter 17 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
Class
18
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Volcanic Activity
Reviewing Vocabulary
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Column A
e
Column B
1. Volcanic fragments thrown into air during a volcanic
a. caldera
eruption
b. vent
c
2. Internal resistance to flow
d
3. Intrusive igneous rock body
c. viscosity
b
4. Opening in Earth’s crust through which lava erupts
d. pluton
f
5. Bowl-shaped depression around a vent at the top of a
e. tephra
volcano
a
6. Depression that forms when the top or side of a
f.
crater
volcano collapses into the magma chamber
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
7. batholith, stock
8. sill, dike
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 18 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
103
Name
Class
CHAPTER
18
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
In the space at the left, write the word in parentheses that makes the statement correct.
lower
1. The hotter the magma or lava, the (greater, lower) is its viscosity.
faster
2. Lava that has low viscosity moves (slower, faster) than lava with
high viscosity.
increase
3. Temperature and pressure (increase, decrease) with depth beneath
Earth’s surface.
decreases
4. The temperature at which a substance melts (increases, decreases)
with the presence of water.
continental
5. Rhyolitic magma forms beneath (continental, oceanic) crust.
smallest
6. Cinder-cone volcanoes have steep sides and are generally the
(largest, smallest) volcanoes.
convergent
7. Volcanoes associated with (divergent, convergent) plate boundaries
form the Circum-Pacific and the Mediterranean Belts.
Laccoliths
8. (Laccoliths, Dikes) are plutons that cause overlying rocks
to bow upward.
Shield
9. (Shield, Composite) volcanoes are made of basaltic lava.
divergent
10. Most of the world’s rift volcanism occurs at
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
(divergent, convergent) boundaries.
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false,
change the italicized word or phrase to make it true.
pressure
11. The fact that most of the rocks in Earth’s lower crust and upper mantle
do not melt to form magma, even though the temperatures there are
high enough, is explained by the effect of water.
true
12. Rhyolitic magma-fueled volcanoes are especially explosive because
rhyolitic magma is highly viscous and contains a large volume of
trapped gas.
true
13. The higher the silica content in lava, the higher the lava’s resistance
to flow.
convergent 14. Many plutons formed as a result of mountain-building processes that
occurred along divergent plate boundaries.
rift zones 15. The volcanoes in the Circum-Pacific Belt form as a result of magma
(or Iceland)
rising upward into faults and fractures that form as tectonic plates
diverge.
104
Chapter 18 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
18
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Answer the following questions.
1. Compare and contrast magma and lava.
2. Describe the composition and characteristics of andesitic magma.
3. Describe the relationship among the terms tephra, dust, ash, lapilli, volcanic blocks,
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
and volcanic bombs.
4. Contrast the three major types of volcanoes.
Complete the table below.
Magma Characteristics
Type of Magma
Source Material
Viscosity
Gas Content
Basaltic magma
5.
upper mantle
6.
low
1–2%
Andesitic magma
7.
oceanic crust
and sediments
8.
intermediate
3–4%
10.
high
4–6%
9.
rhyolitic magma
Chapter Assessment
Continental crust
Chapter 18 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
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Class
CHAPTER
18
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Thinking Critically
Answer the following questions.
1. The volcano Izalco in El Salvador is a small, steep-sided volcano. What conclusions
can be drawn about the characteristics of the lava that formed this volcano?
2. For thousands of years, people have operated farms at the bases of active volcanoes
in spite of the risks. What might be the reason for this?
3. Pumice is an igneous rock. It is porous and floats on water. What conclusion can you draw
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
about the volume of gases present in the lava that forms pumice?
4. Why does lava containing large amounts of dissolved gases generally produce a
more violent explosion than lava that contains small amounts of dissolved gases?
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Chapter 18 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
18
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods
A substance’s viscosity is a measure of its internal resistance to flow. Viscosity is a property of
lava. When lava is heated or cooled, its viscosity changes.
Think about what type of demonstration could be designed to show the effect of
temperature on the viscosity of lava. Then answer the following questions.
1. Propose a hypothesis that describes the relationship between temperature and
viscosity.
2. What substances could be used to demonstrate the effects of temperature on the
viscosity of lava?
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3. How would you manipulate the temperature of the substance?
4. How would you measure the viscosity of the substance?
5. What would be the independent variable in this experiment?
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Applying Scientific Methods, continued
6. What could be used as the control?
7. What factors must remain the same?
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8. Design a table that would be suitable for presenting your data.
9. How might your data be displayed on a line graph?
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Earthquakes
Reviewing Vocabulary
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Column A
g
Column B
1. Section of an active fault that has not experienced
a. modified Mercalli scale
a significant earthquake for a long time
a
e
2. Scale that rates earthquake intensity
3. Wave generated by vertical motions of the
seafloor
h
4. Seismic wave that causes the ground to move in
two directions
c
b
f
d
b. Richter scale
c. stress
d. fault
e. tsunami
5. Forces per unit area acting on a material
6. Scale that measures energy released by a quake
7. Deformation of materials in response to stress
8. Fracture in rock along which movement occurs
f.
strain
g. seismic gap
h. surface wave
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Contrast each pair of related terms.
9. seismometer, seismogram
10. primary wave, secondary wave
11. focus, epicenter
12. Richter scale, moment-magnitude scale
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Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
Write the term that best completes the statement.
fault scarp
normal fault
strike-slip fault
fault plane
1. In a
reverse fault
strike-slip fault , the fracture is caused by horizontal shear and
movement is mainly horizontal.
2. A
reverse fault
forms as a result of horizontal compression and results
in a shortening of the crust involved.
3. Along a
normal fault
, movement is both horizontal and vertical,
resulting in a lengthening of the crust involved.
4. Fault movement can produce a
fault scarp
, an area of vertical offset.
5. The surface along which fault movement takes places is the
fault plane
.
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
6. On a seismometer, the suspended mass tends to stay
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
true
at rest during an earthquake because of inertia.
true
7. A seismometer is designed so that its frame vibrates
with the movement of the ground.
intensity
8. The amount of damage done to structures as a result
of an earthquake is the earthquake’s magnitude.
P-waves
lithosphere
9. S-waves are refracted, or bent, by Earth’s outer core.
10. From studying seismic waves, scientists have deter-
mined that the inner core, which includes the crust
and top of the upper mantle, is primarily igneous in
composition.
true
11. Earth’s lower mantle is probably composed of oxides
containing iron, silicon, and magnesium.
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Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Study the diagram. Then answer the questions.
Failure
Stress
Elastic limit
Strain
1. Describe what the graph shows. Then identify what the straight and curved
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
segments of the line represent.
2. Explain how scientists have inferred the physical states of Earth’s inner and outer
cores using seismic data.
3. Describe the global pattern of earthquake distribution and what causes it.
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Thinking Critically
An earthquake occurred, and seismic waves were detected by seismic stations A and B as
shown below. Examine the diagram and the travel-time graph. Then answer the questions.
Station A
¸
Time (min)
30
22
20
ave
S-w
ve
P-wa
14
11
10
7
m
0k
500
2000
4000
6000
8000 10 000 12 000
Distance from epicenter (km)
Epicenter
9000 k
m
Station B
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1. About how long did it take for the first P-waves to reach station A?
2. About how long did it take for the first S-waves to reach station A?
3. About how long did it take for the first P-waves to reach station B?
4. About how long did it take for the first S-waves to reach station B?
5. Can the exact location of the earthquake be determined from the data reported
by the two stations? Why or why not?
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Applying Scientific Methods
As part of a public safety campaign, an earthquake scientist has been sent to a small town to
assess its level of risk for an earthquake. The scientist made several observations about the
town. The table lists the scientist’s observations alongside related facts about earthquakes.
Some parts of the table are missing. Read each statement below the table and determine if it
is an observation made by the scientist or a related fact about earthquakes. Write the letter of
each statement where it best completes the table.
Observation
The town is located in a seismic belt.
1. e
The area has had one earthquake per 100 years on average.
The last earthquake occurred 130 years ago.
2. a
3. b
Earthquakes are the result of strain accumulation in rock.
4. d
During an earthquake, water-saturated sand can liquefy
and become like quicksand.
Elevated roadways are planned for an area that has been
leveled with soft-fill dirt.
5. c
6.
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Related Fact
f
Unreinforced structures made of brittle materials with no
foundation modifications often suffer severe damage.
a. The likelihood of earthquakes is high in a seismic gap.
b. Instrumentation installed by the scientist shows a significant accumulation of strain.
c. Fill becomes extremely unstable during earthquakes because seismic waves are amplified as
they travel through fill dirt.
d. The newer part of the town is built on sandy soils that are often wet.
e. Most earthquakes occur in seismic belts.
f.
Newer buildings in the town are unreinforced and built of rigid, brittle materials such as
glass and steel.
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Applying Scientific Methods, continued
Based on the observations and related facts, how should the scientist answer the following
questions? Support your answers with the appropriate observations and related facts about
earthquakes.
7. Does the town have a high probability of experiencing an earthquake in the
near future?
8. Should the proposed road system go through as planned? If not, what do you
suggest should be done differently?
9. Compared to existing ones, how should the construction of new structures
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
be altered, and why?
10. How might existing structures built in the newer part of town fare during an
earthquake, and why?
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Mountain Building
Reviewing Vocabulary
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Column A
a
Column B
1. Mountains that form when large pieces of crust are
a. fault-block mountains
tilted, uplifted, or dropped between large faults
d
2. Billowy rocks that form when lava erupts onto the
seafloor and quickly cools
c. orogeny
c
3. Cycle of processes that form mountain ranges
b
4. Slow process of the crust’s rising after overlying
material is removed
e
d. pillow basalts
e. isostasy
5. Condition of equilibrium whereby Earth’s crust is
balanced by the upward force of buoyancy and the
downward force of gravity
f
b. isostatic rebound
f.
uplifted mountains
6. Mountains that form when large regions of Earth
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
experience upward movement
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms or phrases.
7. continental crust, oceanic crust
8. oceanic-oceanic convergent boundary, oceanic-continental convergent boundary
9. volcanoes that form along oceanic-continental margins, volcanoes that form over hotspots
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Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
true
1. About 70 percent of Earth’s surface is below sea level.
true
2. The seafloor displaces more of the mantle than the same thickness of
the continental crust.
balanced
3. Isostasy between Earth’s mantle and crust exists when the mass of crust
is rising as a result of buoyancy and gravity.
true
4. Mt. Everest is the tallest mountain on Earth, so it probably has the
deepest root.
decrease
convergentboundary
true
5. When mountains erode, their roots increase in size.
6. The Appalachian Mountains are an example of divergent-boundary
mountains.
7. The Adirondack Mountains, which are made of rocks that show little
deformation, are uplifted mountains.
true
8. Oceanic crust is composed mainly of basalt, and continental crust is
composed mainly of granite.
seamounts
true
9. Continents are said to float on Earth’s mantle.
10. Individual volcanic mountains on the ocean floor are called plates.
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true
11. The tallest orogenic belts are found at continental-continental
convergent boundaries.
true
12. Many mountain ranges are formed as the result of tectonic interactions.
nonboundary 13. Broad, uplifted plateaus, such as the Colorado Plateau, are regional
divergent-boundary features of Earth’s crust.
true
14. The Hawaiian Islands formed as the result of the Pacific Plate’s moving
over hot spots in Earth’s mantle.
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CHAPTER
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Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Identify the type of boundary in each diagram, then answer the questions.
Shelf
Seamount
Lithosphere
Lithosphere
Lithosphere
Mantle
Mantle
1.
Continent
oceanic-oceanic boundary
3.
ocean ridge
Trench
Lithosphere
Su
bd
uc
tio
n
Mantle
2.
Lithosphere
Continental crust
Continental crust
zo
ne
oceanic-continental boundary
Lithosphere
4.
continental-continental boundary
5. Which diagram above shows a divergent boundary? Describe the processes involved
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
in this type of orogeny.
6. Describe how fault-block mountains and uplifted mountains are different from
mountains that form as a result of tectonic plate interactions.
7. How can you distinguish between fault-block mountains and uplifted mountains?
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Thinking Critically
Use the map of the Hawaiian Islands to answer the following questions. The dates on the map represent
the approximate times (millions of years before the present [M.Y.B.P.]) that the islands formed.
Kauai
3.8 M.Y.B.P
State of Hawaii
Niihau
Molokai
Oahu
1.3 M.Y.B.P
2.2 M.Y.B.P
Maui
0.8 M.Y.B.P
Lanai
Kahoolawe
N
W
E
Hawaii
0 M.Y.B.P
S
0 32 km
1. Describe the kind of orogeny that formed these islands that are far from tectonic
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
plate boundaries.
2. According to the map, which island is the oldest? Which is the youngest?
3. Where would you expect the next island in the group to form? Describe its location
and mark the place on the map.
4. How do the shapes of the mountains in this complex differ from the shapes of
volcanoes in large mountain ranges?
5. How does the formation of these mountains change the underlying crust?
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Applying Scientific Methods
Read a geologist’s report below on one area of Alaska. Then use the information in the
report and the cross-sectional diagram of central Alaska to answer the questions.
The central Brooks Range of Alaska is an area of rugged, east-trending ridges with heights
of up to about 2500 m. This range, which stretches across northern Alaska, is part of the Rocky
Mountain system. Sedimentary rocks are common in the Brooks Range. These rocks are
complexly folded and faulted in the Brooks Range and are less deformed elsewhere. Some
marine sedimentary rocks contain small fossils of invertebrates, shells, and corals and are
found near the mountains’ summits of the Brooks Range. The fossils provide information that
is useful in dating rocks and establishing the geological sequence.
Br
oo
ks
Ra
ng
e
South
Ch
ug
ac
hR
an
Ta
lke
ge
et
na
Mo
un
ta
ins
Al
as
ka
Ra
ng
e
Metamorphic rocks, such as marble and dolomite, are found along the south side of the
range. Several episodes of uplift, deformation, and intrusion have produced complexly folded,
fractured, and thrust faulted blocks. Erosion and heavy glaciation account for the rugged
mountain profiles and U-shaped valleys evident today.
North
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Continental
crust
Oceanic crust
Mantle
1. Note that the mountains’ roots extend into the mantle.
Which mountain range has the greatest mass above Earth’s surface?
2. From the diagram, what type of plate boundary exists in the south?
3. How does the Chugach Range appear to have formed?
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Applying Scientific Methods, continued
4. From the evidence presented in the report, how do you think the Brooks Range
formed? What led you to this conclusion?
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5. How can you explain the presence of marine sedimentary rock in the Brooks Range?
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Fossils and the Rock Record
Reviewing Vocabulary
Write the term that best completes the statement.
key bed
correlation
superposition
angular unconformity
evolution
dendrochronology
geologic time scale
nonconformity
cast
amber
superposition
mold
cross-cutting relationships
1. The adaptation of life-forms to changes in the environment is known as
2. The principle of
permineralization
evolution
.
states that, in an undisturbed sequence, the oldest rocks
are at the bottom of the sequence and successive layers are younger than those below them.
3. In the process of
permineralization , pore spaces within an organism’s shell are filled in
with mineral substances.
amber
4. Fossil insects can be found imbedded in
cast
5. A(n)
, the hardened sap of prehistoric trees.
forms when the hollowed-out impression of a fossil organism becomes
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
filled with minerals or sediment.
6. The
geologic time scale divides Earth’s history into units from its origin to the present.
key bed
7. A(n)
contains distinctive material that geologists can easily recognize
in the rock record and use as a time marker.
8. When the original parts of an organism in a sedimentary rock are weathered and eroded,
a hollowed-out impression called a(n)
9. The science of
mold
forms.
dendrochronology uses the annual growth of tree rings to date events and
environmental changes.
10. The gap in the rock record that occurs between folded or uplifted rock layers and a sedimentary
rock layer on top of them is called a(n) angular unconformity .
11. You can use the principle of
cross-cutting relationships to infer that a fault or an
intrusion is younger than the rock it cuts across.
12. A buried erosional surface between a nonsedimentary rock and a sedimentary rock is called
a(n)
nonconformity .
13. The matching of rock layers from one geographic area with those of another area is known
as
correlation
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Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. The Phanerozoic Eon includes the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and
a. Cenozoic Periods.
b. Jurassic Periods.
c. Tertiary Epochs.
d. Cenozoic Eras.
2. The Archean and Proterozoic are examples of
a. eons.
b. periods.
d. eras.
c. epochs.
3. Which of the following is marked by the appearance of organisms with hard parts?
a. the beginning of the Cenozoic
c. the end of the Mesozoic
b. the end of the Precambrian
d. the beginning of the Cretaceous
4. Which of the following lists the units of geologic time in order from shortest
to longest?
a. era, eon, period, epoch
b. epoch, eon, period, era
c. eon, era, period, epoch
d. epoch, period, era, eon
6. An example of a fossil with original preservation includes a(n)
a. insect imbedded in amber.
c. dinosaur footprint.
b. coprolite.
d. mold of a fish skeleton.
7. An example of a fossil with altered hard parts includes
a. a mummified human body.
c. a saber-toothed cat in tar.
b. a gastrolith.
d. petrified wood.
8. An example of a trace fossil includes a
a. cast of a clam.
b. worm trail.
122
c. mud crack.
Chapter 21 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
d. raindrop impression.
Chapter Assessment
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5. Which of the following is true of periods?
a. They are measured in terms of billions of years.
b. Examples include the Paleocene and Oligocene.
c. They are defined by the abundance or extinction of life-forms.
d. Their names are based on the relative ages of life-forms.
Name
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Class
21
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Answer the following questions.
1. What are fossils and how are they used to interpret Earth’s history?
2. Explain the principle of uniformitarianism.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. Contrast relative-age dating and absolute-age dating.
4. Describe how geologists use index fossils. List the characteristics that make
an index fossil.
5. What are varves and how are they used to date geologic events?
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Thinking Critically
Use the diagram to number the events below in the order in which they occurred.
K
J
I
H
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
L
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
N
v
v
P
M
v
v
v
O
1. J is deposited.
8
7. H is deposited.
5
2. M intrudes and crystallizes.
6
8. P intrudes and crystallizes.
1
3. Q is deposited.
11
9
4. I is deposited.
7
3
5. N is deposited.
12
11. K is deposited.
4
6. L is deposited.
2
12. O is deposited.
10
9. J is eroded.
10. L, M, N, O, P , and Q are uplifted and eroded.
Use the diagram above to answer the following question.
13. Identify the two types of unconformities in the diagram and describe
how they formed.
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Q
v
v
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21
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CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods
Radiometric dating has proved invaluable to scientists in the attempt to determine how long
ago Earth formed. A granite intrusion found in South Africa that contains inclusions of the
metamorphic rock quartzite is hypothesized to be one of the oldest rocks on Earth. Using
radiometric dating, scientists determined the age of the rock to be approximately 3.2 billion
years.
1. From this data, what conclusion can you draw about the age of Earth?
Explain your answer.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. Can scientists use the isotope C-14 to date the granite? Explain your answer.
3. Use the data above to state a hypothesis about the age of Earth. Describe how you
would go about testing your hypothesis.
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Applying Scientific Methods, continued
In a laboratory, you produce a quantity of the radioactive isotope thorium-234. Over
the course of several weeks, the unstable isotope decays, and you measure the amount
of thorium-234 remaining in the sample. You obtain the following data.
Days Elapsed
Grams of Thorium-234 Remaining
0
16
12
11
24
8
36
6
4. Use the data to determine the half-life of thorium-234. Explain your answer.
5. Use the data to complete the graph below.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Grams of Thorium-234
16
12
8
4
0
24
48
Days
72
96
6. Predict how much thorium-234 will remain after 2 half-lives.
7. How long will it take for 15 grams of the original thorium-234 to decay?
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The Precambrian Earth
Reviewing Vocabulary
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
1. prokaryote, eukaryote
2. Precambrian shield, Canadian shield
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. microcontinent, Laurentia
4. banded iron formation, red bed
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Column A
Column B
b
5. Tiny, threadlike photosynthetic organisms
a. amino acids
e
6. Mat or mound composed of billions of cyanobacteria
b. cyanobacteria
g
7. Stable mineral that commonly occurs in granite
c. Ediacaran fauna
f
8. Glacial event that occurred between 700 and 800
d. hydrothermal vent
million years ago
d
e. stromatolite
9. Hot water vent at volcanic seafloor rift
c
10. Fossils of soft-bodied Proterozoic organisms
a
11. Building blocks of proteins
Chapter Assessment
f.
Varangian glaciation
g. zircon
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CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
billion
1. The oldest rock samples collected from the Moon are approximately
4.6 million years old.
true
2. As a result of meteor bombardment of Earth, the size and temperature
of Earth increased.
less-dense
3. Lava flowing from the hot interior of Earth concentrated denser
minerals near Earth’s surface.
true
4. Early in the Proterozoic, microcontinents began to collide as a result of
plate tectonics.
carbon dioxide 5. Earth’s early atmosphere likely contained large concentrations of water
vapor, and oxygen and nitrogen gases vented from volcanoes.
cyanobacteria 6. Early life, mainly the Ediacaran fauna, modified the atmosphere by generating
large amounts of the gas that eventually formed the ozone layer.
crust
Archean
clay minerals
craton
glaciation
prokaryotes
crust
7. Earth’s earliest
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Write the term that best completes the statement.
likely formed as a result of the cooling of
the uppermost mantle.
8. The buried and exposed parts of a continental shield together compose the
craton
, the stable core of a continent.
9. Miller and Urey demonstrated that the basic building blocks of life were most likely
present on Earth during the
10. Heat, cyanide, and certain
Archean
clay minerals
.
can cause amino acids to join
together in chains.
11. Single-celled organisms that belong to the Kingdom Monera are
prokaryotes
.
12. A major extinction of acritarchs occurred near the end of the Proterozoic, in which
widespread
128
glaciation
may have played a critical role.
Chapter 22 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
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Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Use the illustration to answer the following questions.
750 million years ago
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1. Identify the ancient supercontinent shown in the diagram.
2. When did the ancient continent shown in the diagram form and start to break up?
3. What are orogens and what land feature is associated with them?
4. What is the Grenville Orogeny and how did it affect Laurentia?
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Thinking Critically
Study the diagram, which shows two different cells. Then answer the questions.
Organelles
No nucleus
A
Nucleus
B
1. Which cell most likely represents a prokaryote cell and which represents a
eukaryote cell? Explain your answer.
2. Which of these two types of cells most likely evolved first? Explain your answer.
3. Besides having a nucleus, eukaryotes also have a number of other cell parts, called organelles, that
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
perform separate functions. How might the presence of organelles have given ancient eukaryotes
an advantage over prokaryotes?
4. How might a theoretical “RNA world” have evolved into an organic “DNA world”
populated by prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
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Applying Scientific Methods
A geologist has gathered rock and fossil evidence and used it to date various events in Earth’s
history. She needs your help in arranging the events listed below on a time line and interpreting the time line. Complete the time line by filling in each event in the correct position.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Time Line (years before present)
Events
a
1. 4.6 billion
a. Earth forms.
d
2. 4.6 billion
b. Oldest dated zircon from granite crust forms.
j
3. 4.6 billion
c. Ediacaran fauna flourish.
n
4. 4.6–3.9 billion
b
5. 4.2 billion
m
6. 3.9–3.5 billion
f.
i
7. 3.5 billion
g. Grenville Orogeny occurs.
k
8. 3.4 billion
h. Proterozoic ends and Rodinia begins breaking apart.
l
9. 3.0–1.8 billion
i.
Oldest known cyanobacteria appear.
j.
Rocks of oldest meteorites form
d. Oldest moon rocks form.
e. Formation of most granite continental cores
is completed.
Volcanic islands collide with Laurentia.
e
10. 2.5 billion
o
11. 2.1 billion
f
12. 1.8–1.6 billion
g
13. 1.2–0.9 billion
p
14. 800–700 million
q
15. 700 million
o. Oldest known eukaryotes appear.
c
16. 670–570 million
p. Varangian glaciation occurs.
h
17. 540 million
k. Oldest known stromatolites appear.
l.
Stromatolites increase local oxygen levels.
m. First living things appear.
Chapter Assessment
n. Heavy bombardment of Earth by asteroids and
meteors occurs.
q. First undisputed multicellular
organisms appear.
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Applying Scientific Methods, continued
Answer the following questions.
18. How do the ages of Earth and the Moon compare?
19. About how much time passed between the formation of the oldest dated
zircon from granite crust and the completion of the formation of most granite
continental cores?
20. What event may have overlapped with the appearance of the first living things
on Earth?
21. Without knowing the date the event occurred, approximately where on the time
line would you place the formation of the first red beds? Explain your answer.
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22. Which occurred first, the Varangian glaciation or the Grenville Orogeny?
Chapter Assessment
Name
Class
CHAPTER
23
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
The Paleozoic Era
Reviewing Vocabulary
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Column A
d
e
f
Column B
1. Ancient geographic setting of an area
a. Ancestral Rockies
2. Continental edge with no tectonic activity
b. Burgess Shale
3. Mountain-building event named for the mountains
of eastern New York state
b
c
4. Contains fossils of soft-bodied Cambrian organisms
d. paleogeography
5. Repeating pattern of sedimentary sequences stacked
e. passive margin
on top of each other
a
c. cyclothem
6. Mountain range in present-day Colorado formed by
f.
Taconic Orogeny
inland uplift
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
7. transgression, regression
8. Antler Orogeny, Caledonian Orogeny
9. Paleozoic fauna, mass extinction
10. vascular plant, amniote egg
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 23 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
133
Name
Class
23
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
Write the term that best completes the statement.
Cambrian
lagoon
organic reef
Paleozoic
Precambrian
vascular plants
1. On Laurentia, large, sandy beaches formed when sand-sized fragments of quartz
were weathered from the rocks of the
Precambrian
Shield and
transported to the shoreline.
2. A(n)
organic reef
is a structure composed of carbonate skeletons made
by living organisms, such as coral.
lagoon
3. Fragile organisms can live in a(n)
, which is the calm area
behind a reef.
4. The
Cambrian
explosion was marked by great diversity of life,
including the development of animals with skeletons.
5. The ability to transfer water through stems and stalks characterizes
6. The Late
Paleozoic
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
vascular plants .
was a time of active mountain building.
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change
the italicized word or phrase to make it true.
true
7. Corals and sponges built reefs in the warm, shallow sea that
covered Laurentia.
rapidly
8. The growth lines on Devonian coral indicate Earth rotated more
slowly during the Paleozoic than it rotates today.
Taconic
9. The Taconic Mountains of eastern New York resulted from the
Antler Orogeny.
50 percent,
or half
10. The second Middle Paleozoic mass extinction that occurred during
the late Devonian wiped out 95 percent of all marine genera.
coal swamps 11. The largest insects that ever lived were preserved in the ideal
environment of sandy beaches.
true
12. The Great Permian Reef Complex is the remains of a fossilized
barrier reef.
134
Chapter 23 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
23
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Answer the following questions.
1. Describe the paleogeography and the tectonic conditions of Laurentia in the
Early Paleozoic.
2. Why does the high evaporation rate in lagoon settings favor the formation
of evaporites?
3. What three North American basins once had the right conditions to produce
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
today’s commercially mined evaporite minerals?
4. What was the location of the paleoequator of the Middle Paleozoic in Laurentia?
5. Explain one possible cause of the Permo-Triassic Extinction Event.
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 23 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
135
Name
Class
CHAPTER
23
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Thinking Critically
Use the diagram to answer the following questions.
san
ds
ton
e
sand
ston
e
shal
e
sandsto
ne
shale
shale
limestone
limestone
1. What probably happened to the location of the shoreline to produce the
sedimentation pattern shown in the diagram? What is this change called?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. Explain in detail how the sediment pattern shown in the diagram occurred.
3. What might have caused the change in sea level that is shown in the diagram?
136
Chapter 23 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
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Name
Class
23
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods
As a geologist, you know that Earth’s history is recorded in its rocks. Like a detective, you must
infer what has occurred based on the physical evidence you find. Three different sedimentary
sequences are shown in the diagram. Use your knowledge of how sedimentary layers are deposited to “read” these sequences and fill in the data table based on the evidence. Then answer
the questions.
Limestone
Sandstone
Sandstone
Shale
Sandstone
Shale
Shale
Coal
Key
Sandstone
Limestone
Shale
Shale
Sandstone
Limestone
Insect fossils
Marine fossils
Amphibian and reptile fossils
Burrow
Limestone
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
A
B
C
Evidence of
Transgression
(yes/no)
Evidence of
Regression
(yes/no)
Evidence of
Marine Environment
(yes/no)
Evidence of
Land Environment
(yes/no)
A
no
yes
yes
no
B
yes
yes
yes
yes
C
yes
yes
yes
yes
Sedimentary
Sequence
1. For sequence A, what evidence led to your conclusions about the occurrence of
transgressions, regressions, or both?
2. For sequence A, what evidence led to your conclusions about the type of
environment?
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 23 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
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Class
CHAPTER
23
Date
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Applying Scientific Methods, continued
3. For sequence B, what evidence led to your conclusions about the occurrence of
transgressions, regressions, or both?
4. For sequence B, what evidence led to your conclusions about the type of environment?
5. For sequence C, what evidence led to your conclusions about the occurrence
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
of transgressions, regressions, or both?
6. For sequence C, what evidence led to your conclusions about the type of environment?
7. What are cyclic deposits like those represented in sequence C called? What is the
primary cause of this pattern of deposits?
138
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Chapter Assessment
Name
Class
CHAPTER
24
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
The Mesozoic and
Cenozoic Eras
Reviewing Vocabulary
Write the letter of the term from Column B next to its matching item in Column A.
Column A
f
Column B
1. Mountain ranges that formed in western North
a. angiosperms
America during the Triassic.
h
2. Marine organisms that evolved as the breakup of
Pangaea created more continental-shelf habitat
e
d. iridium
4. Seed-bearing plants that have flowers
5. Metal common in meteorites and asteroids
6. Area of north-to-northeast trending mountains and
linear valleys in Nevada, Utah, and Mexico formed by
extensional tectonism
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
g
c. Homo sapiens
3. Separated Africa and Eurasia before these two
continents collided
a
d
b
b. Basin and Range Province
7. Mammal possessing specialized traits related to
e. Tethys Sea
f.
Cordillera
g. primate
h. modern fauna
arboreal lifestyle
c
8. Modern human species
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
9. Ornithischia, Saurischia
10. ectotherm, endotherm
11. hominoid, hominid
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 24 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
139
Name
Class
CHAPTER
24
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
Write the term that best completes the statement.
ammonites
batholiths
ice age
mammals
phytoplankton
Rocky Mountains
sauropods
oceans
1. As Pangaea split apart, the rifts flooded to form new
oceans
.
2. As a result of the earliest of the Mesozoic orogenies in North America, large bodies
of granite called
batholiths
3. Tiny, ocean-dwelling organisms called
exist throughout the Cordillera.
phytoplankton
made up the base of
the food chain during the Mesozoic.
4. Fossils of
ammonites
are often used as index fossils because these
marine animals were widespread and abundant during the Mesozoic.
mammals
5. Early
with a single jawbone arose from mammal-like reptiles.
6. The largest land animals that ever lived were the quadrupedal, plant-eating
sauropods
.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
7. Orogenic events at the end of the Mesozoic uplifted massive blocks of crust to form
the Rocky Mountains .
8. As the Pliocene
ice age
began, great savannas became arid land
and many savanna mammals became extinct.
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
true
9. Deformation along the western margin of North America increased
substantially when Pangaea broke apart.
one ocean
10. Throughout the Early and Middle Triassic, before Pangaea split apart,
this supercontinent and two oceans defined Earth’s paleogeography.
Mesozoic
11. The first mammals, birds, and flowering plants arose during the
Cenozoic, which was a time of many biological firsts.
true
Australia
12. Some paleontologists hypothesize that some groups of dinosaurs were endotherms.
13. When Antarctica and Eurasia were connected, a current of warm water
from the north moderated the temperature of Antarctica.
true
14. As the climate cooled during the late Eocene, forests gave way to open
land, which supported a diversity of large mammals.
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Chapter 24 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
24
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Answer the following questions.
1. According to a current, widely held hypothesis, what caused the breakup of Pangaea?
2. Describe the paleogeography of North America as sea levels rose during the Jurassic.
3. What evidence leads many paleontologists to hypothesize that birds are related to dinosaurs?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
4. What evidence indicates that a very large meteorite hit Earth at the end of the Cretaceous?
5. How did cooler temperatures of the Pliocene help cause the Pleistocene glaciation?
What was the extent of the glaciation in North America?
Chapter Assessment
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141
Name
Class
CHAPTER
24
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Thinking Critically
Answer the following questions.
1. Describe how scientists determine the divisions in the geologic time scale.
2. Compare and contrast the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras in terms of paleogeography
and climate.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. Compare and contrast the life-forms of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras.
4. What might you conclude by observing that the Cenozoic Era is divided into
epochs, while the Mesozoic is not?
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Chapter 24 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
Class
24
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods
You are to deduce the periods of geologic time represented in two different sedimentary sequences by
examining the fossils in each. The fossilized organisms contained in the sedimentary sequences are shown
in the table. The geological time scale follows the table. Examine the table and the time scale. Then answer
the following questions.
Phylum
Genus
Range
Arthropoda
Aeger
Late Triassic-Late
Jurassic
Arthropoda
Cypridea
Mid Jurassic-Early
Cretaceous
Mollusca
Gonioteuthis
Late Cretaceous
Echinodermata
Crateraster
Cretaceous
Mollusca
Mytilus
Triassic-recent
Mollusca
Pleurotomaria
Jurassic-Cretaceous
66 M.Y.B.P.
Recent
Quaternary Period
Holocene Epoch
Pleistocene Epoch
146 M.Y.B.P.
Jurassic Period
208 M.Y.B.P.
Triassic Period
245 M.Y.B.P.
Chapter Assessment
Cenozoic Era
Cretaceous Period
Mesozoic Era
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Organism
0.01 M.Y.B.P.
1.6 M.Y.B.P.
1.6 M.Y.B.P.
Neogene Period
Pliocene Epoch
5 M.Y.B.P.
Miocene Epoch
23 M.Y.B.P.
Paleogene Period
Oligocene Epoch
23 M.Y.B.P.
Eocene Epoch
56 M.Y.B.P.
Paleocene Epoch
66 M.Y.B.P.
66 M.Y.B.P.
35 M.Y.B.P.
Chapter 24 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
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Name
Class
CHAPTER
24
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
Use the sedimentary sequences below to answer the following questions.
Sedimentary Sequence A
Sedimentary Sequence B
1. What geologic periods are represented by sedimentary sequence A?
2. Which of the organisms in sedimentary sequence A lived for the longest period of time?
4. Which of the three organisms in sedimentary sequence A would be the best index fossil? Why?
5. What geologic periods are represented by sedimentary sequence B?
6. Aeger, Cypridea, and Pleurotomaria existed at the same time for a brief period. When was this?
7. Do the ranges of Aeger and Cypridea overlap? If so, when do they overlap?
8. Would Pleurotomaria be a good index fossil? Why or why not?
144
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Chapter Assessment
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3. Do the ranges of Aeger and Gonioteuthis overlap?
Name
Class
25
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Earth Resources
Reviewing Vocabulary
Write the term that best completes the statement.
air pollution
1. On Earth,
desalination
desertification
natural resources
sustainable yield
natural resources include(s) air, water, and land; all living things;
the soil and crust; and natural cycles.
2. A process of management called
sustainable yield ensures the replacement of
renewable resources at the same rate they are consumed.
3. Loss of topsoil leads to
desertification
4. Excess nitrogen and sulfur cause
in arid and semiarid regions.
air pollution
when they occur in large
quantities.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. Some countries use
desalination
to create freshwater from ocean water.
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
6. aggregate, bedrock
7. ore, gangue
8. renewable resource, nonrenewable resource
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 25 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
145
Name
Class
CHAPTER
25
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
Circle the pictured items that are renewable resources on Earth. Then list each item below
the illustrations.
prod
o f M u ct
a in e
peats
mos
1.
chicken
4.
agricultural crop
7.
fish
2.
wind energy
5.
sunflower
8.
freshwater
3.
solar energy
6.
trees
9.
pineapple
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Column A
c
10. Gas that makes up most of the atmosphere
a. freshwater
e
11. Sand and gravel bars that contain heavy sediments,
b. transport of surface water
such as gold dust and gold nuggets
a
12. Three percent of Earth’s water
d
13. System of perforated pipes used to provide water
directly to plant roots
b
146
Column B
c. nitrogen
d. trickle irrigation
e. placer deposit
14. Bringing water from areas of plenty to areas of need
Chapter 25 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Oil
Name
Class
CHAPTER
25
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
true
western
1. Most freshwater is used to irrigate crops.
2. The major water problem in the eastern United States is too little
precipitation.
true
3. The continent of Africa has the most countries with chronic water
shortages.
aqueducts
4. Two thousand years ago, Romans built dams to transport water over
distances.
true
5. Drawdown can make a well run dry.
use sources 6. The best way to reduce the need for freshwater is to find new sources.
more efficiently
Give an example why each property below makes water an important resource on Earth.
7. Liquid water can store a large amount of heat without a correspondingly high
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
increase in temperature.
8. Water is a versatile solvent.
9. Water expands when it freezes.
10. Water has a high boiling point.
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 25 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
147
Name
Class
CHAPTER
25
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Thinking Critically
Use the information and the plan of Biosphere 2 to answer the questions that follow.
Biosphere 2 is a sort of greenhouse in the Arizona desert. It contains medium-sized communities of plants and animals. For a while, it was used in an experiment to see how humans and
Earth systems interact. The whole complex was tightly sealed from the environment. It had a
set amount of water, air, soil, and organisms (including eight people). Electrical equipment
moved air among the buildings and controlled temperature. Biosphere 2 was carefully planned
to be a self-sustaining ecosystem.
West lung
Agro-forestry
Human
habitat
Orchard
Air exhaust
CO2 supply tank
Desert
Air intake
Thorn
scrub
Savanna
Marsh
Freshwater
marsh
Ocean
Rain forest
Lower
savanna
1. How does the water resource in Biosphere 2 differ from Earth’s water?
2. The Biosphere 2 sealed experiment with humans was stopped because carbon dioxide levels
were too high and oxygen levels were too low. Why would these levels be a problem?
3. Technologically advanced materials are an important part of Biosphere 2. They
figure in construction and in interior design. The materials were tested for toxicity
before they were used. Why?
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Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
South lung
Name
Class
25
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods
You are on the planning board of a small township (population 2000) in the eastern United
States. The town appeals to hikers, canoeists, and fishers. This year, three major land-use proposals came up for the board’s review: a shopping plaza, a factory that makes paper, and a
housing development.
Read the descriptions of the projects and look at the map of the township. Then answer the
questions that follow.
Marsh
y
hwa
Hig
Woods
Cornfields
W
Forest
Gravel pit
Truck
farm
N
River
Stream
E
S
Town
forest
Road
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Forest lands—
lumbering and recreation
The shopping plaza would cover about 4 acres northeast of town where the truck farm is now.
It would include a supermarket, small shops, and parking. It would create some jobs and generate traffic drawn from neighboring towns.
The paper factory would be on a site of about 3 hectares approximately 4 km west of town
where the gravel pit is now. It would include wood storage, the factory, a water-pumping station, an access road, and employee parking. A great quantity of water is used in making paper.
This water would be pumped from the river and then distributed into the air as steam or
restored as clean, warm water into the river.
The housing development would replace most of the cornfields northwest of the town
between the river and the highway. Forty houses would be built on 0.5-hectare lots. A U-shaped
access road would connect to the road currently located between the highway and the town.
1. Resource conservationists recommend that towns use local resources. How would
the land-use proposals affect that goal?
Chapter Assessment
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Class
CHAPTER
25
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CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
2. Which proposals might affect the level of air pollution from motor vehicle
emissions? Explain your answer.
3. Which proposals would increase demands on the water supply? Which would
decrease demands?
4. What potentially positive or negative impacts might the proposals have on the
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
recreational use of the river?
5. What three questions would you, a planning board commissioner, like to have
answered before deciding on these proposed land uses?
6. Based on the information included here, which project do you think would be the
best addition to the community? Why?
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Chapter 25 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
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Name
Class
26
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Energy Resources
Reviewing Vocabulary
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Column A
d
Column B
1. Energy contained in water and steam heated by
Earth’s internal heat
a. biogas
b. bitumen
b
2. Can be separated from tar sand and refined
e
3. Light, spongy plant material used as fuel
c
4. Gasoline mixed with ethanol
a
5. Gas mixture produced by decomposition of
c. gasohol
d. geothermal energy
e. peat
organic waste
Complete each statement.
6. Materials like wood and coal are
fuels
, which are burned to
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
produce heat or power.
fossil fuels
7. Energy sources known as
formed over thousands or
millions of years from the compression and decomposition of organic matter.
8. The use of energy resources in ways that are productive is known as
energy efficiency .
cogeneration
9. A common method of
is capturing and using heat during
electric generation.
10. Sunlight falling on a(n)
photovoltaic cell produces a flow of electrons, which
creates an electric current.
11. On a global scale,
sustainable energy meets current and future energy needs
without damaging Earth’s environment.
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 26 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
151
Name
Class
CHAPTER
26
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
For each item, write F for fossil fuel, B for biomass fuel, or O for other source of energy.
Some items may have more than one answer. Then answer the questions.
B
1. bagasse
F
11. kerogen
B
2. biogas
B, F
12. methane
F
3. bitumen
F
13. natural gas
B
4. charcoal
O
14. nuclear energy
F
5. coal
B
6. ethanol
F
16. petroleum
B
7. fecal material
O
17. tidal power
B
8. field crops
O
18. wind power
O
9. geothermal energy
B
19. wood
O
10. hydroelectric power
B, F
15. peat
20. What is the ultimate source of energy for most of the energy sources listed above?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What are the two exceptions?
21. List four traditional fuels.
22. List five alternative energy resources.
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Name
Class
26
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Match each letter on the diagram with the appropriate term below.
A
B
C
D
C
B
D
A
1. oil
2. gas
3. water
4. barrier of impermeable rock
Answer the following questions.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. Explain why natural gas is usually found with oil.
6. Put these fuels in order from the smallest percentage of carbon to the largest
percentage: anthracite, bituminous coal, lignite, peat. Which of these fuels burns
hottest and cleanest?
7. How is coal transformed into electricity?
8. Compare and contrast the formation of coal and oil.
Chapter Assessment
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153
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Class
CHAPTER
26
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CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Thinking Critically
Study the diagram, which shows a plan for a proposed power plant in your community.
Then answer the questions.
Generator
Air and
water
vapor
Turbine
Condenser
Steam
Production
well
Air
Cooling
tower
Air
Water Hot
well
Condensate
Injection
well
Geothermal zone
1. What is the “fuel” used to generate electricity in the power plant?
2. Your community is located near a chain of volcanic mountains. Is your location
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
likely to be a good location for the proposed power plant? Explain your answer.
3. Should your community build the proposed power plant? State your opinion and back up
your answers with either the advantages or disadvantages of using this energy resource.
4. Your community is also known for its steady winds. Propose a strategy for
combining the use of two resources to produce a reliable supply of electricity.
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Class
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Applying Scientific Methods
Dave and Lila are trying to figure out how to
use less energy because they want to spend less
money and they are concerned about depleting
Earth’s resources. Their goal is to cut their
energy use by 75 percent. They drive to work,
and they heat their home, shown below, with
electricity. They have made two tables
summarizing their electricity use.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Use Category
Appliance
% of Total Electricity Used
Heating
44
Hot water
22
Cooling
12
Lighting
10
Refrigeration
5
Cooking
4
Clothes washing/drying
3
Annual Usage (KwH)
Appliance
Annual Usage (KwH)
Range
1152
Clothes dryer
1000
Microwave
300
Washer
624
Coffee maker
110
Dishwasher
1560
Toaster
40
TV
440
Clock
18
Stereo/CD player
110
Refrigerator
1200
Vacuum cleaner
50
Attic fan
300
Iron
150
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Applying Scientific Methods, continued
Use the tables on the previous page to answer the following questions.
1. Lila has discovered that she could buy a vacuum cleaner that is 20 percent more energy efficient
than the one they have, a range that is 10 percent more efficient, a different refrigerator that is
10 percent more efficient, and a clothes dryer that cuts drying time by 50 percent. Prioritize
these potential purchases from most to least helpful for reaching their goal.
2. Which appliances could Dave and Lila use less often? Explain your choices.
3. Which of Dave and Lila’s use categories are not represented on the appliance list?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
How could they try to decrease spending in those categories?
4. It is possible that Dave and Lila have not considered all their energy-saving options.
What suggestions could you make that they might not have thought of?
5. Do you think Dave and Lila can reach their goal of using 75 percent less energy?
If yes, point out some of the ways they can do this. If no, give a percentage that
you think they can achieve, and explain why.
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Human Impact on
Earth Resources
Reviewing Vocabulary
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
1. density-independent factors, density-dependent factors
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. reclamation, deforestation
3. biodiversity, monoculture
4. smog, ozone
5. point sources, nonpoint sources
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Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
exponential growth
1. As long as the number of reproducing adults in a
population continues to increase, the population as a
whole is in a state of density.
bioremediation
2. Naturally occurring bacteria can be used to eat toxic
materials and convert them to less-harmful substances
in a process called reclamation.
true
3. Carrying capacity is the number of organisms a given
environment can support.
global warming
4. Many scientists believe that human production of the
greenhouse gas carbon dioxide is largely responsible
for the phenomenon of ozone depletion.
true
5. Acid precipitation is precipitation with a pH less than
5.0.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
6. A population that is at the carrying capacity for its environment is in
a. decline.
c. growth.
b. equilibrium.
d. collapse.
7. Mineral extraction from underground mines creates waste rock, and rainwater
seeping through piles of this rock can lead to
a. pollution of streams.
b. the formation of acid precipitation.
c. stripping of the surface landscape.
d. pollution of the air.
8. As a result of urban development, land becomes covered with cement and asphalt,
which can result in
a. increased groundwater recharge.
b. pollution of the air.
c. increased flooding.
d. increased biodiversity.
9. Sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-burning power plants combines with
atmospheric moisture to form
a. ozone.
b. CFCs.
c. acid precipitation.
d. nitrogen dioxide.
10. The primary federal law that protects our nation’s water from pollution is the
a. Safe Drinking Water Act.
c. Endangered Species Act.
b. Clear Water Amendment.
d. Clean Water Act.
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Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Use the diagram to answer questions 1 and 2.
A Modern Landfill
A Topsoil
Sand
Clay
Garbage
Garbage
Sand
Liner
Sand Compacted
solid
Liner
waste
Clay
Subsoil
B
Groundwater
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1. What is the purpose of the layer of materials at A?
2. What is the purpose of the layer of materials at B?
Answer the following questions.
3. What are CFCs, and what role do they play in depletion of ozone in the atmosphere?
4. Describe the major sources of air pollution from fossil fuels.
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Thinking Critically
Answer the following questions.
1. A natural forest is cut and replaced by a tree farm in which one species of tree is
planted. What are the positive and negative impacts of this practice?
2. How could an increase in the use of buses and trains decrease the effects of acid precipitation?
3. Why might buying a more expensive product made of recycled materials be a
4. How can choosing to plant one crop instead of another be a method of water conservation?
5. Do you, as a United States resident, have a greater or lesser impact on Earth’s
resources than someone from another country with lower standards of living?
Explain your answer.
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smarter purchase in the long run?
Name
Class
27
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods
Jiffy Supermarket wants to open its newest and biggest 24-hour store in Apple City. The
supermarket has submitted plans for the store to the City Council, of which you are a member.
The plans show that Jiffy wants to build the market on an area of forest and marshland along
the banks of the Apple River. Jiffy Supermarket plans to cut the trees and build the store in the
middle of the property. The diagrams show the area before and after the proposed development.
Your job is to determine the impact of the proposed plans on the surrounding land, air, and
water. Then you will report your findings to the other members of the City Council so they
can vote to accept or reject the new development plan.
Chimneys for oil
heating system
Paved parking
Paved
lot and truck
parking lot
loading area
Fertilized grassy
Store
park area
Forest
Marsh
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
River
BEFORE
Oil tank
Air-conditioning/
refrigeration units
Bare fill
dirt
River
AFTER
1. What impact might the cutting of the forest and the destruction of the marsh have?
2. Would the proposed changes have any impact on the air? Explain your answer.
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Applying Scientific Methods, continued
3. Would the proposed changes have any impact on the river and the groundwater?
Explain your answer.
4. What changes or preventative measures might you suggest to minimize the
5. Would you recommend the approval of the proposed plans? Explain your decision.
Answers will vary. Accept all reasonable responses that are supported by facts.
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environmental impact of the proposed plans?
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The Sun-Earth-Moon System
Reviewing Vocabulary
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Column A
f
Column B
1. Technology developed in the space program that now
a. reflecting telescope
has common commercial uses
m
2. Plane of Earth’s orbit about the Sun
k
3. Material blasted out during impacts that falls back to
the Moon’s surface
a
4. A device that brings visible light to a focus with
mirrors
h
5. Earth’s position around June 21, at which the
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
d. perigee
f.
spinoff
g. apogee
6. Earth’s position when the lengths of day and night
h. summer solstice
are equal
i
c. solar eclipse
e. interferometry
northern hemisphere has its maximum daylight
hours
j
b. albedo
7. Moon’s state, in which its rotational period and its
i.
synchronous rotation
autumnal equinox
orbital period are equal
o
8. A dark, smooth plain on the surface of the Moon
j.
n
9. Loose, ground-up rock on the Moon’s surface
k. ejecta
e
10. Process of linking separate radio telescopes to
act as one
l.
winter solstice
c
11. The blocking of the disk of the sun by the Moon
m. ecliptic
d
12. Closest point to Earth in the Moon’s orbit
n. regolith
l
13. Earth’s position near or on December 21, at which
the northern hemisphere has its minimum daylight
hours
b
o. mare
14. The portion of sunlight reflected by the Moon’s
surface
g
15. Farthest point from Earth in the Moon’s orbit
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Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
In the space at the left, write the term or phrase in parentheses that makes the statement correct.
electromagnetic spectrum 1. The arrangement of waves that includes gamma rays, X rays, ultraviolet radiation, visible light, infrared radiation, microwaves, and
radio waves according to wavelength and frequency is called the
(electromagnetic spectrum, electromagnetic radiation).
refracting
2. The telescope that uses lenses to bring visible light to a focus is a
(reflecting, refracting) telescope.
above the atmosphere 3. Telescopes are placed (on a mountaintop, above the atmosphere) in
order to most effectively collect infrared and ultraviolet radiation,
X rays, and gamma rays.
Apollo
4. The space exploration program that landed astronauts on the Moon
was (Mercury, Apollo).
erosion
5. The Moon’s surface is very different from the surface of Earth
because the Moon has no (erosion, valleys).
Ejecta
6. (Ejecta, Albedo) is the material blasted out of the Moon’s surface as
simultaneous formation
7. The theory that suggests the Moon was formed at about the
same time as Earth and from similar materials is called the
(capture, simultaneous formation) theory.
rotation
8. The daily rising and setting of heavenly objects like the Sun is
caused by the (orbit, rotation) of Earth.
axis
9. One reason different seasons occur on Earth is because Earth’s
(axis, orbit) is tilted 23.5 relative to the ecliptic.
increase
10. When the Moon waxes during its lunar cycle, the amount of its
sunlight portion that we see appears to (increase, decrease) in size.
lunar eclipse
11. A (solar eclipse, lunar eclipse) occurs when Earth passes between
the Sun and Moon.
full moon
12. A lunar eclipse can only occur during the phase of the
(new moon, full moon).
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a result of space-object impacts.
Name
Class
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CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Study the photograph of the Moon. Then answer the questions.
B
A
C
D
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1. What is feature D and how did it form?
2. Which feature is a mountain range?
B
3. Compare and contrast the type, appearance, and formation of features A and C.
4. Why is the Moon’s surface so heavily pitted with craters, while Earth’s is not?
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Thinking Critically
Answer the following questions.
1. How would conditions on Earth be different if Earth were not tilted on its axis?
Explain your answer.
2. How would conditions on Earth be different if Earth were tilted on its axis at an
angle of 60? Explain your answer.
C
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
A
B
3. The drawing shows several impact craters on the Moon. Which of the three labeled
craters is the oldest? Explain your answer.
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Applying Scientific Methods
The Lunar Prospector spacecraft spent 19 months collecting data from its orbit around the
Moon. From January of 1998 to July of 1999, the craft, which is about the size of an oil drum,
performed to a high level of efficiency, according to mission researcher Alan Binder.
One device on the Lunar Prospector was a neutron spectrometer. As cosmic rays from space
hit the surface of the Moon, they cause sprays of neutrons and other particles. When the neutrons mix with the regolith on the moon, they lose various amounts of energy, depending on
what elements are present in the regolith. Hydrogen takes away more energy than other elements. Hydrogen is one of the basic elements needed to form water, H2O.
Lunar Prospector flew over the Moon’s north and south poles many times. These regions
are cold and shadowed, never receiving any of the sun’s light or heat. The spacecraft’s neutron
spectrometer measurements indicated the presence of much hydrogen in the surface regolith
at the poles.
The spacecraft also collected data that suggest the Moon has a small iron-rich core. It is
much smaller than the iron core of Earth, but then the Moon is much smaller than Earth.
Binder’s goal is to eventually create a lunar base on the Moon. Humans could live there as
well as use the base as a stepping stone to the planets. If this happens someday, the information
gathered by Lunar Prospector will have contributed in no small fashion.
1. Based on data from Lunar Prospector, can researchers conclude that there is water
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
on the Moon? Explain your answer.
2. If there is water near the poles on the Moon, what form do you think it takes—
liquid, gas, or ice? Why?
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Applying Scientific Methods, continued
3. Which theory of the Moon’s origin seems to be supported by data collected by the
Lunar Prospector? Explain your answer.
4. Imagine you are the mission researcher for the next craft that will visit the Moon.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What kinds of tasks would you have the craft perform in order to prove or disprove
the existence of water on the Moon?
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Our Solar System
Reviewing Vocabulary
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Column A
Column B
e
1. Earth’s average distance from the Sun: 1.496 108 km
c
2. Cloud type that is low, warm, dark-colored, and
sinking
f
3. The wobble of Earth’s axis caused by the Moon’s
gravitational force on Earth
b
4. Cloud of gas and dust from which stars and planets
are formed
a
b. interstellar cloud
c. belt
d. comet
e. 1 astronomical unit
5. Interplanetary material that burns up and becomes a
bright, glowing streak of light in Earth’s atmosphere
d
a. meteor
f.
precession
6. Small, icy body made of ice and rock that has a highly
eccentric orbit around the Sun
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
7. Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, Newton’s law of universal gravitation
8. terrestrial planets, gas giant planets
9. aphelion, perihelion
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CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
Nicolaus
Copernicus
true
1. In the early 1500s, Tycho Brahe formulated the heliocentric model of
the solar system.
2. Kepler’s first law demonstrates that each planet has an elliptical orbit of
unique size and shape with the Sun at one focus.
true
3. Galileo’s discovery of Jupiter’s moons proved that not all celestial
bodies orbit Earth; therefore, Earth is not necessarily the center of
the solar system.
true
4. Mercury has the largest day-night temperature difference of all the
planets in our solar system.
Venus
5. The high concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere of
Mars inhibits infrared radiation from escaping and keeps the surface
extremely hot.
true
6. Asteroids are thought to be leftover planetesimals that never formed
planets from the time of the solar system’s formation.
Jupiter
7. The rapid rotation of Saturn distorts its shape so that the diameter
Jupiter
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
through its equatorial plane is 7 percent larger than the diameter
through its poles.
8. Neptune has clouds and atmospheric belts and zones similar to those of
Saturn and Uranus.
true
9. Pluto’s orbit is so eccentric that while at perihelion, Pluto is closer to the
Sun than Neptune is.
true
10. The dense concentration of gas at the center of the solar nebula
eventually became the Sun.
two clusters 11. The Oort cloud and the Kuiper belt are asteroid belts.
of comets
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Class
29
CHAPTER
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Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Label the diagram of our solar system by writing the name of each body next to its number.
Note that the diagram is not to scale.
The Solar System
8
9
7
5
4
2
1
3
10
6
1.
Mercury
2.
Venus
3.
Earth
4.
Mars
5.
Jupiter
6.
Saturn
7.
Uranus
8.
Neptune
9.
Pluto
10.
Sun
Answer the following questions.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
11. Which are the terrestrial planets?
12. Which are the gas giant planets?
13. Which planet has a reddish color caused by a high iron content?
14. Which planet has the largest mountain in our solar system? What is this mountain called?
15. Describe the surface, size, atmosphere, satellite, and orbit of Pluto.
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Thinking Critically
Planetary Motion
Kepler’s laws of planetary motion demonstrate that each planet’s orbit around the Sun sweeps
out in a shape called an ellipse, rather than a circle. This means that a planet does not maintain
a constant distance from the Sun. Kepler found that an imaginary line between the Sun and a
planet sweeps out equal amounts of area in equal amounts of time. Kepler also discovered a
mathematical relationship between the size of a planet’s ellipse and its orbital period.
Use the terms below to label the two diagrams.
foci
semimajor axis
perihelion
major axis
aphelion
Sun
Elliptical Orbit of a Planet
major axis
foci
2.
3.
semimajor axis
Orbit of Pluto
5.
4.
Sun
perihelion
6.
aphelion
7. How does a model of the solar system in which the planets have elliptical orbits
explain the difference in the speed of the planets?
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1.
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Applying Scientific Methods
Possible Present-Day Sources of Water on Mars
In recent years, the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft
observed features that suggest there may be current sources
of liquid water at or near the surface of Mars. These small
features—about the size of a sport utility vehicle—have
been compared to the features left by flash floods on Earth.
The features look like gullies formed by flowing water and
the deposits of soil and rock transported by these flows.
The gully landforms on both Mars and Earth are divided
into three parts: the alcove, the channel, and the apron. The
alcove is a deep channel with a collapsed region at its upper
end. At the other end is an apron, or area of accumulated
debris that appears to have been transported down the
slope. The Mars gullies have been observed on cliffs and
appear to be extremely young.
The presence of liquid water on Mars has implications for the questions of past and present
life. If life did develop on Mars, and if it survives, these landforms are the place to look for it. If
water is available, human exploration crews to Mars could access and use it. The water could
be used for drinking, creating breathable air, and extracting oxygen and hydrogen for rocket
fuel.
1. Based on the information above, why do scientists believe they may have found
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
water on Mars?
2. What features on Earth do these Mars features resemble?
3. Compare the two images and explain how the gullies are made.
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Applying Scientific Methods, continued
4. Why is the presence of liquid water on Mars important? How could it help humans?
5. Why are scientists still looking for life on other planets? Does it seem possible that
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
they might find it?
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Stars
Reviewing Vocabulary
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Column A
c
Column B
1. Combining of lightweight nuclei into heavier nuclei,
such as four hydrogen nuclei combining to form a
helium nucleus
f
2. Cloud of interstellar gas and dust that collapses on
itself to form a new star
h
d
3. Visible light arranged according to wavelengths
4. Group of bright stars named for an animal, a
mythological character, or an everyday object
g
5. Minimum to maximum sunspots, a reversal of
polarity, and minimum to maximum sunspots over a
period of 22.4 years
b
6. Lowest layer of the Sun’s surface from which most
of the light emitted by the Sun comes
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
e
a. black hole
b. photosphere
c. fusion
d. constellation
e. main sequence
f.
nebula
g. solar activity cycle
h. spectrum
7. Section of the H-R diagram into which about
90 percent of stars fall
a
8. Small, massive, dense object that has a gravity so
immense that nothing—not even light—can escape it
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
9. apparent magnitude, absolute magnitude
10. clusters, binary stars
11. fusion, fission
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CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
surface
1. In the convective zone of the solar interior, volumes of gas carry energy
to the Sun’s interior.
true
2. As a star ages, its internal composition changes as nuclear reactions in
the star’s core convert one element into another.
true
3. In the 1600s, the solar activity cycle stopped, and there were no sunspots
for nearly 50 years.
true
4. Astronomers can sometimes identify binary stars even if only one star is visible.
brightness
5. Absolute magnitude takes distance into account when indicating the
surface temperature of a star.
500 pc
6. Using the parallax technique, astronomers can accurately measure the
distance of stars up to 300 pc away.
twentieth
century
7. The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (H-R) diagram, first plotted in the
nineteenth century, demonstrates the relationship of luminosity and
temperature.
coolest
8. Stars are assigned a spectral type, with M being the hottest stars.
diameter
9. The mass of a star determines the star’s temperature, luminosity,
Write the term that best completes the statement.
corona
solar wind
10. Because the
Sun
solar flares
Sun
solar interior
contains 99 percent of the mass in the solar
system, it controls the motion of the planets.
11. The
solar interior
is not solid, but gaseous, because of its high temperature.
12. The top layer of the Sun’s atmosphere is the low-density
13. The
solar wind
corona
.
flows outward from the corona to the entire solar system.
14. Earth is bombarded with particles and radiation after violent eruptions from the
Sun’s surface called
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solar flares
.
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and constellation.
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Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Identify and describe each kind of spectrum and explain how each is produced.
1.
continuous
spectrum
2.
absorption
spectrum
3.
emission
spectrum
Answer the following question.
4. How do scientists use spectra to identify the elements in the Sun’s outer layer?
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Thinking Critically
Wavelength Shifts
One of the many ways scientists learn more about stars is the use of spectral lines. They help
scientists determine the speed of a star’s motion. Motion between the source of light and the
observer cause the spectral lines to shift in wavelength. Depending on whether the wavelength
is shorter or longer, the observer can determine if the star is moving toward or away from
Earth. These shifts are called blueshifts and redshifts. The larger the shift, the higher the speed
of motion. The shifts in spectral lines can also be used to detect binary stars as they orbit
around their center of mass and move toward and away from Earth.
Answer the following questions.
1. Explain blueshifts and redshifts.
2. The shifts in spectral lines are an example of the Doppler effect. What motion will
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
this effect not detect?
3. Why is it important that astronomers learn about stars?
4. How does understanding the formation and evolution of stars help scientists
understand the Sun?
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Applying Scientific Methods
On June 6, 2000, the orbiting Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) recorded a powerful
series of solar eruptions, including a full-halo coronal mass ejection (CME.) The velocity of the
ejected material was 908 km/s, and it was estimated that the CME was to reach Earth in
48 hours, or midday June 8.
CMEs carry up to 10 billion tons of ionized gas that can travel at speeds up to 2000 km/s. This
ionized gas hits Earth’s magnetosphere, and most of the incoming material is deflected from the
planet. However, should the solar wind be very strong, it can compress the magnetosphere and
unleash a geomagnetic storm, which can induce electric currents in Earth that can interfere with
electric power transmission and satellites. CMEs can occur without flares, but whenever they occur
together, it means there is a rapid, large-scale change in the Sun’s magnetic field.
The June 6 CME was accompanied by two intense solar flares. The region that produced the
June 6 eruption had a complicated magnetic configuration—oppositely directed magnetic fields
were seen right next to each other.
1. Based on this amount of activity, where do scientists believe the Sun is in its solar
activity cycle? What does this mean? How long might this period last?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. How could the CME cause a geomagnetic storm? How would a geomagnetic storm affect Earth?
3. Explain the difference between a solar flare and a coronal mass ejection. Do both
always appear at the same time?
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 30 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
179
Name
Class
CHAPTER
30
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
Under the right conditions, when the CME arrived at Earth’s magnetosphere, energy would be
released in the form of an intense auroral display. For an intense auroral display, the emission
must encounter Earth’s magnetic field directly, as opposed to a glancing blow, and the magnetosphere must already have stored energy, ready to be released in the form of an aurora.
During an aurora, the sky glows as charged particles rain down from space along Earth’s
magnetic field lines. The resulting color depends on the type of molecules that the charged
particles hit. Energetic particles striking oxygen molecules at an altitude of about 320 km cause
all-red auroras. Oxygen at lower altitudes, about 100 km high, produce brilliant yellow-green
colors. These are the brightest and most common auroras. Ionized nitrogen gives off blue light,
and neutral nitrogen glows red. The nitrogens create the purplish-red lower borders and ripple
edges seen in many auroras. Auroras are at least 60 km above Earth and can extend about
1000 km above the planet. The best places to see an aurora borealis display include Fairbanks,
Alaska, parts of eastern Canada, Iceland, and the Scandinavian countries. These sites are close
to the average auroral oval around Earth’s north magnetic pole. It is best to see an auroral display during the hours of local midnight. The farther south, the less chance of seeing an aurora
borealis display, but displays have been seen as far south as Florida and Texas.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
4. What is an aurora, and what two conditions must be present for an intense auroral display?
5. What is the best place and time to see an aurora borealis? Has an aurora ever been
seen below this point? Where?
6. What colors can an auroral display be? What causes these different colors?
7. Explain what an auroral display is. How does it occur?
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Chapter 30 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
Class
CHAPTER
31
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Galaxies and the Universe
Reviewing Vocabulary
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Column A
Column B
b
1. Study of the universe
a. inflationary universe
g
2. Core of a galaxy in which highly energetic objects or
b. cosmology
activities are located
h
3. Gigantic formation of clusters of galaxies hundreds of
millions of light-years in size
f
d. cosmic background radiation
4. A value of approximately 70 kilometers per second
e. steady-state theory
per megaparsec
c
c. Big Bang theory
5. States that the universe began as a point and has been
f.
Hubble constant
expanding ever since
e
6. Proposes that the universe looks the same on large scales
to all observers and that it has always looked that way
d
g. active galactic nucleus
h. superclusters
7. Persistent noise discovered in 1965 that is caused by
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
weak radiation from all directions in space
a
8. Model that says the universe began as a fluctuation in
a vacuum and expanded very rapidly for a fraction of a
second before settling into a more orderly expansion
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
9. RR Lyrae variables, Cepheid variables
10. average density, critical density
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 31 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
181
Name
Class
CHAPTER
31
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
ellipticals
have mass
1. Most galaxies in the inner region of a large cluster are spirals.
2. Studies provide evidence that there is a great amount of unseen matter
called dark matter composed of dim stellar remnants that have no mass.
true
3. Edwin Hubble measured the redshifts and distances of many galaxies
and found that the redshift of a galaxy depends on its distance from
Earth.
very early
4. Cosmic background radiation provides information about conditions
now in the expansion of the universe.
true
5. One way to determine the fate of the universe is to measure how much
slowing has occurred in its expansion as a means of determining how
much further it will slow.
Hubble Space 6. A key goal of the Fermilab is to gather data that would help to pinpoint
Telescope
the value for H, the Hubble constant.
E7
a
S0
E0
Irr
c
S
SB
182
S
7. Normal spiral
SB
8. Barred spiral
a
9. Tightly wound arm and large, bright nucleus
c
10. Loosely wound arms and a small, dim nucleus
S0
11. Flat disks that do not have spiral arms
E0
12. Round elliptical
E7
13. Very elongated elliptical
Irr
14. Irregular galaxy
Chapter 31 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Edwin Hubble sorted galaxies according to their shapes. Write the letter notation below next
to its corresponding galaxy shape.
Chapter Assessment
Name
CHAPTER
Class
31
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
Identify the type of galaxy and write a brief description for each illustration. If indicated,
give an example of the galaxy type.
1.
Type:
spiral galaxy
Description:
Example:
2.
Type:
elliptical galaxy
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Description:
3.
Type:
irregular galaxy
Description:
Example:
4.
Type:
galaxy clusters
Description:
Example:
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 31 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
183
Name
Class
CHAPTER
31
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Thinking Critically
Answer the following questions.
1. What elements make up the stars in globular clusters?
2. Where are the old and young stars of the Milky Way galaxy located?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. How do astronomers explain the formation of the Milky Way galaxy?
4. What does the Milky Way fragmented spiral-arm pattern suggest?
5. Why is hydrogen emission useful in mapping the arms of the Milky Way galaxy?
184
Chapter 31 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Name
Class
31
CHAPTER
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods
Ground
HST
Black Hole Mass
2 billion suns
200 million suns
20 million suns
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3 million suns
75 000 light-years
3000 light-years
Black Holes: One Size Does Not Fit All
Astronomers are concluding that monstrous black holes were not born that big, as once
believed, but instead grew on a diet of gas and stars controlled by their host galaxies in the
beginning years of the universe. An initial look at 30 galaxies indicates that black holes do not
precede a galaxy’s birth, but instead evolve with the galaxy by trapping an amazingly exact percentage (0.2) of the mass of the stars and gas in a galaxy.
Black holes in the centers of giant galaxies—some more than one billion solar masses—had
enough infalling gas to once blaze as quasars. The final mass of a black hole is not primordial,
but instead is determined during the galaxy formation process. This shows that there is a close
relationship between the black hole mass and the stars that comprise an elliptical galaxy or central bulge stars of a spiral galaxy. In most cases, the black holes not only bulked up through the
accretion of gas, but also through mergers of galaxies in which pairs of black holes combined.
The Hubble Space Telescope precisely measures the speed of gas and stars around a black
hole. This measurement provides clues for the existence of a black hole. Astronomers determine the mass of each black hole by measuring the motion of stars swirling around it. The
closer a star is to the black hole, the faster is its velocity.
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 31 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
185
Name
Class
CHAPTER
31
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
Answer the following questions.
1. What is a black hole?
2. In the chart, what unit of measurement is used to show black hole mass?
3. What do each of the three columns in the chart show?
4. What is the mass of the largest black hole on the chart? What is the mass of the smallest?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. According to the article, what did astronomers once believe about black holes?
6. What have astronomers learned from the 30 black holes they now study?
7. Other than accruing gas and stars, how else can black holes increase in size?
8. How does the Hubble Space Telescope measure black holes if black holes cannot be seen?
186
Chapter 31 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
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ANSWER PAGES
Chapter Assessment
T188
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
1
(technology, paleontology).
8. The application of scientific discoveries is called
results of the experiment are actually due to the condition being tested.
7. Researchers use a (constant, control) in an experiment to show that the
atmosphere makes up the (hydrosphere, biosphere).
6. The water in Earth’s oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, glaciers, and in Earth’s
5. The study of objects beyond Earth’s atmosphere is (ecology, astronomy).
an observation.
4. (An experiment, A hypothesis) is a suggested explanation for
Earth’s history are all topics studied in (geology, oceanography).
3. Identifying rocks, studying glacial movements, and interpreting clues to
notation), which is a modern version of the metric system.
2. Most scientific studies use a standard system of units called (SI, scientific
Earth is (tectonics, meteorology).
1. The branch of Earth science that studies the blanket of air that surrounds
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 1 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
natural phenomenon.
experiments. A scientific law is a basic fact that describes the behavior of a
1
A scientific theory is an explanation based on many observations during repeated
11. scientific theory, scientific law
variable is a factor that results from manipulating the independent variable.
An independent variable is a factor that can be manipulated. A dependent
10. independent variable, dependent variable
The asthenosphere is the partly molten layer of the mantle.
The lithosphere includes the crust and the solid uppermost part of the mantle.
9. lithosphere, asthenosphere
Contrast each pair of related terms.
technology
control
hydrosphere
astronomy
A hypothesis
geology
SI
meteorology
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
In the space at the left, write the word or phrase in parentheses that makes
the statement correct.
Reviewing Vocabulary
The Nature of Science
CHAPTER
Name
1
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Column A
8. square centimeter
7. second
6. newton
5. meter
4. liter
3. kilogram
2. Kelvin
1. gram per milliliter
Column B
time
h. weight
g. liquid volume
f.
e. temperature
d. mass
c. length
b. density
a. area
universe.
9. Astronomers study Earth, its neighbors, and other matter in the
2
18. About 97 percent of Earth’s water is salt water.
17. Scientific laws and theories cannot change.
Earth’s surface, at the bottom of oceans, and on the tops of mountains.
16. The biosphere includes all organisms that live within a few meters of
physical and chemical properties of the oceans, and examine the effects
of human activities on the oceans.
15. Oceanographers study creatures that inhabit salty water, measure
14. Earth’s atmosphere contains about 78 percent carbon dioxide.
13. Earth’s core consists of an outer, liquid part and an inner, solid part.
step outlines to solve problems.
Chapter Assessment
12. Scientific methods are planned and organized, but are not rigid, step-by-
processes that form and change these materials.
Chapter 1 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
true
can
true
true
nitrogen
true
true
interact with 10. Earth’s four main systems are independent of one another.
Geology
11. Meteorology is the study of materials that make up Earth and the
true
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
a
f
h
c
g
d
e
b
Write the letter of the measurement in Column B next to its matching unit of measurement in Column A.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
CHAPTER
Name
Chapter Assessment
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
T189
3
1
106
4 107
2.9 102
3.356 103
1.18722 102
2. 0.000 001
3. 40 000 000
4. 0.029
5. 3356
6. 118.722
Chapter Assessment
safety goggles and an apron
pouring chemicals?
Chapter 1 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
10. What should you wear during a science classroom investigation that involves
for use in space and were later modified for use on Earth.
micro-fabrics, and ultralight materials used in sports equipment were developed
For example, technologies used to make freeze-dried foods, ski goggles,
The statement means that scientific discoveries can be applied to new situations.
support the statement.
9. What is meant by the statement “technology is transferable”? Give an example to
on Earth’s surface, including earthquakes and mountain building.
Earth scientists who specialize in tectonics study the effects of internal processes
8. What is studied by Earth scientists who specialize in tectonics?
They also study ancient environments.
Paleontologists study the remains of organisms that once lived on Earth.
7. What do paleontologists study?
Answer the following questions.
106
Equivalent in Scientific Notation
1. 1 000 000
Number
Maximum temperature: 258 K
Composition of atmosphere: 42% carbon dioxide, 25% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 10% water, 2% argon
Surface gravitational acceleration (the rate at which a falling object speeds up): 3.3 m/s2
Chapter 1 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
freezes, all surface water on Telos should be frozen.
Chapter Assessment
temperature on Telos is 258 K, which is below the temperature at which water
No; the freezing point of water 0°C 273 273 K. Since the maximum
water freezes at 0°C on Telos; and Kelvin temperature Celsius temperature 273.
5. Are you likely to find liquid water on the surface of Telos? Explain. Hint: Assume two facts:
of Earth.
more carbon dioxide, water, and argon and less nitrogen than the atmosphere
are 21 percent oxygen. They are different in that the atmosphere of Telos has
They are similar in that they both contain mostly the same gases and that both
How are they different?
4. How are the compositions of the atmospheres of Telos and Earth similar?
density mass/volume 6.25 kg/0.855 L 7.31 kg/L, or 7.31 g/mL
has a mass of 6.25 kg and a volume of 0.855 L. What is the density of the rock?
3. One test you will perform on each rock is to determine its density. Suppose a rock
which is less than 343 N.
Yes; the weight of 100 kg of rocks on Telos is 100 kg 3.3 m/s2 330 N,
Can the transporter carry the weight of all of the rocks you plan to collect? Explain.
Hint: weight (in N) = mass (in kg) gravitational acceleration (in m/s 2).
2. The rock transporter you will use on Telos is designed to carry a maximum weight of 343 N.
object’s position.
The mass will still be 100 kg. The mass of an object does not change with the
analysis. What will be the mass of the rocks on Earth? Explain your reasoning.
1. Your team plans to collect 100 kg of rocks on Telos and to bring the rocks back to Earth for
Answer the following questions.
4
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Imagine you are a member of a research team that is preparing to explore a planet named
Telos. Before traveling to Telos, you must learn as much as you can about the planet. Some of
the information that scientists have gathered about Telos is summarized below.
CHAPTER
Name
Complete the table by filling in the missing information.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Thinking Critically
1
Class
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
CHAPTER
Name
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1
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
constants
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 1 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
experiment controls, constants, dependent variables, or independent variables?
4. Are the carbon dioxide level in the first experiment and the oxygen level in the second
carbon dioxide.
5
doing separate experiments, they could see the effect of varying either oxygen or
which gas was responsible for any change in plant growth rate they observed. By
If they had varied both at the same time, they would not have been able to tell
carbon dioxide percentages at the same time. Why do you think they chose instead to vary
the oxygen and carbon dioxide percentages in separate experiments?
3. The students could have done just one experiment in which they varied both the oxygen and
rate of pea plants
independent variable: percentage of carbon dioxide; dependent variable: growth
2. Identify the independent variable and the dependent variable in Experiment 2.
pea plants
independent variable: percentage of oxygen; dependent variable: growth rate of
1. Identify the independent variable and the dependent variable in Experiment 1.
The students grew pea plants in airtight chambers, replacing the air in the chambers with
the artificial atmospheres. The students assessed the growth rate of the plants by measuring the
plants’ heights each day for 10 days.
Using a mixing valve and tanks of pure oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen, the students
created artificial atmospheres with varying percentages of the three gases. They adjusted the
percentage of nitrogen to compensate for changes in the other two gases. In the first experiment, the students varied the percentage of oxygen and kept the carbon dioxide level at 0.03
percent, the value in normal air. In the second experiment, the students varied the percentage
of carbon dioxide and kept the oxygen level at 21 percent, the value in normal air.
Hypothesis 2: Will increasing the percentage of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere make
plants grow more rapidly?
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
20
30
40
50
6
49.97
59.97
69.97
79.97
89.97
98.97
Percent
Nitrogen
Percent
Oxygen
21
21
21
21
21
21
10
11
10
12
11
10
Experiment 2
Growth
Rate
(mm/day)
1
Percent
Carbon
Dioxide
50
40
30
20
10
0
10
20 30 40
Percent oxygen
Experiment 1
50
0
10
20
30
40
50
0
10 20 30 40 50
Percent carbon dioxide
Experiment 2
29
39
49
59
69
78
Percent
Nitrogen
44
44
43
35
25
15
Growth
Rate
(mm/day)
Chapter 1 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
could study the effect of only one variable on plant growth.
Chapter Assessment
They should have kept such factors constant in these experiments so that they
water content, and light intensity. What should the students have done with such
factors in these two experiments? Why?
8. The growth of plants also depends upon other factors, including temperature, soil
make plants grow more rapidly?
Hypothesis 2: Will increasing the percentage of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
7. Which of the students’ hypotheses correlate with the results?
1 percent to 30 percent and levels out at higher percentages.
The growth rate increases as the percentage of carbon dioxide increases from
The growth rate remains fairly constant as the percentage of oxygen increases.
carbon dioxide in these experiments.
6. Describe the relationship between growth rate and the percentage of oxygen or
0
10
20
30
40
50
each graph with a line.
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
5. On the grids below, plot the data for each experiment. Connect the data points on
0.03
0.03
10
Percent
Carbon
Dioxide
1
Percent
Oxygen
Experiment 1
Growth rate (mm/day)
Hypothesis 1: Will increasing the percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere make plants grow
more rapidly?
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
CHAPTER
Name
The table below show the results of the students’ two experiments.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
A group of students wanted to find out if changing the composition of the atmosphere could
affect the growth rate of plants. After researching the problem, they formed two hypotheses.
1
Class
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
Growth rate (mm/day)
T190
Chapter Assessment
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
T191
2
their exact (position, weight).
8. Satellites in the Global Positioning System help users determine
number of waves that pass a particular point each second.
7. The (frequency, wavelength) of an electromagnetic wave is the
map represent.
6. A (map legend, map scale) explains what the symbols on a
of equal elevation.
5. A contour line on a (topographic, world) map connects points
4. A (Mercator, conic) projection distorts areas near the poles.
(equator, 180° meridian).
3. The International Date Line is another name for the
2. The (equator, prime meridian) represents 0° longitude.
1. The science of mapmaking is called (cartography, remote sensing).
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 2 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
uses radar to map features on the ocean floor.
energy related to the warmth of surface features. The Topex/Poseidon satellite
Both collect data about Earth by remote sensing. A Landsat satellite detects
11. Landsat satellite, Topex/Poseidon satellite
the globe at a single point.
projection, the points and lines are projected onto a piece of paper that touches
7
In a conic projection, the points and lines are projected onto a cone. In a gnomonic
Both are ways of making a flat map by projecting points and lines from a globe.
10. conic projection, gnomonic projection
or west of the prime meridian.
degrees north or south of the equator. Longitude is the distance in degrees east
Both are used to precisely locate positions on Earth. Latitude is the distance in
9. latitude, longitude
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
position
frequency
map legend
topographic
Mercator
180° meridian
prime meridian
cartography
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
In the space at the left, write the word or phrase in parentheses that makes
the statement correct.
Reviewing Vocabulary
Mapping Our World
CHAPTER
Name
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2
8
c. 180° north
c. 24
d. 360
d. minutes.
d. 360° north
Chapter 2 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
8. GPS satellites can relay information about all of the following EXCEPT
a. position.
b. elevation.
c. direction.
d. a diagram that shows the elevation of the hills and valleys of an area
a distance on Earth’s surface
d. weather.
7. What is a graphic scale?
a. a statement that expresses distance, such as one centimeter equals one kilometer
b. a ratio that expresses distance, such as 1:50 000
c. a line broken into sections that represent units with each section representing
contour lines is called the
a. contour interval.
b. index contour.
c. depression contour.
d. hachure.
6. On a topographic map, the difference in elevation between two side-by-side
5. All flat maps distort either the shapes or the areas of landmasses because
a. the boundaries of landmasses are not known with certainty.
b. such large structures cannot be drawn accurately.
c. lines of latitude are not perfectly parallel.
d. Earth is a curved, three-dimensional object.
4. Into how many time zones is Earth divided?
a. 12
b. 15
3. Which statement about lines of longitude is true?
a. They converge at the equator.
b. They converge at the poles.
c. They are parallel.
d. They locate positions in north and south directions.
2. Each degree of latitude or longitude is divided into 60 smaller units called
a. meridians.
b. grids.
c. seconds.
1. What is the latitude of the north pole?
a. 0° north
b. 90° north
Date
Chapter Assessment
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
CHAPTER
Name
T192
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
2
18E
175E
41S
Wellington, New Zealand
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 2 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Variations in time indicate the presence of certain features on the ocean floor.
9
the speed of light and the time it takes the signal to reach the surface and return.
is reflected off the water. The distance to the water’s surface is calculated using
The satellite sends radar waves to the ocean’s surface and picks up the echo that
5. How does the Topex/Poseidon satellite collect data?
10 323 km
10
Chapter 2 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
which areas were steeper. It would not indicate the actual elevation of any point.
The map would indicate which points on the map were higher than others and
map indicate about the terrain of the area shown? What would the map not indicate?
6. Suppose you were given a topographic map that did not show index contours. What would the
Answer the following question.
back one day.
Wednesday; Nome is east of the International Date Line, so the calendar moves
5. When it is Thursday in Wellington, what day is it in Nome? Explain your answer.
the equator. distance (109 79) (111 km/) 20 868 km
difference in longitude multiplied by 111 km, which is the value for longitude at
Because both cities are on the equator, the distance between them equals their
4. What is the approximate distance between Pontianak and Quito? Explain your answer.
of the equator, so their latitudes are added. distance (59 34) (111 km/)
the surface of Earth, which enables the map reader to measure distances.
their difference in latitude multiplied by 111 km. The cities are on opposite sides
Because both cities have the same longitude, the distance between them equals
3. What is the approximate distance between Stockholm and Cape Town? Explain your answer.
Nome, Alaska
2. Which city is farthest from the equator?
Wellington, New Zealand
1. Which city is closest to the International Date Line?
79W
59N
Stockholm, Sweden
Quito, Ecuador
They show the relationship between distances on a map and actual distances on
4. Why are map scales useful?
that the point where they crossed had two elevations, which is impossible.
Each contour line represents one elevation. If two lines crossed, it would mean
3. Why do contour lines never cross?
between them, especially near the poles.
shows these lines as being parallel. Making the lines parallel stretches the area
Lines of longitude converge as they approach the poles, but a Mercator projection
2. Why does a Mercator projection exaggerate the areas of landmasses near the poles?
165W
65N
Nome, Alaska
0°
18E
109E
Longitude
0
Pontianak, Indonesia
result if, for example, a city was split by a time zone.
Latitude
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
34S
Cape Town, South Africa
City
The boundaries are adjusted in local areas to avoid the confusion that would
1. Time zone boundaries do not always line up perfectly with lines of longitude. Why?
Use the table to answer the following questions.
CHAPTER
Name
Thinking Critically
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Answer the following questions.
2
Class
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
CHAPTER
Name
Chapter Assessment
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
T193
2
0°
120°W
589 km
Chapter Assessment
360 24.6 h 14.6/h
Chapter 2 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
zone on Mars if each time zone represents a different hour? (Hint: Like Earth, Mars
is a sphere.)
3. It takes Mars 24.6 hours to rotate once on its axis. How wide in degrees is a time
in orbit than people could on the surface. Accept all reasonable answers.
11
12
Chapter 2 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
higher than Mt. Everest.
Chapter Assessment
8850 m 8.850 km; 27 km 8.850 km 3; Olympus Mons is three times
Mars. (Because Mars has no oceans, its elevations cannot be defined with respect to sea level.) By
comparison, the highest point on Earth, Mt. Everest, is 8850 m above sea level. How many times
higher than Mt. Everest is Olympus Mons?
8. The top of Olympus Mons is the highest point on Mars. It is 27 km above the average elevation on
the east-west direction.
map shows the lines as being parallel. Therefore, the map distorts distances in
No; lines of longitude get closer together as they approach the poles, but this
with the same accuracy? Explain why or why not.
7. Can you estimate how far the base of Olympus Mons stretches from east to west
The base stretches approximately 10° from north to south. 10 58.9 km/
more expensive to send humans to Mars and bring them back than it is to send a
satellite and leave it in orbit. A satellite can collect more data more quickly while
(Hint: Use your answer from question 5 to convert degrees to kilometers.)
their lives to travel to a planet that humans have not visited. It would be much
6. How far does the base of Olympus Mons stretch from north to south?
21 200 km 360 58.9 km/
degree of latitude on Mars?
5. The circumference of Mars is 21 200 km. What is the approximate distance of each
northern hemisphere
4. In which hemisphere is the area on the map?
0°
150°W
10°N
10°N
120°W
30°N
20°N
130°W
130°W
20°N
140°W
140°W
Answers may vary. Space flight is dangerous, and the astronauts would be risking
a team of astronauts to Mars to map the surface?
2. What are the advantages of using a satellite for this project instead of sending
Maximum: 380 000 000 km 300 000 km/s 1267 s
Minimum: 78 000 000 km 300 000 km/s 260 s
depending on the time of year. The speed of light is 300 000 km/s. Calculate the minimum
and maximum time it takes for data transmitted by the Mars Global Surveyor to reach Earth.
1. The distance from Earth to Mars ranges between 78 000 000 km and 380 000 000 km,
The Mars Global Surveyor carries a camera that can distinguish objects on the surface of
Mars that are less than 1.5 m across. It also has an instrument that measures surface elevation
as well as sensors that analyze the heat radiating from the planet’s surface. These sensors provide data about the composition of different areas of the planet. All of the information collected by the Mars Global Surveyor is transmitted to Earth in the form of radio waves. The
satellite will continue to orbit Mars for at least 50 years after its mission is completed. It does
not carry enough propellant to return to Earth.
150°W
30°N
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
This map was prepared from data collected by the Mars Global Surveyor. The dashed lines on
the map surround the base of the Martian volcano Olympus Mons.
CHAPTER
Name
Mapping techniques can be used on other planets besides Earth. In 1996, the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched a satellite called the Mars Global
Surveyor toward Mars. One of the purposes of the satellite was to collect data about the surface
of Mars. The satellite reached Mars in 1997 and then gradually slowed into a low, circular orbit
around the planet. It finally began mapping the surface of Mars in 1999, a process that was
scheduled to last nearly two years.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
2
Class
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
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T194
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
3
nuclei emit radiation
11. The spontaneous process through which unstable
10. The average of the mass numbers of an element’s isotopes
valence electrons
k. radioactivity
j.
plasma
h. nucleus
8. The attractive force between two ions of opposite charge
i.
g. solution
7. The change of one or more substances into other substances
9. A tiny particle with a negative electrical charge
f.
ionic bond
e. electron
d. condensation
c. chemical reaction
b. atomic mass
a. atom
6. A homogeneous mixture
5. The change from a gas to a liquid
element’s characteristics
4. The smallest particle of an element that retains that
3. Hot, highly ionized, electrically conducting gas
2. The center of an atom
1. The outermost electrons of an atom
Column B
Chapter Assessment
evaporation
Bases
proton
An element
an ion
A covalent bond
energy level
mass number
formation of hydroxide ions (OH).
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 3 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
called (evaporation, sublimation).
19. The process of changing from a liquid into a gas is
18. (Acids, Bases) are solutions characterized by the
charge is a (neutron, proton).
17. A tiny particle that has mass and a positive electrical
be broken down into simpler substances.
16. (An element, A compound) is a substance that cannot
particle called (an ion, a molecule).
15. An atom that gains or loses an electron is a charged
two atoms for a shared pair of electrons that holds the
atoms together.
14. (An ionic bond, A covalent bond) is the attraction of
atom where an electron is most likely to be found.
13. An (energy level, isotope) represents the area in an
(atomic number, mass number).
12. The combined number of protons and neutrons is the
In the space at the left, write the word or phrase in parentheses that makes the statement correct.
e
b
k
d
g
c
f
j
h
i
a
Column A
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Reviewing Vocabulary
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Matter and Atomic Structure
CHAPTER
Name
13
3
c. protons and electrons.
d. protons and neutrons.
2. The nucleus of an atom is made up of
a. electrons and neutrons.
b. protons, neutrons, and electrons.
d. valence electrons.
d. compounds.
d. evaporation
14
Chapter 3 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
d. both acidic and basic.
c. both positive and negative ions
d. neither positive nor negative ions
13. Tomatoes have a pH of 4. They are considered to be
a. acidic.
b. basic.
c. neutral.
which of the following ions?
a. positive ions
b. negative ions
12. An atom in which the outermost energy level is more than half full tends to form
d. five
c. solution.
d. heterogeneous mixture.
11. In how many physical states does matter exist in the universe?
a. two
b. three
c. four
10. Soil is an example of a
a. homogeneous mixture.
b. solid solution.
9. What type of bonding takes place when Na and Cl combine to form NaCl?
a. ionic
b. hydrogen
c. covalent
d. metallic
8. Which of the following changes of state releases thermal energy?
a. melting
b. sublimation
c. condensation
7. Densely packed arrangements of particles that take the shape of their containers are
a. solids.
b. liquids.
c. gases.
d. plasmas.
6. A combination of two or more components that retain their identity is a(n)
a. mixture.
b. solution.
c. acid.
d. base.
5. Solutions containing a substance that produces hydrogen ions (H) in water are
a. bases.
b. solids.
c. elements.
d. acids.
4. Chemical behavior is determined by the number of electrons located in the
a. innermost energy level.
c. third energy level.
b. second energy level.
d. outermost energy level.
c. molecules.
c. molecules.
1. The basic building blocks of matter are
a. atoms.
b. elements.
3. Many elements are mixtures of
a. solids.
b. isotopes.
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
CHAPTER
Name
Chapter Assessment
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
T195
15
3
F
e
N
e
N
e
e e e
e e ee e
N2
e e e
e e ee
e
e ee e
e
e
eee
Chapter Assessment
calcium
Chapter 3 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
4. Which atom forms an ion by the loss of electrons?
two
3. How many electrons are in the fourth level of a calcium atom?
that make up the nitrogen molecule.
one from each nitrogen atom, are shared by both nitrogen atoms
Nitrogen; it is formed by covalent bonding because two electrons,
2. Which compound is formed by covalent bonding? Explain.
two fluoride ions and one calcium ion.
transferred from the calcium atom, one to each fluorine atom, to form
Calcium fluoride; it is formed by ionic bonding because two electrons are
1. Which compound is formed by ionic bonding? Explain.
e
e e ee e e
e e
ee e e e e e e e e
e eee ee e
e e e e e e
e e
e
ee e
CaF2
F
e e
e e
e
ee
e – e
e
e
ee ee
e e
e e
e
e
e
e
e
e e e
Ca
e
e
e
e e
e e
ee
ee
10
9
8
Number
of Protons
18.998
15.999
10
10
8
Number
of Neutrons
9
F
8
O
10
9
8
Number
of Electrons
20.180
10
Ne
Neon
10
9
8
Atomic
Number
electrons and thus the same chemical properties.
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
Nucleus
e
e
e
e
e
e
Chapter 3 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
e
e
e
e
chlorine in the following diagram. Make sure that the electrons are in the
appropriate energy levels.
Chapter Assessment
element’s chemical properties, neon isotopes have the same number of valance
10 protons and 10 electrons. As the number of valance electrons determines an
atoms of neon isotopes may have different numbers of neutrons, they all have
5. The atomic number of chlorine is 17. Draw all the electrons for an atom of
16
20
19
16
Atomic Mass
(rounded off)
All naturally occurring neon is actually a mixture of all its isotopes. Although
4. The isotopes neon-20 and neon-22 have the same chemical properties. Explain why.
3. Neon
2. Fluorine
1. Oxygen
Element
Fluorine
Oxygen
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Use the information from the periodic table to complete the table below. Then answer
the questions that follow.
CHAPTER
Name
Study the diagram, which shows the formation of the compounds calcium fluoride
and nitrogen gas. Then answer the questions.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Thinking Critically
3
Class
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
CHAPTER
Name
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Chapter Assessment
3
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
No change
Fizzing takes place
Fizzing takes place
Sugar
Baking soda
Mystery mixture
No change
No change
Melts
No change
Boiled
Heated with Candle
Chapter 3 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Turns blue
No change
No change
Turns blue
No change
Addition of Iodine
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
No change
Cornstarch
Chapter Assessment
No change
Addition of Vinegar
Distilled water
Material Tested
After finding the three unique ways described above of testing for each compound, the
students then repeat all three tests on the mystery mixture. The following data table shows
their results. Answer the questions that follow.
Finally, the students place a small amount of each compound in three separate test tubes.
They use a lit candle to gently heat the bottom of each test tube. Only the sugar shows any
signs of melting. The other compounds are unaffected.
Then the students place small amounts of each compound on the pan a second time. This
time, they add a drop of iodine to each sample and record their results. Only the sample of
cornstarch turns blue.
The students place small amounts of cornstarch, baking powder, powdered sugar, and a few
drops of water in separate piles in the shallow pan. They add a drop of vinegar to each sample
and record what happens in a data table. Only the baking soda shows any change. It begins to
fizz as a result of a gas being given off.
To analyze the mixture, the students must first find ways to identify the individual compounds. Their teacher gives them four test tubes; distilled water; samples of cornstarch, baking
powder, and powdered sugar; dropper bottles; iodine solution; white vinegar; a shallow pan; a
candle, and matches.
Two students are presented with a problem in science class. They need to identify specific compounds in an unknown mixture. This “mystery” mixture could include one or more of the following compounds: cornstarch, baking powder, powdered sugar. All of these compounds are
white and are difficult to distinguish by using sight alone.
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
17
3
of the compounds were recorded.
what happened. Only descriptions of changes in the appearance
does not include measurements or numbers, only descriptions of
The students conducted qualitative (descriptive) research. Their data
research? Explain your answer, using examples from the students’ investigation.
18
Chapter 3 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Tasting anything in the lab can be harmful or even deadly.
Chapter Assessment
contamination or poisoning is high when tasting an unknown substance.
of powdered sugar could be identified easily by taste, the chance of
Accept any valid answers. One possible answer is that, although the sweetness
its components?
6. Why would tasting the mystery mixture NOT be an appropriate way of identifying
any of the three compounds.
or melt with heat, the results would indicate that it didn’t contain
If the white powder didn’t fizz with vinegar, turn blue with iodine,
5. How would you determine if all three compounds were absent from the sample?
after adding iodine.
compound that fizzed with vinegar. Only the sample of cornstarch turned blue
vinegar and turned blue after the addition of iodine. Baking soda is the only
The mystery mixture is baking soda and cornstarch. The mixture fizzed with
how you arrived at your conclusion.
4. Which compound or compounds were present in the mystery mixture? Explain
flame to prevent any exploding of its contents.
heating. The test tube should be moved back and forth through the top of the
the test tube. The mouth of the test tube must NOT be pointed at anyone during
Wear safety goggles and a lab apron. Use a test tube holder when manipulating
and mixture?
3. What safety rules should the students have followed when heating the compounds
to the vinegar or iodine.
Yes; the control was the distilled water, which showed no reaction
2. Was a control used in this experiment? Explain your answer.
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
1. Did the students conduct quantitative (numerical) or qualitative (descriptive)
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
CHAPTER
Name
Chapter Assessment
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
T197
4
6. Valuable mineral prized for its rarity and beauty
mined for profit
5. Mineral that contains a useful substance that can be
4. Mineral that contains silicon and oxygen
3. Molten material found beneath Earth’s crust
patterns
2. Solid in which the atoms are arranged in repeating
chemical composition and crystalline structure
1. Naturally occurring, inorganic solid with specific
Date
f.
silicate
e. ore
d. mineral
c. magma
b. gem
a. crystal
Column B
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Chapter Assessment
and powdered.
Chapter 4 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
light from its surface, while streak is the color of a mineral when it is broken up
Both are tests used to identify a mineral. Luster is the way a mineral reflects
10. luster, streak
a mineral can be scratched, while texture describes how a mineral feels.
Both are tests used to identify a mineral. Hardness is a measure of how easily
9. hardness, texture
a substance to the weight of an equal volume of water.
gravity is the most common measure of density. It is the ratio of the weight of
Density is the ratio of the mass of a substance divided by its volume. Specific
8. density, specific gravity
with fracture break unevenly along jagged edges.
with cleavage split easily and evenly along one or more planes, while minerals
Both describe how minerals split due to their atomic arrangements. Minerals
7. cleavage, fracture
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
b
e
f
c
a
d
Column A
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Reviewing Vocabulary
Minerals
CHAPTER
Name
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
19
4
Date
of mineral.
inorganic
magma
silicates
fracture
magma
Luster
cleavage
20
of minerals.
Chapter 4 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
streak
Chapter Assessment
with arclike patterns.
as a measure of density for
fracture
in one direction; it breaks in sheets.
hardness
specific gravity
accurate identification of a mineral.
16. Geologists commonly use
systems.
rarely changes, but sometimes does not match
15. When flint and opals break, they have a unique
14. Mica has perfect
13. Mohs scale is used to compare the
its external color.
streak
, in
no longer move freely, they
is described as either metallic or nonmetallic.
may interact chemically to form minerals.
12. A mineral’s
11.
crystal
inorganic
specific gravity
make up the most common mineral group.
10. When compounds in cooling
9.
Silicates
8. A mineral can take the shape of one of the six major
contrast to sugar, which comes from plants.
7. A mineral, such as salt, is naturally occurring but
crystal
cleavage
hardness
6. Trace elements in a mineral do not affect the color or the value
been mined.
5. The classification of a mineral as an ore does not change once it has
of several tests.
4. The most reliable way to identify a mineral is by using a combination
properties.
3. Minerals can be identified based on their physical and chemical
2. Minerals form from cooled magma and from elements in gases.
1. There are at least 3000 known minerals in Earth’s crust.
Write the term that best completes the statement.
can affect
can change
true
true
solutions
true
luster
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
CHAPTER
Name
T198
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
4
Chapter Assessment
amethyst.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 4 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
are called gems. Examples include diamonds, sapphires, emeralds, rubies, and
Rare or exceptionally beautiful minerals that are considered to be valuable
5. Why are some minerals classified as gems? Give three examples of gems.
distinguished by color alone.
can be mistaken for one another. Pyrite and gold, for example, cannot be
Color is not a reliable test because a lot of minerals have the same color and
to support your answer.
4. Why is color one of the least reliable tests for identifying minerals? Give an example
in many ways.
tetrahedrons. This allows elements to combine chemically and structurally
A silica tetrahedron has the ability to share oxygen atoms with other
3. What accounts for the large diversity of silicates?
22
Chapter 4 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
answers.
Chapter Assessment
for the mineral, and the environmental impact of the mine. Accept all reasonable
Answers may vary. Students may say the cost of mining the mineral, the demand
7. What three factors should be considered before mining a newly found mineral deposit?
Magnetite would react to the iron filings. It is naturally magnetic.
property would that mineral have?
6. Which mineral would react to iron filings—magnetite or graphite? What special
capable of scratching the surface of corundum instead of being scratched by it.
Diamond could polish corundum because diamond is harder than corundum and is
5. What mineral would you use to polish a piece of corundum? Why?
than one test may be necessary to accurately identify the minerals.
Some minerals have characteristics similar to other minerals. Therefore, more
4. Why do geologists usually use a combination of tests to identify a mineral?
they break evenly into a cleavage plane.
The atomic bonds along a plane of cleavage are usually weak. That is why
3. What can you conclude about the atomic bonds along a plane of cleavage?
in an unrestricted space.
the minerals in Earth’s crust are silicates.
There likely would be more silicates than other types because 96 percent of
2. What conditions typically result in the formation of large, well-shaped mineral crystals?
Crystals may begin to form.
Large, well-shaped crystals tend to form from magmas that cool slowly
21
1. A solution is nearly saturated with dissolved minerals. What will happen if
50 percent of the water in the solution evaporated?
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
mineral would you likely have more of—oxides, silicates, or carbonates. Why?
2. If you took random samples of minerals from several locations, which type of
solid, unique chemical composition, definite crystalline structure.
Answers should include any three of the following: naturally occurring, inorganic,
1. What are three characteristics of a mineral?
Answer the following questions.
CHAPTER
Name
Thinking Critically
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Answer the following questions.
4
Class
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
CHAPTER
Name
Chapter Assessment
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
T199
4
Blue, green
Metallic pale brass, gold
Red, deep red, brown
Bluish green, green
Red, deep red
Apatite
Pyrite
Garnet
Beryl
Corundum
9
7.5–8
6.5–7.5
6–6.5
5
2.5–3
Hardness
gold
pyrite
Chapter Assessment
corundum
garnet
apatite
beryl
Chapter 4 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
b. The mineral can scratch both green stones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. a. The mineral can scratch only one of the green stones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
b. The mineral can scratch neither red stone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. a. The mineral can scratch at least one of the red stones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
b. The mineral is not green. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Go to 5
3. a. The mineral is green. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Go to 4
b. The mineral can scratch neither green stone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. a. The mineral can scratch at least one of the green stones. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
b. The mineral does not have a metallic luster. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Go to 3
1. a. The mineral has a metallic luster. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Go to 2
Dichotomous Key
Metallic gold
Color
Gold
Mineral
3.5–4.3
2.75
4
Pyrite
Garnet
Beryl
Corundum
Al2O3
Be3Al2Si6O18
(Mg, Fe, Ca)3 (Al2Si3O12)
FeS2
Ca5(PO4)3(F, OH, Cl)
Au
Chemical Formula
Fracture
Uneven fracture
Conchoidal fracture
Uneven fracture
Uneven fracture
Hackly
Breakage Pattern
24
Chapter 4 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
gold, pyrite, apatite, garnet, corundum, beryl
9. List the six minerals in order from most dense to least dense.
gold
8. Which of the six minerals is a native element?
Chapter Assessment
Gold has a hackly breakage pattern, while pyrite has an uneven fracture.
7. How can the breakage pattern be used to distinguish between gold and pyrite?
19.3 5.2 3.7 times greater
times greater is the mass of the gold sample than the mass of the pyrite sample?
6. If the volume of the sample of pyrite equals the volume of the sample of gold, how many
5
5.2
Apatite
19.3
Specific Gravity
Gold
Mineral
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Use this table for the six mineral samples to answer the following questions.
CHAPTER
Name
Three pairs of mineral samples are brought to you for testing. Both samples in one pair look
like gold, but one is pyrite, or fool’s gold. Both samples in the second pair look like emeralds,
but one is nonprecious apatite. Both samples in the third pair look like rubies, but one is a less
valuable garnet. Use the information in the table to complete the dichotomous key to
identify each mineral.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
4
Class
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
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T200
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Chapter Assessment
5
porphyritic
pegmatite
ultramafic
pegmatite
texture.
.
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 5 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
have low silica content, and high iron and magnesium content.
silica content, and contain quartz and feldspars. Mafic rocks are darker-colored,
Both are groups of igneous rocks. Felsic rocks are light-colored, have high
9. felsic, mafic
while lava is magma that flows out onto Earth’s surface.
Both are molten rock. Magma is molten rock below Earth’s surface,
8. magma, lava
cool slowly beneath Earth’s surface are intrusive igneous rocks.
25
on Earth’s surface are extrusive igneous rocks. Coarse-grained igneous rocks that
Both describe the formation of igneous rock. Fine-grained rocks that cool quickly
7. intrusive igneous rock, extrusive igneous rock
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
kimberlite
is a vein of extremely large-grained minerals.
porphyritic
6. A rare, ultramafic rock that might contain diamonds is a(n)
5. A(n)
4. A rock that has grains of two different sizes has
high iron and magnesium content.
3. A(n)
mineral formation.
.
rock, such as dunite, has low silica content and very
2. Bowen’s reaction illustrates the relationship between cooling magma and
series
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
igneous rock
ultramafic
kimberlite
1. Rock formed from the crystallization of magma is called
igneous rock
Bowen’s reaction series
Write the term that best completes the statement.
Reviewing Vocabulary
Igneous Rocks
CHAPTER
Name
5
c. crystallizes.
d. weathers.
Date
26
as kimberlites.
10. Diamonds are sometimes found in igneous intrusions known
of their strength, durability, and beauty.
9. Igneous rocks are rarely used as building materials because
crystal size and texture.
8. Igneous rocks can be identified by their physical properties of
7. Different minerals melt and crystallize at different temperatures.
Chapter 5 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
true
often
true
true
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
6. Valuable ore deposits and gem crystals are often associated with
a. oceans.
c. thin crustal areas.
b. oil deposits.
d. igneous intrusions.
5. Factors that affect a rock’s melting point include
a. pressure and water content.
c. rarity.
b. value as a gem.
d. usefulness as a building material.
Chapter Assessment
d. always magnetic.
d. always magnetic.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
4. Extrusive rocks, which cool more rapidly than intrusive rocks, are generally more
a. coarsely grained.
b. finely grained.
c. radioactive.
d. magnetic.
3. Igneous rocks that cool quickly on Earth’s surface are
a. extrusive.
b. intrusive.
c. metamorphic.
2. Igneous rocks that cool slowly beneath Earth’s crust are
a. extrusive.
b. intrusive.
c. sedimentary.
1. Igneous rocks are formed when magma
a. erodes.
b. undergoes radioactive decay.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
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Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
T201
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Extrusive rock
Mafic rock
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 5 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
cooling magma begins to cool rapidly, forming smaller crystals.
A porphyritic texture indicates a complex cooling history in which a slowly
A rock with porphyritic texture contains both large and small crystals.
6. What is porphyritic texture? What sequence of events produces porphyritic texture in rocks?
and lack time to form.
27
quick-cooling crystals have irregular shapes because they form in a confined space
crystals because crystallization occurs in an unconfined space, while later-forming,
Early-forming, slower-cooling minerals may have time to form larger, well-shaped
than those that formed later?
5. Why would crystals formed early in magma crystallization have larger, better-shaped crystals
Intermediate rocks lie between felsic and mafic rocks in silica and iron content.
dark-colored, have low silica content, and are rich in iron and magnesium.
colored, have high silica content, and contain quartz and feldspars. Mafic rocks are
Igneous rocks are classified as felsic, mafic, and intermediate. Felsic rocks are light-
Zoned crystal
Sodium-rich outer layers, calcium-rich core
28
Chapter 5 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
less rapidly
extrusive rocks?
11. In general, do intrusive rocks crystallize more rapidly or less rapidly than do
kimberlite
creating pipelike intrusions?
10. Which rock type or feature may be formed when magma is forced rapidly upward,
porphyritic texture
becomes rapid?
9. Which rock type or feature forms when crystallization begins slowly and then
a zoned crystal
calcium-rich core to react completely with the magma?
Chapter Assessment
Vein of extremely large-grained minerals
8. Which rock type or feature forms when rapid cooling of magma does not allow its
Answer the following questions.
7.
Long pipelike intrusion; may contain diamonds
Kimberlite
4. What are the three main groups of igneous rocks? What are the characteristics of each group?
6.
Pegmatite
minerals undergoing an abrupt change.
Composed of distinct bands of minerals
5.
Layered intrusion
undergoing a continuous, gradual change of mineral composition, and iron-rich
Large and small crystals in same rock
Very dark color with very high levels of iron/magnesium
Dark color with low silica content; high iron/magnesium content
Minerals crystallize from magma in a sequential pattern, with feldspar minerals
Porphyritic texture
Ultramafic rock
3.
2.
Medium color with moderate silica content
Light color with high silica content
Characteristics
Intermediate rock
Coarse-grained
Fine-grained, glassy
Zoned crystal
Porphyritic texture
Felsic rock
Intrusive rock
1.
Mafic rock
Extrusive rock
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
4.
The relationship shown is between cooling magma and mineral formation.
patterns did Bowen discover in feldspars and iron-rich minerals?
3. What relationship does Bowen’s reaction series illustrate? What crystallization
are no longer part of the magma.
temperatures. It removes elements because as the minerals crystallize, they
Fractional crystallization describes how different minerals form at different
2. What is fractional crystallization? Does it add or remove elements from magma? Explain your answer.
Rock Type or Feature
Light color with high silica content
The resulting magma and the rocks that form when the magma cools have a
different chemical composition than that of the original rock.
Veins of extremely large-grained minerals
Composed of distinct bands of minerals
Partial melting describes how different minerals melt at different temperatures.
1. What is partial melting? Explain how partial melting affects igneous rock formation.
Complete the table with the following terms or phrases.
CHAPTER
Name
Answer the following questions.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Thinking Critically
5
Class
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
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Name
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5
Date
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Quartz
(clear to white)
Potassium feldspar
(pink to white)
Amphibole
(black)
Biotite (black)
Plagioclase feldspar
(white to gray)
Pyroxene
(green)
Gabbro
Basalt
Basaltic glass
Mafic
Olivine
(green)
Very
coarse-grained
Chapter Assessment
are dark.
Chapter Assessment
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Chapter 5 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Rocks with high silica content are light, while rocks with low silica content
4. How are silica content and color related in this diagram?
coarse-grained, fine-grained, and very coarse-grained
3. What categories of rock grain are shown on the diagram?
The rocks on the left side are lighter in color.
the right?
Fine-grained
Glassy
(non-crystalline)
Peri- Dun- Coarse-grained
dotite ite
Ultramafic
2. Which rocks are lighter in color—those on the left side of the diagram or those on
felsic, intermediate, mafic, ultramafic
1. What four groups of igneous rocks are shown in the diagram?
0%
25%
50%
75%
100%
Diorite
Granite
Pegmatite
Andesite
Obsidian
Intermediate
Table 5-2 Classification of Igneous Rocks
Rhyolite
Felsic
Texture
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
The diagram shows the proportions of minerals in common igneous rocks. Use the diagram
to answer the following questions.
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
Extrusive
Intrusive
Mineral composition
(percentage by volume)
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29
5
up the rock groups change gradually from one to the next.
Chapter 5 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
feldspar; olivine
11. What is the primary mineral component of felsic rocks? Ultramafic rocks?
in mafic rocks
10. Do calcium-rich feldspars occur in felsic rocks or in mafic rocks?
rhyolite
instead of coarse-grained, what would its name be?
9. If a rock sample with the same mineral content as Sample B was fine-grained
It is granite. It is categorized as felsic.
unidentified minerals. What is the name of the rock? What group is it in?
8. Rock Sample B is coarse-grained, 25 percent quartz, 65 percent feldspar, and 10 percent
It is dark.
7. Is rock Sample A dark or light in color?
It is peridotite. It is categorized as ultramafic.
What is the name of the rock? What group is it in?
Chapter Assessment
There is a continuous change as proportions of the minerals that make
from one group to another or a continuous change from one rock type to the next?
Explain your answer.
6. Rock Sample A is coarse-grained, 90 percent olivine, and 10 percent pyroxene.
30
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
5. Do the groups of igneous rocks shown in the diagram exhibit an abrupt change
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
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Name
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T203
6
fragments produced by weathering
7. Type of sediment made up of rock and mineral
large areas of Earth’s crust
6. Produced when high temperature and pressure affect
5. Pieces of solid material deposited on Earth’s surface
or sinking to the bottom of water
4. Process of sediments being laid down on the ground
3. Continuous changing and remaking of rocks
2. Percentage of open spaces between grains in a rock
transform sediments into sedimentary rocks
1. Physical and chemical processes that compact and
Column A
Date
rock cycle
g. sediment
f.
e. regional metamorphism
d. porosity
c. lithification
b. deposition
a. clastic
Column B
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 6 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
blocky shapes and do not have banding.
layers that formed perpendicular to pressure. Nonfoliated rocks are crystals with
Both are textures of metamorphic rocks. Foliated rocks have distinct banding or
10. foliated, nonfoliated
solutions, causing the minerals to precipitate out of the solutions.
on Earth’s surface. Evaporites form when water evaporates from mineral-rich
31
Both are sedimentary rocks. Conglomerates form from deposits of loose sediments
9. conglomerate, evaporite
melting it.
the texture, mineralogy, or chemical composition of a rock to change without
together. Metamorphic rocks form when high temperature and pressure cause
Both are types of rocks. Sedimentary rocks form when sediments are cemented
8. sedimentary, metamorphic
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
a
e
g
b
f
d
c
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Reviewing Vocabulary
Sedimentary and
Metamorphic Rocks
CHAPTER
Name
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6
sediments
porosity
sorted deposits
erosion
clastic
.
.
32
metamorphic rocks form from existing rock.
12. Sedimentary rocks form from rock and mineral fragments, and
saturation, crystals precipitate out of solution.
11. When the concentration of minerals dissolved in water reaches
in a jumbled mass.
10. Landslides create sorted deposits when sediment moves downhill
9. Eroded materials are almost always carried uphill.
8. The porosity of sandstone allows it to hold oil, gas, and water.
Chapter 6 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
true
true
unsorted
downhill
true
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
7. The most abundant organic sedimentary rock is calcite-rich
limestone
6. The percentage of open spaces between mineral grains in clastic rocks is its
.
.
Chapter Assessment
porosity
bedding
Sorted deposits are characteristic of sediments transported by water and wind.
5. The primary feature of sedimentary rocks is horizontal layering called
4.
surface materials.
erosion
sediment particles.
3. Landslides, moving water, wind, and glaciers cause
characteristic of some
of
sediments
limestone
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
2. Weathering of rock produces worn surfaces and rounded corners that are
1. Much of Earth’s surface is covered not by solid rock, but by
clastic
bedding
Write the term that best completes the statement.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
CHAPTER
Name
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Chapter Assessment
6
Evaporating shallow basin
(high salinity)
Crystals of gypsum
or halite settle to bottom
Barrier bar
or other
flow restriction
Ocean
Replenishment
from open ocean
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Chapter 6 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
33
water is necessary to form the shallow, enclosed basin where evaporation and,
bands, or layers. These bands form perpendicular to the direction of the pressure.
34
Chapter 6 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
to become part of sediment deposits elsewhere.
Chapter Assessment
evaporite. Or, the evaporites might themselves be eroded and transported away
evaporites might become buried under transported sediments to form a bed of
Possible responses: Evaporite formation would cease. After that, the layer of
3. What might happen over geologic time if the shallow basin was to evaporate completely?
therefore, saturation can occur.
Although ocean water is salty, it is not saturated. A barrier to the flow of ocean
of evaporites depends on a barrier to flow to and from the ocean. Why is this so?
2. Even though flow from the ocean would add saltwater to the basin, the formation
because the salts would not crystallize out of the solution.
solution would not reach saturation, and formation of evaporites would cease
salinity of the water. If the salinity was reduced significantly, the saltwater
inflow were decreased, more freshwater would flow into the basin, reducing the
The rate of evaporation formation would slow or stop. If the barrier to freshwater
of evaporation formation? Explain your answer.
1. How would a decrease in the level of the barrier to freshwater inflow affect the rate
Evaporite sediment:
gypsum and halite
Freshwater
inflow (small)
Evaporation
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Compressive pressure causes minerals with elongate crystal forms to line up in
5. How does foliation form?
temperatures and moderate-to-low pressure.
comes into contact with the surrounding solid rock. It tends to occur at high
Contact metamorphism occurs when molten rock such as an igneous intrusion
4. When does contact metamorphism occur?
pore spaces are small. This hinders the movement of fluids.
underground reservoirs. However, shale has low porosity, meaning that the
can move through the sandstone, making sandstone layers valuable as
Sandstone is porous. When its pore spaces are connected to one another, fluids
3. Why might sandstone act as a reservoir for groundwater or oil, while shale would not?
creating layers of sedimentary rock.
dissolved minerals, crystals precipitate out of solution. They settle to the bottom,
oceans. When evaporation causes the body of water to become saturated with
During chemical weathering, minerals can be dissolved and carried into lakes and
2. How do chemical sedimentary rocks form?
are buried. 5. Finally they are lithified.
sediments are then eroded. 3. The eroded sediments are deposited. 4. Then they
1. Chemical and physical weathering break rocks into clastic sediments. 2. The
1. What is the sequence of events that form clastic sedimentary rocks from solid rocks?
Use the diagram below to answer the following questions.
CHAPTER
Name
Thinking Critically
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Answer the following questions.
6
Class
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
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T205
35
6
Presence of dry land
Deposition of four-footed animal fossils
Chapter Assessment
Glacier
Chapter 6 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
6.
Unsorted deposition
Back-and-forth wave action
Landslide
Symmetrical ripple marks
Wind or water action
Marine landslide
Unsorted deposition
5.
Sorted deposition
4.
3.
Deposition of marine fossils
Presence of a sea
2.
Graded bedding
Probable Cause
Wind action
Wind or water action
Deposition of only fine sands
Cross bedding
1.
Asymmetrical ripple marks
Graded bedding
Wind action
One-way wave action of wind or water
Presence of a sea
Feature
Glacier
Symmetrical ripple marks
Asymmetrical ripple marks
Use the words and phrases below to complete the chart.
36
Chapter 6 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
sandy land.
Chapter Assessment
landslide. Later still, sea level lowered and terrestrial animals inhabited dry,
supported marine life. At a later time, the area was disrupted by an underwater
As the bottom-most, oldest layer shows, the area was once the floor of a sea that
over time? Write a brief description beginning with events that happened first.
4. Based on the data and your deductions, what do you think occurred in the location
in an ocean.
The presence of marine fossils in a limestone confirms that this rock layer formed
what conditions did the rock most likely form?
3. Layer A is a fossiliferous limestone. The fossils are of marine organisms. Under
marine fossils confirms that the area was under the sea at one time.
Graded bedding is found as a result of underwater landslides. The presence of
fossils throughout. Under what conditions did it most likely form?
2. Layer B is a coarse-grained sandstone with graded bedding. It contains marine
a desert.
presence of land animal fossils suggest that the area was dry, sandy land, such as
Fine sands are generally deposited by wind. The absence of marine fossils and the
No marine fossils are present. Under what conditions did it most likely form?
1. Layer C is a fine-grained sandstone with cross-bedding and land animal fossils.
A
B
C
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
The figure below represents sedimentary layers in a single geographic location. Use your
completed Feature and Probable Cause chart and the diagram below to answer the questions.
More than one item from the chart may be required to answer some of the questions.
CHAPTER
Name
A geology class is on a summer field trip to observe many different types of geological
phenomena. The students have been given an incomplete chart to help them understand
processes that occurred in the past that produced geological features visible today.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
6
Class
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
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7
Column A
stripped away
9. The process by which outer layers of a rock are
8. Soil located above its parent material
7. The reaction of water with other substances
parent bedrock
6. Soil that has been moved to a location away from its
5. The chemical reaction of oxygen with other substances
changes in their composition as the result of
chemical reactions
4. The process by which rocks and minerals undergo
3. A vertical sequence of soil layers
cracks of rocks
2. The repeated thawing and freezing of water in the
organic matter overlying the bedrock of Earth’s surface
1. The loose covering of broken rock particles and decaying
location to another.
Erosion
i.
Chapter Assessment
15.
Rill erosion
frost wedging
is a distinct layer, or zone, within a soil profile.
, which is the deepening and
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 7 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
is the erosion by running water of a small channel on the side of a slope.
weathering
.
37
h. chemical weathering
is the removal and transportation of weathered material from one
soil horizon
soil
g. soil profile
f.
e. hydrolysis
d. oxidation
c. exfoliation
b. transported soil
14. The process by which rocks on or near Earth’s surface break down and change is
13.
12. A(n)
widening of rill channels.
Column B
a. residual soil
, eroded materials are dropped in another location.
gully erosion
deposition
11. A major problem in farming areas is
10. In a process known as
Write the term that best completes the statement.
c
a
e
b
d
h
g
i
f
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Reviewing Vocabulary
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Weathering, Erosion, and Soil
CHAPTER
Name
7
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
It is a loose covering of broken rock particles and decaying organic matter.
There is one kind of soil in the United States.
Living organisms add nutrients to it.
It takes a long time to form.
d. tropical rain forests
moving it to a location with few plants and animals
moving it to a drier climate
increasing its total surface area
moving it to a colder climate
38
Chapter 7 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
9. There can be no stream erosion or glacial erosion without
a. gravity.
b. hydrolysis.
c. wind.
d. deposition.
8. Which of the following statements is NOT true of soils in sloped areas?
a. Smaller particles remain on the slopes, while coarser particles move downslope.
b. Soils on slopes tend to be infertile.
c. Valley soils are usually thick.
d. South-facing slopes have somewhat thicker soils than slopes facing other directions.
materials in bodies of water?
a. It improves the quality of ecosystems.
b. It limits the availability of water for hydroelectric energy.
c. It reduces water supplies for personal consumption.
d. It can restrict navigation through the water bodies.
Chapter Assessment
c. is not dependent on the amount of humus.
d. is determined by its composition and climate.
7. Which of the following statements is NOT true about the deposition of eroded
6. The color of a soil
a. is a reliable indicator of its fertility.
b. is always dark brown or black.
5. Which of the following happens when a river enters a large body of water?
a. The river water slows down and deposits large amounts of sediments.
b. The river water increases its speed and carries out gully erosion.
c. The river water flows over the delta, causing exfoliation.
d. The river water erodes the shoreline and deposits barrier islands.
a.
b.
c.
d.
4. Which of the following could increase the rate of chemical weathering of a rock?
a.
b.
c.
d.
3. Which of the following statements is NOT true of soil?
2. In which of the following areas is wind a major erosional agent?
a. grasslands
b. temperate forests
c. deserts
1. Which of the following characteristics of water can be responsible for mechanical weathering?
a. Water flows downstream under gravity.
b. Water expands when it freezes.
c. Water combines with atmospheric gases to form acid precipitation.
d. Water reacts with and can dissolve many kinds of minerals.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
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Chapter Assessment
and acid precipitation.
Chapter 7 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
include hydrolysis, oxidation, and the dissolving of minerals by carbonic acid
a result of pressure exerted by plant roots. Examples of chemical weathering
of mechanical weathering include frost wedging, exfoliation, and weathering as
39
undergo changes in their composition as a result of chemical reactions. Examples
into smaller pieces. In the process of chemical weathering, rocks and minerals
Mechanical weathering is the process by which rocks and minerals break down
4. Contrast mechanical and chemical weathering, and give examples of each.
fuels, is responsible for some chemical weathering through acid precipitation.
move soil while planting a garden. Human activities, such as the burning of fossil
another place. Humans excavate when building structures or highways. Humans
as they carry on their life processes. Animals burrow into the soil and shovel it to
weathering. Organisms move Earth’s surface materials from one place to another
on rocks, and decaying organic matter contributes carbonic acid for chemical
Possible response: Plants contribute to weathering when their roots exert pressure
3. How do living things impact weathering and erosion?
texture improves. As soil continues to develop, soil horizons form.
to form soil. The processes of weathering and nutrient addition continue, and soil
pieces. Over time, tiny organisms living in the weathered material add nutrients
Soil formation begins when weathering breaks bedrock into smaller and smaller
2. Describe how soil forms.
occurs most readily in cool, dry climates where water freezes and thaws.
where rainfall is abundant and vegetation is lush. In contrast, physical weathering
rates of weathering. Chemical weathering occurs most readily in warm climates
The interaction between temperature and precipitation has a great effect on
1. How does climate influence the rate of weathering of earth materials?
90
80
70
60
Clay
loam
Clay
30
40
50
Silt loam
Silty clay
loam
Silty
clay
20
60
10
Silt
90
80
100
Silt (percent)
70
40
Chapter 7 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
drain somewhere between clay and sand.
Chapter Assessment
drain the worst. Sandy clay has a mixture of particle sizes, so it should
the best. Clay has the largest percentage of small particle sizes, so it should
Since sand has the largest percentage of large particle sizes, it should drain
the better the drainage. Compare the drainage of sand, sandy clay, and clay soils.
6. In general, soil drainage is determined by particle size: the larger the particle size,
50 percent sand, 10 percent silt, 40 percent clay
5. About what proportion of sand/silt/clay makes up sandy clay?
clay loam
soil particles?
4. How would you classify a soil that contains equal percentages of all three sizes of
sandy loam
and 10 percent clay?
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
3. How would you classify a soil that contains 60 percent sand, 30 percent silt,
clay, silt, sand
2. Name the three sizes of soil particles, from largest to smallest.
soil texture
10
50 40 30 20
Sand (percent)
Loam
90
1. What property of soil does the diagram illustrate?
0
Sandy clay
loam
Sandy
clay
Sandy loam
Loamy
Sand sand
10
20
30
40
Clay (percent) 50
60
70
80
Study the diagram. Then answer the questions.
CHAPTER
Name
Answer the following questions.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Thinking Critically
7
Class
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
CHAPTER
Name
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Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
7
Date
690 g
20 g
Wet soil weight
Water drainage
Chapter Assessment
20 min
160 g
640 g
200 g
600 g
Clay +
Sand
30 min
70 g
730 g
200 g
600 g
Clay +
Soil A
>60 min
35 g
760 g
200 g
600 g
Chapter 7 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
30 min
70 g
730 g
200 g
600 g
Clay +
Humus
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
>60 min
200 g
Water added
Time to drain
600 g
Dry soil weight
Clay
The clay is the unsuitable soil from the golf
course. Humus and sand were picked up from
a local nursery, and soils A and B are higher
priced synthetic soils produced by a chemical
company. Most of the soil combinations drained
in less than 30 minutes. When the drain time is
greater than 60 minutes, this indicates poor
drainage and some of the water will remain on
top of the soil, where it either evaporates or runs
off. All water weights are given in grams. One
gram of water is approximately equal to one
milliliter.
You develop a simple setup to test various soil combinations for drainage and water retention. You will add dry soil, which was heated to expel all moisture, to a beaker. The beaker has
a drain hole in the bottom to allow the drainage of excess water to a measuring cylinder. You
add 200 ml of water to the beakers with the various soil combinations. After one hour, you
then reweigh the soil and measure the drainage water.
Clay +
Soil B
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
A golf course designer, who is about to build a championship golf course, has come to you
with a problem. He tells you that parts of his developing course cannot grow grass and tend
to flood. After testing the soil, you decide that the reason it drains poorly and doesn’t retain
adequate moisture is because it has too much nonporous clay. You tell him that by adding soil
conditioners, the new soil will improve its drainage and retain more water. You mention that
water retention is important because water supplies are low in the hot summer months, and
grasses need water to stay green. Improved drainage will also allow more rainfall to be soaked
into the soil, thus lessening runoff and water erosion.
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
41
7
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
90
0
Clay +
Humus
0
Clay +
Sand
of the soil, but also adds an organic component that retains a lot of moisture.
water retention by a small amount. Humus not only increases the drainage rate
Chapter 7 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
synthetic soil might be factors that would influence a decision.
Chapter Assessment
availability of either soil conditioner, its cost, and the long term effects of
clay/humus mixture and the clay/Soil A mixture. Answers may vary. The
The soil that has the best combinations of water retention and drainage is the
other factors that might influence the selection of the best soil conditioner?
6. What soil combination would you recommend to the golf course designer? What are some
Sand has good drainage, but retains very little water.
5. Why is sand not a good soil conditioner?
evaporates or runs off.
allow the easy penetration of water. The water that cannot enter the soil usually
Clay soil has small particle sizes that compact easily. Once compacted, it does not
4. Why do you suppose clay has such a high evaporation rate?
water retention than humus, but does not drain as well.
Soil A has the same drainage and water retention as humus. Soil B has more
improve drainage.
3. How does Soil A and B compare to humus as far as their ability to retain water and
42
5
Clay +
Soil B
Sand in a soil will increase the drainage rate substantially, and also increase the
improve drainage.
10
Clay +
Soil A
2. Compare the use of sand and humus as far as their ability to retain water and
Water evaporated/
runoff
Clay
If it doesn’t, it’s because some of the water evaporated or ran off. Using the data from the chart
on page 41, write on the table below, the amount of water that either evaporated or ran off.
1. The water added to the dry soil should equal the weight of the wet soil plus the drainage weight.
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
CHAPTER
Name
Chapter Assessment
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
T209
8
Column A
over older moraines
10. An elongated landform produced when glaciers move
along a curved surface
9. A landslide in which earth material rotates and slides
triggered by an earthquake
8. Swiftly moving mixture of mud and water sometimes
7. Where meltwater flows and deposits
of rocks
6. Occurs when sand particles rub against the surface
5. A deep depression carved out by an alpine glacier
4. Windblown deposits composed of silt
3. A broad, continent-sized mass of ice
under gravity
2. A downslope movement of loose sediment and rock
1. A mass of ice that forms in mountainous areas
Column B
mass movement
j.
i.
slump
mudflow
h. abrasion
g. loess
f.
e. drumlin
d. cirque
c. valley glacier
b. outwash plain
d. drumlins.
b. eskers.
c. avalanches.
d. landslides.
Chapter Assessment
particles is known as
a. suspension.
b. deposition.
d. deflation.
Chapter 8 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
c. abrasion.
14. The lowering of the land surface that results from the wind’s removal of surface
sediments called
a. moraines.
13. Streams flowing under a melting glacier deposit long, winding ridges of layered
12. Rocks that are shaped by windblown sediment are known as
a. dunes.
b. ventifacts.
c. striations.
Date
a. continental glacier
11. The slow, steady, downhill flow of loose, weathered earth materials is called
a. deflation.
b. slump.
c. creep.
d. loess.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
e
j
i
b
h
d
g
a
f
c
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Reviewing Vocabulary
Class
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Mass Movements, Wind,
and Glaciers
CHAPTER
Name
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
43
8
of loose rock at high elevations, in steep road cuts, and on rocky shorelines.
a rapid downslope movement of earth material. Falls are downhill movements
Flows are the slow to rapid flow of earth materials like thick liquids. Slides are
Chapter 8 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
flowing under glaciers that are melting.
Chapter Assessment
Eskers are winding ridges of layered sediment. They are deposited by streams
9. What are eskers and how do they form?
44
d. mudflow.
d. avalanche.
Creep is the slow, steady downhill flow of loose, weathered earth materials.
8. Name and describe the four main classifications of mass movements.
Answer the following questions.
7. A landslide that occurs on steep slopes in mountainous area is called a(n)
a. rockslide.
b. slump.
c. avalanche.
6. When two cirques on opposite sides of a valley meet, they form a(n)
a. arête.
b. drumlin.
c. moraine.
5. Which of the following is NOT true about glaciers?
a. Glaciers can form along the equator.
c. Only valley glaciers flow.
b. Glaciers carve U-shaped valleys.
d. Glaciers produce moraines.
4. Glaciers covered 30 percent of Earth during the last ice age that began about
a. 10 000 years ago.
c. 2000 years ago.
b. 1.6 million years ago.
d. 50 million years ago.
c. wind deposition
d. wind erosion
2. Slumps are common after a rainfall because the water
a. reduces friction between soil grains.
c. causes snow to melt.
b. breaks the underlying rock.
d. washes away the vegetation cover.
1. Which of the following is NOT an indication that creep has occurred?
a. Parallel grooves form in bedrock.
c. Trees become bent.
b. Vertical structures become tilted.
d. Underground pipelines break.
3. Which of the following causes deflation?
a. glacial erosion
b. deposition by meltwaters
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
CHAPTER
Name
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Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
45
8
B
increase beach erosion, and the area may suffer nearshore flooding. To minimize
these consequences, one should disturb the dunes as little as possible and dig up
in striations, grooves, cirques, arêtes, and horns.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 8 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
and property. Also, dune vegetation helps anchor the sand. Removing the sand may
glaciers also erode by abrasion, as well as by plucking. Glacial erosion results
Chapter Assessment
construction is completed, dune migration could bury and block off the structures
abrasion. Wind erosion results in deflation blowouts and ventifacts. Like wind,
46
Chapter 8 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
in loss of lives.
Chapter Assessment
buried, and homes and forests can be destroyed. Mass movement can also result
impacts people in several ways. It can cause damage to property. Villages can be
and excessive logging can promote mass movement. Mass movement also
movement. Construction can make slopes unstable. Septic leaks can trigger slides,
movement because their activities can contribute to factors that cause mass
Students should recognize the truth in this statement. People do impact mass
Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Explain your answer.
3. “People impact mass movement just as mass movement impacts people.”
as little vegetation as possible.
Dunes grow and migrate. This natural dune growth would be disrupted. After
sediment by rolling motion, suspension, and saltation and erodes rocks by
plans call for the natural vegetation to be dug up and construction begun. What are some possible
consequences of their actions? What would you do differently to minimize these consequences?
2. A family has decided to build their dream house on a dune on the shore of Lake Michigan. Their
little or no vegetation, and strong, steady winds.
of long ridges perpendicular to the wind direction where there is plenty of sand,
areas where there is little sand or vegetation. Transverse dunes form in a series
deposited by wind. Barchan dunes are crescent-shaped dunes that form in flat
A shows a barchan dune, and B shows a transverse dune. Both are piles of sand
1. Identify the landforms shown in the diagrams above. Then compare and contrast them.
A
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Both wind and glaciers pick up and carry loose sediment. Wind transports
3. Compare and contrast erosion by wind and by glaciers.
making them more stable and thus inhibiting the movement downslope.
In contrast, a small amount of water can help hold the soil particles together,
between grains, reducing friction and increasing movement downhill.
increasing their potential for movement. Water can also act as a lubricant
increase the weight of soils and sediments, thus making them unstable and
increasing the material’s potential for movement. Too much water can
Too little water may prevent sediment grains from holding together, thus
movement on a slope.
2. Explain how water can both limit and increase a material’s potential for
rigid shape and begins to flow like a heavy liquid.
down to recrystallize into ice. This ice becomes too heavy to maintain its
Valley glaciers form in mountainous areas when accumulated snow packs
1. Explain how and where valley glaciers form. Why do they move?
Thinking Critically
CHAPTER
Name
Answer the following questions.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Answer the following questions.
8
Class
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
CHAPTER
Name
Chapter Assessment
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
T211
19
14
80
2
April
October
October
7
106
1
5
0
October
April
31
3
46
2
34
April
1
68
32
3
55
14
3
139
12
132
Point 4
6
4
92
49
6
59
15
5
156
18
147
Bottom of Glacier
Point 5
1
68
31
3
54
15
2
138
13
130
Chapter 8 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
3
78
13
1
7
11
8
7
162
October
173
22
8
163
October
139
April
164
141
Top of Glacier
Point 2
Point 3
April
Chapter Assessment
Year 5
Year 4
Year 3
Year 2
Year 1
Point 1
4
5
Movement In Millimeters
1
2
3
The table below contains measurements taken over 5 years. Two measurements were taken
each year, one in April and the other in October. Measurements 1–3 are from the top of the
glacier. Measurements 4–6 are from the bottom of the glacier. The numbers, in millimeters,
represent the movement since the last measurement. Positive numbers mean the glacier is
advancing. Negative numbers mean the glacier is retreating.
Point 6
47
8
with the ground. This friction slows down the ice.
Friction occurs on the bottom of the glacier where it comes in contact
The bottom of the glacier moves slower than the top of the glacier.
relative to that at the bottom of the glacier? Explain why this might happen.
Chapter 8 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Advancing glaciers may also pose a threat to property downslope.
Scientists measure glacial movements as indicators of climate change.
3. Why might scientists wish to measure and track the movement of a glacier?
Chapter Assessment
from year to year, making the movement of this glacier unpredictable.
of snowfall and temperatures during the winter and the summer, and this varies
advance. The advance or retreat of a glacier is highly dependent upon the amount
years, there is little movement or a retreat, while in other years there is an
The glacier does not move in a uniform manner from year to year. In some
measurements. Explain your results.
2. Make a general statement about the movement of the glacier over the 5 years of
48
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
1. What general statement can you make about the movement of the top of the glacier
Answer the following questions.
CHAPTER
Name
Glaciers are similar to great rivers of ice. Glaciers certainly move slower, but they experience
changes in flow rate much like rivers do. In order to determine a glacier’s flow rate, measurements
are taken by a variety of methods. Some include the measurement of the movement of stakes
placed in the ice, while other methods might include the observation of crevasses in the ice.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
8
Class
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
T212
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
9
watershed
divide
, which is the land area whose
runoff
solution
.
after it becomes dissolved in
consists of all sand, pebbles, and cobbles that
delta
g. wetland
f.
e. meander
d. flood
c. stream banks
b. lake
a. rejuvenation
Column B
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 9 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
15. Water spills over the sides of a stream’s banks
14. An area periodically saturated with water
13. A depression in the land that holds water
12. A stream resumes the process of downcutting
a large body of water
11. A triangular deposit that forms where a stream enters
10. A bend or curve in a stream channel
water within the confines of the channel
9. The ground that borders a stream and holds the
Chapter Assessment
d
g
b
a
f
e
c
Column A
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
.
stream channel , into rock.
is the volume of stream water that flows over a particular
location within a given period of time.
Discharge
8. Flowing surface water carves a narrow pathway, called a(n)
7.
bed load
.
the stream’s water can roll or push along the bed of the stream.
6. A stream’s
water are carried in
suspension
5. All particles small enough to be held up by the turbulence of a stream’s moving
a stream’s water.
4. Material is carried in
a(n)
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
3. Any high land area that separates one watershed from another is termed
water drains into the stream system.
2. A stream system has a(n)
1. Water that flows downslope along Earth’s surface is called
Write the word or phrase that best completes the statement.
Reviewing Vocabulary
Surface Water
CHAPTER
Name
49
9
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
c. headward erosion.
3. Streams lengthen through
a. eutrophication.
c. an oxbow lake.
d. an alluvial fan.
d. streams capturing another stream.
50
regional drainage systems can result in downstream
floods.
9. Heavy accumulations of excess water from large
at the base of mountains.
8. Deltas are fan-shaped deposits found on valley floors
are carried in solution.
7. In a stream, small particles, such as silt, clay, and sand
Chapter 9 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
true
Alluvial fans
suspension
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word to make it true.
c. Freshwater marshes often form along the stream’s mouth and in areas with deltas.
d. Wetlands only exist in freshwater areas.
Chapter Assessment
6. Which of the following statements is NOT true about wetlands?
a. Wetlands result from the eutrophication of a lake.
b. Lack of oxygen and lack of minerals create an atmosphere that is inhospitable to many plants.
5. A blocked-off meander eventually becomes
a. part of the stream again.
b. rejuvenated.
b. stream downcutting.
4. V-shaped channels like the Grand Canyon are formed by
a. a sudden decrease in stream gradient.
c. streams overflowing their banks.
d. upstream flooding.
c. volume of flow.
d. stream bank height.
2. The carrying capacity of a stream is its
a. ability to transport sediment.
b. rate of runoff entering the channel.
b. suspension.
c. an increase in suspended load occurs.
d. the stream’s carrying capacity decreases.
1. Potholes form in the stream bottom when
a. the water dissolves the bedrock.
b. turbulence causes pebbles to swirl.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
CHAPTER
Name
9
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
the ground, thus increasing runoff.
Chapter 9 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
The steeper the slope, the faster water flows, and the less water that seeps into
Dense vegetation allows more water to enter the ground, thus reducing runoff.
5. How do vegetation and slope affect runoff?
increases, its carrying capacity also increases.
As a stream’s velocity increases, its discharge increases. As its discharge
4. How does an increase in a stream’s velocity affect its discharge and carrying capacity?
water in ice-gouged basins, or when blocks of ice melt on outwash plains.
51
have receded to lower-lying areas. Others form because glacial moraines dammed
sediment from landslides. Some form as remnants of former ocean water that
isolated channels of water. Lakes can form when stream flow becomes blocked by
Possible responses: Oxbow lakes form when streams cut off meanders and leave
3. Describe three ways a natural lake can form.
which results in deposition.
erosion takes place. The water moves slower along the inside of the curve,
The velocity of water is greater along the outside of a meander curve, where
outside of a meander curve.
2. Compare the velocity of water, the erosion, and the deposition along the inside and
the process of downcutting resumes.
stops. If the land over which the stream is flowing uplifts or the base level drops,
major erosional process until the stream reaches its base level and downcutting
During the process of stream formation, downcutting of the stream bed is a
start again.
1. Describe what causes a stream to stop downcutting its bed and what causes it to
1
2
3
4
5
6
8
9
10
Date in March, 1999
7
11
12
Discharge at Frankston and Wet Gulch
13
Frankston, resulting in a greater flood discharge at Wet Gulch.
15
Chapter 9 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
with great success.
Chapter Assessment
probably wanted to live on floodplains because they could farm the fertile soil
of sediment, floodplains are usually covered with highly fertile soil. People
is covered by excess water during floods, and floodwater carries a great amount
A floodplain is the broad, flat area that extends out from a stream’s bank. Since it
floodplain. Describe the physical features of a floodplain, and hypothesize as to
why people wanted to live on them.
3. Both cities were founded as farming communities during the 1800s on the
52
14
KEY
Frankston
Wet Gulch
Additional tributaries and runoff likely flow into the river downstream from
difference in discharge between the two towns after March 10?
2. Wet Gulch is downstream from Frankston. How might this account for the
Wet Gulch, 3; Frankston, 2
overflow its banks?
1. During how many days in March did the river at Wet Gulch and Frankston
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
The graph shows the discharge of a river that flows through two cities, Frankston and Wet
Gulch. At either city, the river’s banks cannot handle a discharge of 3.5 thousand cubic
meters per second or more. At that point, the river reaches its flood stage. Study the graph
and answer the questions.
CHAPTER
Name
Answer the following questions.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Thinking Critically
9
Class
Discharge
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
CHAPTER
Name
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
(thousand cubic meters per second)
Chapter Assessment
T213
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Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
9
Date
7.6
0.0
0.05
450
0
pH
Phosphate (ppm)
Nitrogen (ppm)
Largemouth bass
Mosses and grasses
0
455
0.18
0.10
7.2
19
1955
2
448
0.19
0.20
7.1
18
1960
5
338
0.25
0.25
7.0
18
1965
15
235
0.28
0.28
6.8
16
1970
18
220
0.28
0.28
6.8
17
1975
29
155
0.35
0.45
6.5
15
1980
35
125
0.40
0.55
6.1
11
1985
9
9
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 9 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
eutrophication fills in a lake and a wetland forms.
53
Smith. The data also show an increase in mosses and grasses, which thrive when
54
Chapter 9 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
way or another.
Chapter Assessment
population. However, without scientific testing, it is impossible to conclude one
vegetation has no impact, a negative impact, or a positive impact on the bass
the increasing phosphate level. It is theoretically possible that the increase in
in the chart, such as the decrease in dissolved oxygen, the decreasing pH, and
For example, largemouth bass could be negatively affected by the other variables
number of mosses and grasses and the decline in largemouth bass population.
No, the data do not prove a causal relationship between the increase in the
and grasses increased. From this data, can you conclude that the increase of mosses and
grasses caused the largemouth bass population to decline? Explain your answer.
indicated. As eutrophication continues and the lake fills in, the oxygen content
decreases and the acidity increases, which the data suggest took place at Lake
5. The table shows that the number of largemouth bass decreased as the number of mosses
will die, and the mosses and grasses will thrive. The lake will start to fill in.
increase, the pH will drop, the dissolved oxygen will continue to decrease, bass
Possible response: The amounts of phosphate and nitrogen will continue to
4. What do you predict will happen to the lake in the next 40 years?
decaying process depleted the water’s oxygen.
phosphate and nitrogen, then grew rapidly, died, and decayed. The resulting
oxygen decreased. Lake organisms like algae most likely thrived on the increased
As the phosphate and nitrogen content increased, the amount of dissolved
compare? Explain the changes that took place.
3. How do changes in phosphate, nitrogen, and dissolved oxygen content over time
accounting for the increase of these nutrients.
have been picked up by runoff and carried into the lake after 1950, thus
after 1950. Agricultural fertilizers contain phosphates and nitrogen, which may
Possible response: Yes; phosphate and nitrogen increased in the lake water
the data support this statement? Explain your answer.
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
2. After 1950, farmers in the Lake Smith area increased their use of fertilizers. Does
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
CHAPTER
Name
the data show a decrease in largemouth bass, eutrophication at Lake Smith is
survive in water when the dissolved oxygen falls below a certain level. And since
55
50
0.45
0.55
5.8
leaving less for the other life-forms. Animals, such as largemouth bass, cannot
excessive growth then dies and decays, which depletes the available oxygen,
Eutrophication is the filling in of a lake due to excessive organic growth. This
1. What is eutrophication? Did it occur at Lake Smith? Explain your answer.
Answer the following questions.
20
Dissolved oxygen
(parts per million, or ppm)
1950
Water Quality at Lake Smith
1990
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
The table lists water quality measurements that were taken over a 40-year period at Lake Smith.
Measurements included dissolved oxygen, pH, phosphate, nitrogen, the number of largemouth
bass, and mosses and grasses. Dissolved oxygen is the measure of the amount of oxygen available
to life-forms in the water. Largemouth bass is a common variety of fish found in healthy lakes.
Mosses and grasses start to appear as the pH of the water becomes more acidic.
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
Chapter Assessment
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
T215
10
, of well-sorted sand is about 30 percent.
.
caves
aquifers
are three-dimensional underground passages, shafts,
.
travertine
, which is a type
Chapter Assessment
springs
.
Chapter 10 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
10. Localized natural discharges of groundwater at Earth’s surface are called
of limestone.
9. Dripstone formations are composed of
stalactites
8. Calcium carbonate deposits that hang from the ceiling of a cave are called
and chambers that stretch for many kilometers.
7. Many
permeable layers of material.
6. Most groundwater flow takes place through
permeability
.
, which are
water table
5. Materials, such as sand, with large, connected pores have a high
4. The upper boundary of the zone of saturation is the
saturated with water.
3. The zone of saturation is an area below Earth’s surface that is completely
2. The percentage of pore space, or
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
, much of the precipitation that falls
porosity
infiltration
on land becomes groundwater.
1. Through the process of
Write the word or phrase that best completes the statement.
Reviewing Vocabulary
Groundwater
CHAPTER
Name
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
55
10
Column A
4. Major source of freshwater for human use
3. Water under pressure from a confined aquifer
2. Heated water discharged from the ground
streams
1. Limestone regions with sinkholes and sinking
Column B
d. groundwater
c. karst topography
b. artesian well
a. hot spring
56
chemicals.
10. Common sources of groundwater pollution include sewage and harmful
hydrogen (H).
9. The combination of water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) produces
8. Groundwater is slightly acidic and evaporates limestone.
Chapter Assessment
7. The flow velocity of groundwater depends on the height of the water table.
6. The depth of the water table in stream valleys is close to Earth’s surface.
returned directly to the oceans through streams and rivers.
5. Only a small portion of precipitation becomes groundwater and is
Chapter 10 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
true
carbonic
acid (H2CO3)
dissolves
slope
true
runoff
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
d
b
a
c
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
CHAPTER
Name
T216
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
10
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Chapter Assessment
treatment.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 10 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
building barriers to stop them, and pumping contaminated water out for
57
Protection from pollution plumes includes identifying and monitoring the plumes,
5. How can groundwater resources be protected from pollution plumes?
dissolved ions.
commonly has been treated with a water softener to remove many of the
water does not contain high concentrations of these elements. Soft water
Hard water contains high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, or iron. Soft
4. How do hard water and soft water differ?
to form an interconnected network of openings called caves.
limestone formations, it gradually dissolves adjacent rock and enlarges passages
in groundwater. As groundwater percolates through the cracks and joints of
Most caves are formed in limestone by the dissolving activity of carbonic acid
3. How are caves formed?
soil and various rocks.
Subsurface material that is porous, so the water is stored in the pore spaces of
2. What type of subsurface material is able to store groundwater?
the groundwater.
to the ocean. The raindrop could infiltrate into the ground to become part of
The raindrop could become runoff, enter a stream or river, and then return
1. What two things can happen to a raindrop after it falls on land?
Sample B
small pore spaces between various sized particles.
Chapter 10 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
higher flow velocity.
Chapter Assessment
Sample A; its larger, connected pores allow more water to pass through at a
3. Which of the two samples has the greater permeability? Why?
between the larger fragments.
and storage capacity of poorly sorted material is reduced by the smaller grains
Groundwater flow through Sample B would be very slow because the porosity
porosity of well-sorted material allows for greater storage of groundwater.
Groundwater would more readily flow through Sample A because the greater
2. Describe groundwater flow through the two samples. Explain your answer.
58
1 millimeter
Sample A shows large pores between large particle sizes. Sample B shows
1. Describe the porosity and mineral size of Sample A and Sample B.
Sample A
Use the diagram illustrating mineral size and porosity to help you answer the following questions.
CHAPTER
Name
Thinking Critically
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Answer the following questions.
10
Class
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
CHAPTER
Name
Chapter Assessment
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
T217
10
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
0.5
400
Flow Rate
300
Shale
200
Material
100
Chapter Assessment
0
500
800
Meters
700
900
0.01
Clay
Limestone
50
Sandstone
200
Rubble
1. Compare and contrast wells 1, 2, and 3. Analyze the potential of each well for a
sandstone is 50 meters per year, it would take 8 years to reach well 2. If the
60
Chapter 10 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
location between aquicludes should help protect it from future pollution.
water. Its location has the least potential for existing harmful pollution. Its
Well 4 is the best choice. Its depth has the best potential for a good supply of
5. Which site has the best potential for your well? Explain your decision.
filtered out in the sediment before reaching the well.
industrial waste is in an ionic or molecular form, it is unlikely that it would be
The industrial waste is approximately 400 meters from well 2. If the flow in the
well 2. Is it possible that the waste could be made harmless before it reaches the well?
4. Use the flow rate table to determine when the industrial waste will contaminate the water in
100 meters per year, it would take 9 years to reach well 3.
Well 3 is approximately 900 meters from the sewage. If the flow in limestone is
will contaminate the water in well 3.
3. Use the flow rate table to determine when the sewage from the broken septic tank
that could protect it from pollution. One problem could be the cost of a deep well.
Well 4 is a deep well with a good supply of water. It is close to a shale aquiclude
well 4? Could there be a problem with the water?
2. What is the potential for a clean, accessible, and maintainable water supply from
might be polluted in the future by the sewage from the leaking septic tank.
by industrial wastes. Well 3 is a deep well with a good supply of water, but
would be a medium well with a good supply of water, but may soon be polluted
water table and may not be able to sustain a large withdrawal of water. Well 2
Well 1 would be a shallow well with a clean water supply, but is close to the
clean, accessible, and maintainable water supply.
Date
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Limestone
59
10
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
CHAPTER
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Clay
Limestone
Clay
Sandstone
Clay
Rubble
Water table
Chapter 10 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
100
Well
4
Well
3
Well
2
Well
1
Your
house
Shale
1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500
Industrial
waste
Flow Rate in Meters Per Year
600
Sewage
Factory
You would like to build a house in a wooded area close to your school. Since city water is not
available, you will need to drill a well. The well-drilling company you hired did test drillings to
find a clean, accessible, and maintainable aquifer. After completing its work, the company gave
you a map of four available drill sites, numbered 1, 2, 3, and 4. Use the illustration to make
your analysis. Then answer the questions that follow.
Applying Scientific Methods
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Column A
electromagnetic waves
6. The transfer of energy through space by
5. All forms of water that fall from clouds
4. An air mass’s ability to resist rising
3. Heat that is stored in a substance
an oxygen molecule
2. The gas formed by adding a third oxygen atom to
constant pressure to reach saturation
1. The temperature to which air must be cooled at
Date
f.
precipitation
e. dew point
d. radiation
c. ozone
b. stability
a. latent heat
Column B
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 11 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
a heated substance, such as water or air.
by the collision of molecules. Convection is energy transfer by the flow of
Both are ways in which energy is transferred. Conduction is energy transfer
10. conduction, convection
to liquid. Evaporation is the change of state from liquid to gas.
Both are changes of state. Condensation is the change of state from gas
9. condensation, evaporation
how much water vapor that volume of air can hold.
in air. Relative humidity is the ratio of the amount of water vapor in air to
Both are related to water vapor in air. Humidity is the amount of water vapor
8. humidity, relative humidity
or slowly molecules move around.
of a difference in temperature. Temperature is the measurement of how rapidly
Both are related to energy. Heat is the transfer of energy that occurs because
7. heat, temperature
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
d
f
b
a
c
e
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Reviewing Vocabulary
Atmosphere
CHAPTER
Name
61
11
Date
with height in the atmosphere.
6. A temperature inversion is a decrease in temperature
occurs is the lifted condensation level.
5. The height in the atmosphere at which condensation
its relative humidity.
4. The amount of water vapor in a given volume of air is
height in the troposphere.
3. Both temperature and pressure generally decrease with
nitrogen, which blocks harmful ultraviolet radiation
from the Sun.
2. The stratosphere is important because it contains
oxygen, with traces of other gases such as carbon
dioxide and water vapor.
1. The atmosphere is composed mostly of helium and
62
Chapter 11 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
10. What is the constant movement of water between the atmosphere and Earth’s surface?
a. precipitation cycle
c. cloud cycle
b. water cycle
d. atmosphere cycle
9. Cloud droplets collide to form larger droplets in a process called
a. coalescence.
c. condensation.
b. convection.
d. composition.
8. In orographic lifting, clouds form when moist winds
a. flow over the sea.
c. encounter mountains.
b. become drier.
d. warm up the ground.
7. Condensation nuclei are particles of atmospheric dust around which
a. ozone collects.
c. evaporation occurs.
b. cloud droplets form.
d. winds form.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
increase
true
humidity
true
ozone
nitrogen
Chapter Assessment
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
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Chapter Assessment
Chapter 11 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
ozone layer, gradually increases in temperature with height.
decrease in temperature with height. The stratosphere, which contains the
contains most of the mass of the atmosphere. It is characterized by a general
63
atmosphere. The stratosphere is the layer above the troposphere. The troposphere
Both are layers of the atmosphere. The troposphere is the lowest layer of the
5. Compare and contrast the troposphere and the stratosphere.
No; the inversion would block rising air, so towering clouds would not form.
cumulonimbus cloud likely? Explain your answer.
4. A temperature inversion hangs over a city area. Is the formation of a towering
than the air above.
lose heat to the surface. As a result, lower layers of air become cooler
Because of the rapid cooling of land, the lower layers of the atmosphere
3. Explain how a temperature inversion might form on a clear winter night.
of higher pressure or density to areas of lower pressure or density.
imbalances create areas of high and low pressure. Air moves from areas
created by the unequal heating and cooling of Earth’s surface. These
Moving air is called wind. Air moves in response to density imbalances
2. What is moving air called? Why does air move in the atmosphere?
than cirrus clouds do.
clouds made up of ice crystals. Cumulus clouds form lower in the atmosphere
Cumulus clouds are puffy and white. Cirrus clouds are wispy, indistinct
1. Compare and contrast cumulus and cirrus clouds.
200
400
600
800
Mesosphere
40
80
64
Chapter 11 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
radiation from the Sun. Thus, temperature increases in the stratosphere.
The stratosphere contains concentrated ozone. Ozone easily absorbs ultraviolet
3. Why does temperature increase with height in the stratosphere?
temperature starts to increase with altitude.
begins to decrease again. Then between the mesosphere and thermosphere,
temperature begins to increase with altitude. In the mesosphere, temperature
Temperature decreases with altitude in the troposphere. In the stratosphere,
2. Describe the temperature changes that take place in each layer of the atmosphere.
increases depending on the layer of the atmosphere.
No; air pressure decreases with altitude. Temperature decreases and
1. Do air pressure and temperature change in the same way with altitude? Explain your answer.
120
Troposphere
Temperature (C)
0
Stratosphere
Ozone layer
Tropopause
Stratopause
Mesopause
Date
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Pressure 1000 millibars
at ground level
1000
Temperature
Pressure
Thermosphere
40
0
Atmospheric pressure (millibars)
0
(Sea level) 80
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
Use the graph to answer the following questions.
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Answer the following questions.
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Altitude above sea level (kilometers)
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11
Within a few seconds, the students observed white ribbons of mist forming in the center
of the jar. Soon a larger white, misty area had formed inside the jar between the surface of
the water and the jar’s opening.
3. How might the results have been different if the tray and ice had not been placed
66
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Chapter 11 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter 11 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
of the jar.
by the water. The air at the top is cooled by the ice.
warm up, evaporate, rise, condense, and fall as rain or drop down the sides
It decreases with height. The air at the bottom of the jar is warmed
the water supply to keep the water heated. Then water would continuously
Answers will vary. Students might suggest adding a heat source under
water cycle. Explain how water would cycle through the new model.
Explain your answer.
2. How does the temperature of the air in the model atmosphere vary with height?
that made a mist or cloud.
warm air cooled and condensed at the top, forming water droplets
6. Describe how you would change the design of the model to create a continuous
that formed in the jar is similar to cloud droplets that form in the atmosphere.
top of the jar cooled from contact with the ice-filled tray. In turn, the rising
the atmosphere, the rising moist air cooled and condensed in the jar. The mist
result of the ice cubes at the top. Just as rising air cools and condenses in
nearest Earth’s surface cools with altitude, as does the air in the jar as a
to evaporate. It then rises in the atmosphere. The atmospheric layer
surface of Earth that has been heated by the Sun’s radiation, causing it
The hot water at the bottom of the jar represents liquid water on the
formation of clouds in Earth’s atmosphere.
5. Based on your knowledge of cloud formation, compare the model with the
no warm, moist air rising in the jar.
An area of mist would not have formed because there would have been
bottom of the jar instead of hot water?
4. How might the results have been different if students had put cold water in the
would not have condensed and droplets of water would not have formed.
Possible response: The warm air would rise and escape, so water vapor
over the opening of the jar?
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
of the jar evaporated and the resulting water vapor rose. The air at the
65
11
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
CHAPTER
Name
A “cloud” of small water droplets formed. The hot water in the bottom
1. What formed inside the jar? Explain how it formed.
Answer the following questions.
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
A group of students decided to make a simple model of the atmosphere. To create their
model, they used a clean glass jar, hot water, and a tray of ice cubes.
The students poured hot water into the jar to a level of about 4 cm. They then filled a
small metal container with ice cubes and placed it over the jar’s opening, as shown in the
illustration below.
Applying Scientific Methods
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c. a hygrometer.
d. Doppler radar.
c. convergence effect.
d. radar effect.
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 12 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
the analog forecast relies on comparing past and current weather patterns.
67
68
c. occlusion.
d. air mass exchange.
Chapter 12 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
is known as
a. intertropical convergence.
b. air mass modification.
9. The exchange of heat or moisture with the surface over which an air mass travels
data collected by many weather instruments and analyzed by computers, while
6. digital forecast, analog forecast
Both are methods of weather forecasting. The digital forecast relies on numerical
7. A record of weather data for a particular site at a particular time is a(n)
a. station model.
c. isopleth model.
b. topographic map.
d. climate map.
6. Differences in thermal energy can be detected with
a. ultraviolet imagery.
c. infrared imagery.
b. visible light.
d. sonar imagery.
5. Polar and tropical regions maintain fairly constant average temperatures because
a. the Sun always strikes these regions at the same angle.
b. air masses remain stationary near the poles and equator.
c. Earth radiates extra energy back into space.
d. the continual motion of air and water reallocates heat energy throughout Earth.
observer is the
a. Coriolis effect.
b. Doppler effect.
4. The change in wave frequency of energy as it moves toward or away from an
pressure, and humidity is
a. a radiosonde.
b. a satellite.
3. A balloon-borne package of sensors that gathers upper-level temperature, air
c. ceilometer.
d. barometer.
2. A weather instrument that measures the height of clouds and estimates the amount
of cloud cover is a(n)
a. hygrometer.
b. anemometer.
Date
Chapter Assessment
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
1. Low-pressure systems that heavily influence weather in the middle latitudes are
a. polar easterlies.
c. air masses.
b. wave cyclones.
d. warm fronts.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
CHAPTER
Name
8. Lines on a map that connect points of equal or constant values are
a. boundaries.
c. fronts.
b. isopleths.
d. station models.
and direction, while a hygrometer measures relative humidity.
Both are weather instruments. An anemometer measures wind speed
5. anemometer, hygrometer
a barometer measures air pressure.
Both are weather instruments. A thermometer measures temperature, while
4. thermometer, barometer
while a front is a narrow region separating two air masses of different densities.
body of air that takes on the characteristics of the area over which it forms,
Both involve the movement of weather systems. However, an air mass is a large
3. air mass, front
and south of the equator. The two systems have opposite circulation patterns.
prevailing westerlies are westerlies that flow between 30 and 60 latitude north
30 and the equator in both the northern and southern hemispheres. The
Both are global wind systems. The trade winds are easterlies that occur between
2. trade winds, prevailing westerlies
patterns for an area.
current atmospheric conditions, while climate refers to long-term weather
Both refer to the conditions of the atmosphere. However, weather refers to
1. weather, climate
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
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Meteorology
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from the barometer (air pressure) and radiosonde (high-level data) would be
over polar land. A maritime tropical air mass is warm and humid, having
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Chapter 12 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
predict a storm’s potential severity. When people have advance warning of a
are difficult to predict.
Chapter 12 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
a thunderstorm is related to its height, infrared imagery gives data that can
Chapter Assessment
they can infer the cloud type and estimate its height. Because the strength of
these factors interact to create progressively more complicated scenarios that
severe storm, they can take precautions.
It allows meteorologists to determine the temperature of a cloud. From this,
in weather. This is because many factors affect the weather and, over time, all
5. Explain how infrared imagery has the potential to save lives.
Forecasts become less reliable when they attempt to predict long-term changes
5. What problems are associated with long-term weather forecasts?
much less useful.
humidity, or cloud cover which would be useful in choosing clothing. The data
which they formed. A continental polar air mass is cold and dry, having formed
formed over tropical oceans.
these instruments would give you data on wind speed, temperature, relative
Possible response: Anemometer, thermometer, hygrometer, or ceilometer;
anemometer, a barometer, a ceilometer, a hygrometer, a radiosonde, and a thermometer.
You need information that will allow you to dress properly when you arrive. You can have
the data from just three of the instruments. Which ones would you pick and why?
Both are air masses that have taken on the characteristics of the area over
4. Compare and contrast a continental polar air mass and a maritime tropical air mass.
characterized by weather similar to warm fronts and cold fronts.
frequently, weather similar to that of warm fronts. Occluded fronts are
69
and precipitation.
4. There are six weather instruments collecting weather data in a city you are about to visit: an
are characterized by extensive cloudiness and light precipitation. Stationary fronts
usually are associated with light precipitation and light cloud cover, and, less
are characterized by sinking air, which works against the formation of clouds
Most likely, there is a high-pressure system over the area. High-pressure systems
weeks. Infer which type of pressure system is stalled over the area. Explain your answer.
3. Your town is experiencing a drought in which the weather has been hot and dry for
would be no global wind systems.
moving air. With equal temperature and pressure all over the surface, there
Wind systems exist because differences in temperature and air pressure create
2. How would Earth’s wind systems be different if the whole planet were heated equally?
difference over an area and light winds.
area and strong winds. Isobars that are far apart indicate a small pressure
Isobars that are closely spaced indicate a large pressure difference over a small
isobars that are closely spaced; the other shows isobars that are far apart. Predict
the difference in weather conditions for those days.
1. You examine two weather maps of your area for two different days. One map shows
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Cold fronts are associated with clouds, showers, and thunderstorms. Warm fronts
3. Identify the four types of fronts and the weather conditions associated with each one.
westerlies and the trade winds.
the polar easterlies and the prevailing westerlies, and between the prevailing
boundaries of the major wind systems. They form in the midlatitudes between
as a result of great differences in temperature and pressure between the
Jet streams are narrow bands of fast, high-altitude westerly winds that form
2. Describe the formation and location of jet streams.
place, transferring energy from one area to another.
land or water under it. An air mass redistributes energy by moving from place to
A large mass of air takes on the temperature and humidity characteristics of the
1. Explain how air masses form, and how they help redistribute energy on Earth’s surface.
Answer the following questions.
CHAPTER
Name
Thinking Critically
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Answer the following questions.
12
Class
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
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1000
Air pressure (mb)
998
60%
0
22.2
—
100%
3.31
22.2
Wed
—
80%
0
15.6
Thurs
—
60%
0
16.7
Fri
—
50%
0
16.7
Sat
—
40%
0
17.8
Sun
Chapter Assessment
as the front arrived.
Chapter 12 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Clouds form at cold fronts, so clouds would have been visible
observations have been as the front arrived?
3. The students did not record cloud cover data. If they had, what would their
On Wednesday there was rainfall and the associated increase in humidity.
Give two examples.
2. What evidence does the data provide of the arrival of the front?
Wednesday
fronts. On which day did the front pass through?
1. A cold front passed through the students’ city during the week. Showers occur at
40%
0
23.3
Relative humidity
Rainfall (cm)
Average temperature ( C)
Tue
Use the chart and what you know about weather systems and weather forecasting to
answer the following questions.
Mon
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
A meteorology class has set up a small weather station outside of school. It has a few
simple instruments: a thermometer, a barometer, a rain gauge to measure rainfall, and
a hygrometer. The students took measurements with the instruments once a day for a
week. They then filled in the chart below. The barometer broke, so they were not able to
finish collecting air-pressure data.
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
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71
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was passing through with clouds and precipitation.
The pressure would have been lower on Wednesday, when the front
barometer had continued to work, would the air pressure reading for Wednesday
have been higher or lower than the one for Tuesday, when the weather was clearer?
Chapter 12 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
however, it is difficult to make a guess as to whether a front is approaching.
days, so it is likely that Monday will have clear skies. Without air pressure data,
be rising temperatures. The relative humidity has been falling for the past few
Possible answer: The temperature might be 18 or 19 C, since the trend seems to
following the last day in the chart. Explain your answer.
7. Use the data in the chart to make an analog forecast of the weather for the Monday
their data is not very dense.
collected. However, the forecast probably would not be highly accurate because
mathematically the relationships between the atmospheric variables they have
They would be able to make a digital forecast if they knew how to express
they have collected? Explain your answer.
6. Would the students be able to make an accurate digital forecast based on the data
The high relative humidity indicates cloudy skies.
5. Given the relative humidity on Thursday, would you expect clear or cloudy skies?
72
Date
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4. Low-pressure systems are associated with clouds and precipitation. If the students’
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Chapter Assessment
the eye.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 13 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
73
a hurricane. The eyewall is the band of strongest hurricane winds that surrounds
Both are structures at the centers of hurricanes. The eye is the calm center of
5. eye, eyewall
tropical oceans.
with the ground. A tropical cyclone is a larger, swirling system that forms over
can cause great damage. A tornado is a whirling visible column of air in contact
Both are major storms that swirl around areas of low pressure. Their high winds
4. tornado, tropical cyclone
pressure in the center, and potential for property damage.
Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale ranks hurricanes according to wind speed, air
tornadoes according to their path of destruction, wind speed, and duration. The
Both are scales that rank major storms. The Fujita tornado intensity scale ranks
3. Fujita tornado intensity scale, Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale
in a local area, they result in violent downdrafts called downbursts.
ultimately produce gusty surface winds. If these downdrafts become concentrated
cool the air around them. This cooled air then sinks, causing downdrafts that
where the moisture condenses into cloud droplets. As these droplets fall, they
Updrafts transport moisture to the cool upper reaches of a cumulonimbus cloud,
Supercells are powerful storms characterized by intense, rotating updrafts.
Supercells and downdrafts are both characteristics of severe thunderstorms.
2. supercell, downburst
by advancing cold fronts, and, more rarely, warm fronts.
by the unequal heating of Earth’s surface. Frontal thunderstorms are produced
condensation occurs is different for each. Air-mass thunderstorms are caused
They are both types of thunderstorms, but the process that makes air rise so
1. air-mass thunderstorm, frontal thunderstorm
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
Reviewing Vocabulary
The Nature of Storms
CHAPTER
Name
13
1. A mound of water driven toward coastal areas by hurricane winds is called a
a. cyclone.
c. storm surge.
b. supercell.
d. cold front.
d. cold wave.
abundant moisture
✓
drought
thunder
tornadoes
lightning
✓
✓
✓
unstable air
flooding
high winds
hail
74
tropical Pacific Ocean
Arctic Ocean
✓
Chapter 13 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
✓
central United States
tropical Atlantic Ocean
Chapter Assessment
large area of high air pressure
7. Places where a tropical cyclone is most likely to develop include:
✓
✓
6. The dangers associated with severe thunderstorms include:
✓
strong winds
very low humidity
5. The conditions needed for the towering clouds of thunderstorms to develop include:
Put a check next to the correct responses to each question.
b. the encounter between supercooled water droplets and ice pellets
c. the dissipation of warm, moist air at Earth’s surface by downdrafts
d. the existence of strong updrafts and downdrafts side by side within a cloud
where the temperature is below freezing
4. Which of the following conditions does NOT contribute to the formation of hail?
a. the ability of water droplets to exist in a liquid state in parts of a cloud
b. sea breeze.
3. The phenomenon in which the effects of cold air are worsened by wind is the
a. supercell.
c. wind chill factor.
2. An extended period of well-below-normal rainfall is a
a. flood.
c. heat wave.
b. drought.
d. tropical cyclone.
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
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Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
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from torrential rains and storm surges that push mounds of water onto the coast.
systems with pools of cold air. This cold air can increase the temperature
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 13 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter 13 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
should dress) than does temperature alone.
above-normal temperatures. The system blocks cooler air masses from moving
76
gives people a more accurate idea of how cold it feels outside (and how they
increases as the air under the system sinks and is warmed by compression, causing
75
heat loss from skin caused by the combination of cold and wind, the information
occurring. Heat waves are also caused by large high-pressure systems. Heat
into an area and also prevents condensation from occurring.
Answers will vary. Students may say that because the wind chill factor estimates
6. Why do weather forecasters often report the wind chill factor in winter?
formation of a supercell, which needs intense updrafts to form.
air remain over an area for a long time. The high pressure would prevent the
No; droughts form when large, high-pressure systems characterized by sinking
a supercell? Explain your answer.
5. Could the atmospheric conditions that cause a drought also cause the formation of
making the storm much stronger.
Air pressure has become lower, and the strength of the winds has increased,
to air pressure in the storm and the strength of its winds.
over continental areas. The sinking air in the systems prevent condensation from
Droughts are caused by large high-pressure systems that persist for a long time
the weather pattern that causes a heat wave.
4. Describe the weather pattern that causes droughts, and explain how it is similar to
dropping and winds reach at least 120 km/h, the system is classified as a hurricane.
exceed 65 km/h, the system becomes a tropical storm. If air pressure keeps
around the low-pressure center, it becomes a tropical depression. When winds
develops over a tropical ocean. When the disturbance begins a cyclonic circulation
Hurricanes form when a weak low-pressure area called a tropical disturbance
3. Explain how a hurricane forms.
the strength of updrafts and downdrafts, and makes the storm more severe.
4. A Category 4 hurricane has just become a Category 5. Explain what has happened
Much of a hurricane’s damage is due to flooding of low-lying areas that results
thunderstorms to form, are usually accompanied by upper-level, low-pressure
difference between the upper and lower parts of the storm, which increases
danger from hurricanes than people who live inland?
3. Why are people who live along the coast or other low-lying areas often in more
ocean waters. The waters of the northern Atlantic would be too cold.
No, because conditions would not be right. Hurricanes form over warm
Explain your answer.
2. Could a hurricane form over the northern Atlantic, off the eastern coast of Canada?
between colliding polar and tropical air masses over the central United States.
tornadoes form. It is the time of year when the temperature contrast is greatest
The broadcasts should occur before spring because that is when most violent
Would the broadcasts be more effective right before winter, spring, summer, or fall?
Explain your answer.
1. A community in Texas broadcasts public service announcements on tornado safety.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
continually regenerate themselves. Also, cold fronts, which cause some
Occasionally, there is a continuous supply of surface moisture, so storms can
2. What makes some thunderstorms more severe than others?
longer form, bringing an end to the storm.
storm’s supply of warm, moist air is gone. Updrafts stop and precipitation can no
that causes gusty winds, but the downdrafts eventually cool the surface, and the
The rising updrafts and falling downdrafts produce a convection cell in the cloud
precipitation. As precipitation falls, it cools the air around it, creating downdrafts.
Condensation creates cloud droplets, and cloud droplets grow in size, forming
moist air to rise vertically, creating updrafts that transport moisture upward.
The storm starts when unequal heating or an advancing front causes warm,
1. Describe the life cycle of a thunderstorm.
Answer the following questions.
CHAPTER
Name
Answer the following questions.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Thinking Critically
13
Class
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
CHAPTER
Name
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T226
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Chapter Assessment
13
3
10:00 A.M.
8.0
3.5
4.0
Y
Z
4.0
1:00 P.M.
5.0
2:00 P.M.
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 13 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
5.2
3:00 P.M.
8 m, and the river did not rise that high during the time shown in the table.
1:00 P.M. House X would not have flooded because it is at an elevation of
3.5 m and Z is at 4 m, and the river level rose above these elevations after
There was likely flooding at houses Y and Z. House Y is at an elevation of
4. Which houses most likely flooded as a result of the storm? Explain your answer.
2.2 m
3. How high above its normal level did the river rise by 3:00 P.M.?
noon
2. By what time did the river rise 0.4 meters above its normal level?
It caused the river to rise above its normal level.
1. What general effect did the thunderstorm have on the river level?
Elevation (m)
X
Table 2
3.4
NOON
House
3.1
11:00 A.M.
Table 1: Water Level at Wilson Bend, Green River
Answer the following questions.
Water Level (m)
Time
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Table 1 shows the effect on water level of a strong thunderstorm moving through the Green
River area. The normal level of Green River at Wilson Bend is about 3 m. Three houses are
located near the bank of the river along Wilson Bend. Their elevations are shown in Table 2.
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
77
13
wind-related damage might have occurred.
there. However, wind speed would have been greater, and thus some
Wilson Bend, so there would have been less chance for flooding to occur
If the storm had moved faster, less rain would have had a chance to fall in
weather and its effects on the area have been different if the storm had moved
over the area at 7 km/h?
Chapter 13 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
is crucial in saving people from the hazards of flooding caused by storms.
Accurate forecasting makes it possible to issue advanced warnings, and this
6. Why is the accurate forecasting of storms such as this one important?
78
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
5. The thunderstorm was moving over the area at about 3 km/h. How would the
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
CHAPTER
Name
Chapter Assessment
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
T227
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Date
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Column A
Column B
d. El Niño
c. climatology
b. ice age
a. season
Chapter 14 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
8. A warm ocean current that develops off the west coast of South America
sheets of ice
7. Period when much of Earth’s surface was covered by vast
variations in daylight, temperature, and weather patterns
6. A short-term period of climatic change caused by regular
affect past, present, and future climate changes
5. The study of Earth’s climate and the factors that
Chapter Assessment
d
b
a
c
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
abnormal rise in global temperatures due to the increased concentration of
of Earth’s surface caused by atmospheric gases, while global warming is the
Both involve the heating of Earth. The greenhouse effect is the natural heating
4. greenhouse effect, global warming
wherein a city is warmer than surrounding rural areas.
79
that differs from the main regional climate. A heat island is a type of microclimate
Both are climates that occur in small areas. A microclimate is a localized climate
3. microclimate, heat island
and south of the equator to the poles.
66.5 north and south of the equator, while polar zones stretch from 66.5 north
23.5 south and north of the equator. Temperate zones are between 23.5 and
Each describes a different climate zone on Earth. The tropics are located between
2. tropics, temperate zones, polar zones
temperature and amount of rainfall) that describes an area’s climate.
pattern of an area, while a normal is a standard value (such as daily high and low
Both terms involve long-term weather patterns. Climate is the long-term weather
1. climate, normal
Compare and contrast each pair or group of related terms.
Reviewing Vocabulary
Climate
CHAPTER
Name
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
14
that closely corresponded to an unusually cold climatic episode.
3. The Maunder minimum is a period of very low precipitation activity
2. One of the effects of El Niño is that the jet stream shifts farther north.
monthly values of temperature and precipitation.
1. The Koeppen classification system classifies climate based on mean
80
c. equatorial zone.
d. temperate zone.
Chapter 14 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
is the
a. polar zone.
b. tropical zone.
7. The climatic zone that receives the least solar radiation and has the coldest climate
mountain, and come down the other side of the mountain much
a. cooler and drier.
c. warmer and drier.
b. cooler and wetter.
d. warmer and wetter.
6. When moist winds approach a mountain, they often drop rain as they rise over the
5. Two climates that are at the same latitude may be different because of
a. bodies of water.
c. Earth’s magnetic field.
b. distance from the poles.
d. soil type.
4. Types of climate data include annual variations in temperature, precipitation, and
a. air pollution.
c. wind.
b. water cycle.
d. topography.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
sunspot
south
true
Date
Chapter Assessment
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false,
change the italicized word to make it true.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
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Name
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Chapter Assessment
14
Date
withstand heavy snows and protect its inhabitants against cold temperatures,
while homes in tropical climates might need to withstand heavy rainfall and
from the Sun and its average temperature is lower.
Chapter Assessment
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Chapter 14 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
81
82
Chapter 14 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
is warmer than in surrounding rural areas.
Chapter Assessment
City buildings and expanses of asphalt can create heat islands where the climate
region located just a few kilometers outside the city?
6. Why might temperature data recorded inside a large city be inaccurate for a rural
carbon dioxide emissions would decrease.
water; altitude.
the number of vehicles on the road would be reduced and thus the amount of
the tropical, temperate, or polar zone; location near or far from a large body of
global warming. If many people left their cars at home and took buses instead,
when burned. The buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is one cause of
Vehicles run on gasoline, a fossil fuel that produces carbon dioxide emissions
5. How might taking a bus instead of driving a car help ease global warming?
radiation all year round.
because each part of Earth’s surface would receive the same amount of solar
There would be scarcely any seasonal climatic changes if Earth were not tilted
4. How would seasonal climatic changes be different if Earth were not tilted on its axis?
the temperature or amount of precipitation can vary greatly from that average.
readings for characteristics such as temperature and rainfall. On any given day,
Normals are standard values for weather in an area. They include average
3. Why can’t you use normals to predict the daily weather?
the tropics could be cold enough to have snow.
Students can list any two of the following: location on Earth’s surface in either
6. List two major reasons for climate variation.
heat would otherwise escape into space.
from the Sun that is absorbed and released by Earth’s surface. Much of this
greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide, trap heat
Without the greenhouse effect, Earth’s climate would be much colder. The
5. Explain how the greenhouse effect influences Earth’s climate.
temperatures.
several years, blocking incoming solar radiation and thus lowering global
Volcanic dust from an eruption can remain suspended in the atmosphere for
Describe the change.
4. Explain how a huge volcanic eruption can cause a change in Earth’s climate.
and volcanic eruptions.
These could include solar activity, changes in Earth’s orbit or the tilt of its axis,
than areas at the same latitude that are at lower elevations. A high mountain in
atmosphere decreases with altitude, areas at the tops of mountains are colder
year round.
3. List several natural cycles that could cause climatic change on Earth.
The area is likely located at a high altitude. Because temperature in the lower
distinct cool or cold winters and warm or hot summers. Polar climates are cold all
Both are cooler than tropical climates. But a continental climate has seasons with
2. Explain how an area in the tropics might typically experience abundant snowfall.
provide ventilation for cooling because of the high temperatures.
designed and constructed. For example, houses in a polar climate might need to
receives more solar energy overall. When the orbit is more circular, Earth is farther
2. Compare and contrast a continental and a polar climate.
Possible response: The climate of an area would influence the way buildings are
cycle. When the orbit is more elongated, Earth passes closer to the Sun and
1. Why would knowing the climate of an area be important for architects? Explain your answer.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Earth’s elliptical orbit elongates, then becomes more circular in a 100 000-year
1. How can the periodic change in the shape of Earth’s orbit cause a change in climate?
Answer the following questions.
CHAPTER
Name
Thinking Critically
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Answer the following questions.
14
Class
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
CHAPTER
Name
14
20
10
0
10
20
30
40
50
20
10
0
10
20
30
40
50
J
J
F M A M J J A S O N D
Month
City Y Data
F M A M J J A S O N D
Month
City X Data
Date
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Class
83
84
City X likely would have very lush tropical vegetation and might be located in or
8. Contrast the vegetation you might find in or around City X and City Y.
of polar climates.
2 cm of precipitation would be fairly low, which also is a characteristic
would place it below freezing year-round. An annual average of less than
It would be a polar climate. An average yearly temperature of less than 0C
and its annual precipitation was less than 2 cm? Explain your answer.
7. In which climate would City Y be located if its average yearly temperature was below 0C
the amount of precipitation, not the temperature.
temperature data could vary significantly because dry climates are defined by
The main difference would be much lower average monthly precipitation. The
how would the data differ?
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
precipitation is plentiful.
Chapter 14 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
It is probably located in the tropics, where temperatures are high and
probably located?
3. Based on your answer to question 2, on what part of Earth’s surface is City X
temperatures and plentiful rainfall year-round.
City X’s climate is classified as a tropical wet climate because it has high
2. Based on the yearly data, classify the climate of City X. Explain your answer.
Chapter 14 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
grasslands called savannas.
F M A M J J A S O N D
Month
City Y Data
F M A M J J A S O N D
Month
6. If graphs were to show temperature and precipitation for a city in a dry climate,
a distinct dry winter season.
City Y has a tropical wet and dry climate because it is hot year-round and has
5. Based on the yearly data, classify the climate of City Y. Explain your answer.
less than 10 cm per month.
October through March was drier, with average precipitation measuring
precipitation during May through August (about 51 cm per month).
near a tropical rain forest. City Y would probably be located in or near tropical
J
J
City X Data
Temperatures were hot year-round, averaging about 32C. There was abundant
4. Describe the temperature and precipitation at City Y.
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
about 51 cm per month and was plentiful all year.
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
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90
14
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
CHAPTER
Name
Temperature was hot year-round, averaging about 27°C. Precipitation averaged
1. Describe the temperature and precipitation for City X.
Average temperature (C)
Average temperature (C)
The graphs below compare the annual average temperature and precipitation of two cities,
City X and City Y. Use them to answer the questions that follow.
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Average precipitation (cm)
Average precipitation (cm)
Chapter Assessment
T229
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Chapter Assessment
15
thermocline
breaker
trough
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 15 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
rapidly decreasing temperatures with depth
14. Transitional layer of the ocean characterized by
through matter
13. Rhythmic movement that carries energy
n. upwelling
m. surface current
11. Level of the ocean’s surface
12. Upward motion of ocean water
l.
density current
k. tide
j.
i.
h. crest
g. wave
f.
e. temperature profile
d. salinity
c. sea level
b. side-scan sonar
a. oceanography
Column B
10. Scientific study of Earth’s oceans
9. Highest point of a wave
and salinity of ocean water
8. Current caused by differences in the temperature
7. Lowest point of a wave
with depth
6. Set of data that plots changing water temperature
5. Collapsing wave
4. Current caused by wind
floor at an angle to map its topographic features
3. Technique that directs sound waves toward the ocean
2. Periodic rise and fall of sea level
1. Measure of the amount of dissolved salts in seawater
Chapter Assessment
f
g
n
c
a
h
l
i
e
j
m
b
k
d
Column A
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Reviewing Vocabulary
Physical Oceanography
CHAPTER
Name
85
15
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
86
the ocean’s surface.
13. Upwelling waters bring (warm water, nutrients) to
(density currents, gyres).
12. Closed, circular surface current systems are called
(Sun, Moon).
11. Earth’s tidal bulges are always aligned with the
(Antarctic Bottom Water, North Atlantic Deep Water).
10. The coldest and densest water mass in all the oceans is
are absent in polar seas.
9. The surface layer and the (bottom layer, thermocline)
(1000 m, 100 m).
8. Oceans are dark below the depth of about
(higher, lower) than that of freshwater.
7. The freezing point of salt water is somewhat
to the bottom of the ocean, causing salts to be
(added to, removed from) seawater.
6. As marine organisms die, their solid parts drift
in seawater in the form of (organic material, ions).
5. Dissolved salts, gases, and nutrients are present
(landlocked, submerged).
4. Seas are smaller than oceans and are partly or mostly
a slow rise in the average global sea level.
3. Today, the (melting, thickening) of glaciers is causing
(saltwater, freshwater) sources contain 3 percent.
2. The oceans contain 97 percent of Earth’s water, and
is brought to the surface is (radiation, volcanism).
Chapter Assessment
1. The mechanism by which water deep within Earth’s interior
Chapter 15 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
nutrients
gyres
Moon
Antarctic Bottom
Water
thermocline
100 m
lower
removed from
ions
landlocked
melting
freshwater
volcanism
In the space at the left, write the word or phrase in parentheses that makes the statement correct.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
CHAPTER
Name
150 m
100 m
50 m
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Chemical
reactions
Bottom
sediments
Sea
Biological spray
processes
River
discharge
ions to seawater.
contribute chloride and sulfate
Chapter 15 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Formation of
evaporites
Volcano
the atmosphere. These gases
87
Volcanic eruptions send gases into
on Earth’s ocean waters.
the gravitational pull of the Moon
High tides are caused mainly by
red light the shallowest.
light penetrates the deepest;
water to different depths. Blue
colors, of light penetrate ocean
Korea
h io
as ent
150° E
180°
150° W
Antarctic Circumpolar Current
South Pacific Gyre
120° W
Per
u
Lab
ra
d
nt
90° W
hA
tl a
n
nt
ic
C
60° W
30° W
South Atlantic Gyre
S. Equatorial
Current
Equatorial
Countercurrent
eam
Str
ulf
North Atlantic Gyre
N. Equatorial Current
N o rt
la
en
re nt
re
0° W
30° E
southward.
It might flow westward until it arrived at Australia, and then it would flow
60° E
90° E
S. Equatorial
Current
Indian Ocean
Gyre
Chapter 15 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
The ocean currents would flow in a west-to-east direction, too.
prevailing midlatitude winds blew from east to west instead of west to east?
3. What would be the likely effect on the currents near Japan and Korea if the
Chapter Assessment
along the equator, the east coast of Australia, and the west coast of Africa.
They might be combined into one large gyre that would flow counterclockwise
South Atlantic and South Pacific gyres?
120° E
N. Equatorial Current
rial Countercur
ren
ato
qu
t
Antarctic Circumpolar Current
2. How might the absence of South America affect the size and course of the
88
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
1. What might be the course of the South Atlantic Gyre if Africa did not exist?
120° E
nt
rre
Cu
S. Equatorial Current
Equatorial Countercurrent
N. Equatorial Current
Antarctic Circle
Tropic of
Capricorn
0° Equator
Cal
Curriefornia
nt
Curre
ka
las
N. Pacific
oshio
C urrent
Kur rrent
Cu
Tropic
of Cancer
North Pacific Gyre
Japan
Arctic Circle
t
rren
Cu
3. Sources of Sea Salt
V BGYO R
Visible light
Surface
of ocean
2. Cause of Tides
of Light
1. Absorption
Different wavelengths, or
15
Use the diagram of Earth’s gyres to answer the following questions.
CHAPTER
Describe the concept or process that is shown in each diagram.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
A
Thinking Critically
15
Name
O
Cu y
rr
E. Aus
tra
li a
n
E
Cu . G
r
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
CHAPTER
Date
G
nt
ur
re
Class
E
Name
re
nt
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
t
re
n
ur
il C
Br
az
d
ary Current
n
nt
Ca
e
ur
r
Cur
or
Agulhas
C
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ela Current
ngu
Be
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Chapter Assessment
15
100
80
60
50
40
20
1
2
3
4
5
6
Reference Samples
Percentage of Seawater
80
60
50
40
20
0
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 15 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
measured to determine the actual ratio.
in each sample. The amount of salt present in each sample would have to be
89
No; a visual comparison would only give an approximate idea of the percentages
ratio of river water to seawater in the estuary samples? Why or why not?
2. Would the method described in question 1 provide a precise measurement of the
river water to seawater in the estuary sample.
closely matches the estuary sample in color will help determine the ratio of
the samples made with river water and seawater. The reference sample that most
You could compare the colors of the actual estuary samples with the colors of
could you use the river water/seawater samples to determine the composition of
the estuary water samples?
1. Knowing that river water is usually brownish in color and seawater is clear, how
Percentage of River Water
Test Tube
Study the illustration and table and answer the questions
that follow.
You have collected seven samples of water from different
locations in the estuary. You have also collected a sample of
pure river water and a sample of pure seawater. You make
concentrated samples by boiling each estuary sample until it is
reduced to 250 mL. Then you fill seven test tubes halfway with
each concentrated sample. Next, you make reference samples
in seven more test tubes. The table shows the contents of each
reference test tube.
Your Earth science class is conducting an experiment to determine the salt concentrations in an estuary, a place where a
freshwater river flows into the salty seawater of an ocean. You
have been told that in the inland portion of an estuary, the
less-dense river water overrides the denser seawater.
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
15
90
Chapter 15 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
is denser and heavier and most likely layered below the less-dense freshwater.
The salt concentration should be higher in deep water samples because salt water
5. How might estuary samples taken from deep water affect your results?
water would decrease as it mixed with more and more ocean water.
There should be variations in the samples because the concentration of river
estuary sample? Explain your answer.
4. Would you expect the concentration of salt to be the same or different in each
the actual ratio of river water to seawater in each sample.
that of freshwater, the densities of the samples could be calculated to determine
Density; because the salt content of seawater makes its density higher than
water to seawater in the estuary samples? Explain your answer.
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
3. What property of seawater might you use to determine the actual ratio of river
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
CHAPTER
Name
Chapter Assessment
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
T233
16
Chapter Assessment
beach erosion down the coast.
Chapter 16 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
like structure built perpendicular to the shoreline to trap beach sand, but causes
91
energy of waves back toward the beach, causing beach erosion. A groin is a wall-
beach erosion. A seawall protects property from storm waves, but reflects the
Both are protective structures meant to prevent beach erosion, but actually cause
8. seawalls, groins
up of fine silt, clay, and volcanic ash.
made up of the shells and hard parts of marine organisms. Deep-sea mud is made
Both are deep-sea sediments that accumulate slowly on the ocean floor. Ooze is
7. ooze, deep-sea mud
longshore current.
Water from incoming breakers spills over the longshore bar and produces the
most beaches. The longshore current is a current that flows parallel to the shore.
Both occur just offshore. The longshore bar is a sandbar that forms in front of
6. longshore bar, longshore current
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
d. barrier island.
5. As a headland is eroded, the flat surface formed is called a
a. wave-cut platform.
b. sea stack.
c. sea cave.
d. turbidity current.
3. A rapid, flowing current along the bottom of the ocean is a(n)
a. longshore current.
b. rip current.
c. estuary.
d. continental rise.
d. continental margins.
2. The submerged parts of continents are called
a. continental shelves.
b. continental slopes. c. continental crust.
4. The smooth part of the ocean floor at 5 or 6 km below sea level is the
a. mid-ocean ridge.
b. deep-sea trench.
c. abyssal plain.
d. erosion.
1. The bending of wave crests as they reach shallow water is
a. a longshore current. b. wave refraction.
c. a rip current.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
Reviewing Vocabulary
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
The Marine Environment
CHAPTER
Name
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
16
are perhaps the flattest places on Earth and are covered
beach erosion
with hundreds of meters of fine-grained sediments and sedimentary rocks.
Abyssal plains
beach erosion
turbidity currents
ooze
.
only process that modifies it is erosion.
7. Once a seafloor structure, such as a seamount, is formed, the
.
92
an estuary.
mainland to form the tip of a peninsula.
10. A ridge of sand called a tombolo connects an island to the
Chapter 16 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
true
hydrothermal vents 8. Black and white smokers are submerged basalt volcanoes.
true
9. The area where a freshwater river or stream enters the ocean is
sedimentation
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false,
change the italicized word or phrase to make it true.
a(n) hydrothermal vent .
6. A hole in the seafloor through which fluid heated by magma erupts is
5. Submarine canyons are formed by turbidity currents .
called
4. Deep-sea sediments formed by shells and hard parts of marine organisms are
3.
2. Seawalls, groins, jetties, and breakwaters are built to prevent
Date
Chapter Assessment
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
are long ridges separated from the mainland and are made
of sediment deposited by longshore currents.
Barrier islands
ooze
hydrothermal vent
1.
barrier islands
abyssal plains
Write the term that best completes the statement.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
CHAPTER
Name
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
metal oxides
and sulfides
black smoker
11. _________________
earthquake activity
volcanic
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
93
activity
12. _______________
Chapter 16 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
warm water
13. _________________
white smoker
deep-sea trench
8. ____________________
narrow, long depressions
in ocean floor
fractures
10. ___________________
mid-ocean ridges
7. ____________________
abyssal plain
6. ____________________
hydrothermal
vent
9. ____________________
prominent feature
of ocean floor
smooth ocean floor
Ocean Basin
94
0
20
40
60
80
Ocean basins
Trenches
Ocean surface
Percentage of Earth's surface
Continental
margins
Continents
Mountains
Ocean
70.8%
Surface Elevations on Earth
Land
29.2%
100
Average depth
of ocean
3730 m (2.32 mi)
Average elevation
of continents
840 m (2750 ft)
Chapter 16 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
increase.
Chapter Assessment
average elevation of continents would decrease, average depth of ocean would
The percentage of land would decrease, percentage of ocean would increase,
10
8
6
4
2
Sea level 0
2
4
6
8
10
3. How would the data in this graph change if the polar ice sheets melted?
continental rise.
downward and are deposited at the bottom of the continental slope to form the
black smoker
hydrothermal vent
deep-sea trench
mid-ocean ridges
volcanic activity
bedrock and forming submarine canyons. Sediments cut from the slope are carried
Turbidity currents cut into the continental slope, eroding bottom sediments and
topography of the seafloor?
2. What observations support the fact that turbidity currents help form the
particles can be carried by ocean currents great distances from the shore.
heavy to be carried far into the ocean by waves and currents. However, finer
Heavier rocks and stone carried to the ocean by rivers and other waters are too
and sand are found close to shore. Fine particles are deposited at a greater distance from shore.
What can you infer about the movement of sediments from these observations?
warm water
fractures
e. drop in sea level
d. harbor entrance closes
c. turbidity currents
b. rise in sea level
a. submarine canyons
1. Researchers find that sediments along the ocean bottom seem to be sorted by size. Coarse gravel
abyssal plain
5. Sand drifting around jetties
large storm waves
4. Underwater landslides, earthquakes, or
3. Rapidly flowing turbidity currents
2. Rising coastline
1. Melting ice-age glaciers
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Write the terms to complete the network tree concept map.
d
c
a
e
b
Cause
Effect
16
Answer the following questions.
CHAPTER
Name
Thinking Critically
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Write the letter of the effect in the second column next to the action that causes
it in the first column.
16
Class
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
CHAPTER
Name
Elevation (km)
Depth (km)
T234
16
Date
Water temperature (°C)
Ocean depth (m)
5
800
5
900
800 900 1000 1100 1200
5
700
4.5
1000
4.5
1100
4
0
Ocean depth (m)
2. Formulate a hypothesis to explain why water temperature decreases as water
depths greater than 900 m.
constant again from 600 m to 900 m below the surface. Then it drops slowly at
and 500 m below the surface, the temperature drops sharply. It remains fairly
Water temperature is relatively constant near the ocean surface. Between 300 m
1. Describe the relationship between water temperature and ocean depth.
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 16 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
as heat transfer from landmass or heat absorbed from the Sun’s radiation.
Answers will vary but should attempt to provide reasonable explanations, such
depth increases.
95
1200
and expected results.
Answers will vary but should identify variables to be studied, controls used,
96
Chapter 16 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Accept reasonable responses.
to investigate? Why?
5. Which question or phenomenon that you wrote for question 3 would you like
Chapter Assessment
How is the temperature related to production of food for marine animals?
marine organisms thrive? Is temperature a limiting factor for marine organisms?
Answers will vary but should include questions such as: Where do the majority of
want to determine what effect, if any, the temperature difference has on ocean
organisms. Suggest questions or phenomena that might be investigated.
600 700
5
600
4. Once the cause of the temperature difference has been identified, researchers may
100 200 300 400 500
5.5
500
3. Plan an experiment to prove your hypothesis. Your plan should include variables,
controls, and expected results.
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
5
15
400
16
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
CHAPTER
Name
10
15
20
23
300
Co
n
m tine
ar n
gi ta
n l
23
23
25
200
100
Research has shown that the temperature of the ocean varies with ocean depth. Use data from
the table and graph to help you with the activities that follow.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
Water temperature (°C)
Chapter Assessment
T235
T236
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
17
Slab pull
paleomagnetism
theory of plate tectonics
convergent boundaries
subduction
is a process that occurs at convergent boundaries.
magnetometer
seafloor spreading
rift valley
convection
Date
Pangaea
isochron
slab pull
ridge push
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Subduction
.
magnetometer
detects small changes in Earth’s magnetic field.
rift valley
Chapter Assessment
.
.
.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 17 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
16. A change in Earth’s magnetic field is called a(n) magnetic reversal .
15. A long, narrow, fault-bounded, continental depression is a(n)
14. Plates come together at convergent boundaries .
ocean ridges and destroyed in deep-sea trenches.
13. The theory of seafloor spreading explains how new ocean crust is created at
12. A(n)
Pangaea
occurs when one tectonic plate descends beneath another.
divergent
boundaries
11. Earth’s continents were once joined as a single landmass called
10.
9. Places where plates move apart are
.
convection
is a process whereby the weight of an uplifted ocean ridge
are places where plates slide horizontally past each other.
pushes an oceanic plate toward a subduction zone.
Transform
boundaries
Ridge push
8. The transfer of thermal energy by the movement of heated matter is
7.
6.
states that Earth’s crust and rigid upper mantle are
isochron
broken into enormous slabs called plates that move slowly over Earth’s surface.
5. The
theory of plate
tectonics
4. A map line connecting points that have the same age is a(n)
3. The study of Earth’s magnetic record is known as paleomagnetism .
joined as a single landmass.
2. Wegener’s hypothesis of continental drift stated that Earth’s continents had once been
1.
continental drift
magnetic reversal
divergent boundaries
transform boundaries
Write the term that best completes the statement.
Reviewing Vocabulary
Plate Tectonics
CHAPTER
Name
97
17
c. a rift valley.
d. new continental crust.
8. Subduction results in the formation of
a. a deep-sea trench.
b. a magnetic reversal.
98
c. inner core.
d. outer core.
Chapter 17 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
a. crust.
b. mantle.
11. The driving forces of tectonic plates are related to convection currents in Earth’s
10. Crust is neither destroyed nor formed along which of the following boundaries?
a. convergent
c. transform
b. divergent
d. magnetic
9. Continental-continental plate collisions produce
a. island arcs.
c. deep-sea trenches.
b. rift valleys.
d. very tall mountain ranges.
c. crumpled mountains.
d. island arc volcanoes.
7. Features found at divergent boundaries include
a. ocean ridges.
b. deep-sea trenches.
6. Each cycle of spreading and intrusion of magma during seafloor spreading results in
a. magnetic reversals.
c. subduction.
b. new ocean crust.
d. plates colliding.
5. Isochron maps of the seafloor indicate that ocean crust is
a. oldest near ocean ridges.
c. youngest near ocean ridges.
b. youngest at deep-sea trenches.
d. thinnest in subduction zones.
4. The magnetic pattern of ocean-floor rocks on one side of an ocean ridge is
a. a mirror image of that of the other side.
b. younger than on the other side.
c. much different from the magnetic pattern found in rocks on land.
d. at right angles to the ocean ridge.
3. Compared to ocean crust near deep-sea trenches, crust near ocean ridges is
a. younger.
c. the same age.
b. older.
d. magnetically reversed.
c. magnetic and sonar data proved that Wegener’s hypothesis was incorrect.
d. mantle convection currents weren’t in motion at that time.
2. Continental drift was not widely accepted when it was first proposed because
a. Wegener couldn’t explain why or how the continents moved.
b. continental landmasses were too big to move slowly over Earth’s surface.
1. Many early mapmakers thought Earth’s continents had moved based on
a. plate boundary locations.
c. climatic data.
b. fossil evidence.
d. matching coastlines.
Date
Chapter Assessment
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
CHAPTER
Name
Chapter Assessment
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
T237
99
17
Y
Mantle
Continental
crust
Continental
crust
B
4. Highly-folded mountains
3. Volcanoes
2. Rift valley
1. Subduction zone
R
X
A
Y
S
Oceanic
crust
D
Continental
crust
C
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 17 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
9. Draw arrows to show the direction of flow of convection currents beneath the plates.
8. Where is the process of slab pull taking place? Mark this area with the letter S.
7. Where is the process of ridge push occurring? Mark this area with the letter R.
6. Locate the convergent plate boundaries and mark them with the letter Y.
5. Where is the divergent boundary? Mark its position on the diagram with the letter X.
B
C
A
D
could make the fit of continents inexact.
200 million years ago greatly changed Earth’s coastlines. Any such changes
the tectonic processes involved in the formation and break up of Pangaea over
continuously change Earth’s landscape, including continental coastlines. Also,
Possible response: Earth processes such as weathering, erosion, and deposition
“matching” of continental coastlines was crude at best. Propose an explanation
for this inexact fit.
Chapter 17 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
climates have changed.
Chapter Assessment
that time, the continents have drifted to their current positions and their
presence of glacial deposits observed in that region of the landmass. Since
must have been situated near the south pole, which would account for the
South America, much of India, portions of Australia, and nearly all of Antarctica
where swamps thrived in the tropical climate. Southern Africa, southeastern
the land making up present North America must have been near the equator,
enormous landmass made up of all of Earth’s present continents. At that time,
About 200 million years ago, Wegener’s supercontinent, Pangaea, was an
At the same time, glaciers covered southern Africa, southeastern South America,
much of India, portions of Australia, and nearly all of Antarctica. How does this
information support Wegener’s idea of continental drift?
3. About 200 million years ago, extensive tropical swamps existed in North America.
but similar, lines.
Once separated, the common ancestors could have evolved along different,
and South America became separated, taking the common ancestor with them.
could have evolved on Pangaea. After Pangaea broke apart, Australia and North
Possible response: Yes; the common ancestor of koalas, kangaroos, and opossums
changes. The theory of evolution states that similar organisms evolved from a
common ancestor. Scientists hypothesize that marsupials like koalas and kangaroos,
which are native only to Australia, evolved from the same ancestor as the
marsupials known as opossums, which are native to North and South America.
Does the theory of plate tectonics support the theory of evolution in this case?
Explain your answer.
2. Evolution is adaptation, or change, of organisms in response to environmental
100
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
1. Even Alfred Wegener acknowledged that the apparent fit of continents or
Answer the following questions.
CHAPTER
Name
Match each letter that appears on the diagram with the appropriate feature below.
Then answer the questions.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Thinking Critically
17
Class
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
CHAPTER
Name
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
T238
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
17
80°
South
American
Plate
40°
60°
40°
20°
120°
Australian
Plate
Indian Plate
80°
Eurasian Plate
Madagascar
Plate
40°
80°
Antarctic Plate
0°
20°
African Plate
40°
60°
Chapter Assessment
160°
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 17 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
In 50 million years, the Atlantic Ocean will be bigger than it is today.
2. How does the size of the future Atlantic Ocean compare with its present size?
west or northwest
1. In which compass direction have North and South America moved in relation to Africa?
Answer the following questions.
120°
North
American
Plate
80°
Date
101
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Scientists have studied the motions of Earth’s tectonic plates and recorded many of their
findings as maps. Based on the assumption that the direction and rate of plate movement
taking place today will continue for the next 50 million years, researchers have made
predictions about the world’s future geography. The results of those predictions are
presented in the diagram below, which shows the configuration of the continents
50 million years from the present. The shaded areas of the diagram represent the
present positions of the continents.
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
17
102
Chapter 17 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
this transform boundary past the North American Plate.
Chapter Assessment
west of the San Andreas Fault. From the map, it appears to have slid north along
This small strip of land was once the slice of southern California that is presently
plate. Describe where you think this land came from and how it got there.
8. Locate the small strip of land off the northwestern coast of the North American
Mountain ranges will probably form.
7. What might happen if Africa collides with Europe?
Europe will have moved east in relation to its present location.
6. Describe the geographic position of Europe on the map in relation to its present position.
It is smaller.
5. How does the size of the Pacific Ocean on this map compare with its present size?
moves northeast and separates from the rest of Africa.
An ocean is forming in East Africa as the southeastern part of the continent
4. Describe the changes taking place in East Africa.
It will collide with Asia, which is part of the Eurasian Plate.
move in the direction shown?
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
3. What will probably happen to Australia if the plate upon which it sits continues to
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
CHAPTER
Name
Chapter Assessment
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
T239
18
Column A
volcano collapses into the magma chamber
6. Depression that forms when the top or side of a
volcano
5. Bowl-shaped depression around a vent at the top of a
4. Opening in Earth’s crust through which lava erupts
3. Intrusive igneous rock body
2. Internal resistance to flow
eruption
1. Volcanic fragments thrown into air during a volcanic
Date
f.
crater
e. tephra
d. pluton
c. viscosity
b. vent
a. caldera
Column B
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Chapter Assessment
older layers of rock.
Chapter 18 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
103
to older layers of rocks. A dike forms when magma invades cracks and cuts across
Both sills and dikes are plutons. A sill forms when magma intrudes and is parallel
8. sill, dike
similar to batholiths but are smaller.
rocks. Batholiths are large masses of coarse-grained igneous rocks. Stocks are
Both batholiths and stocks are irregularly-shaped plutons that cut across older
7. batholith, stock
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
a
f
b
d
c
e
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Reviewing Vocabulary
Volcanic Activity
CHAPTER
Name
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
18
(divergent, convergent) boundaries.
10. Most of the world’s rift volcanism occurs at
9. (Shield, Composite) volcanoes are made of basaltic lava.
to bow upward.
8. (Laccoliths, Dikes) are plutons that cause overlying rocks
form the Circum-Pacific and the Mediterranean Belts.
to flow.
13. The higher the silica content in lava, the higher the lava’s resistance
rhyolitic magma is highly viscous and contains a large volume of
trapped gas.
12. Rhyolitic magma-fueled volcanoes are especially explosive because
do not melt to form magma, even though the temperatures there are
high enough, is explained by the effect of water.
11. The fact that most of the rocks in Earth’s lower crust and upper mantle
104
Chapter 18 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
diverge.
rift zones 15. The volcanoes in the Circum-Pacific Belt form as a result of magma
(or Iceland)
rising upward into faults and fractures that form as tectonic plates
occurred along divergent plate boundaries.
convergent 14. Many plutons formed as a result of mountain-building processes that
true
true
pressure
Chapter Assessment
7. Volcanoes associated with (divergent, convergent) plate boundaries
(largest, smallest) volcanoes.
6. Cinder-cone volcanoes have steep sides and are generally the
5. Rhyolitic magma forms beneath (continental, oceanic) crust.
with the presence of water.
4. The temperature at which a substance melts (increases, decreases)
Earth’s surface.
3. Temperature and pressure (increase, decrease) with depth beneath
high viscosity.
2. Lava that has low viscosity moves (slower, faster) than lava with
1. The hotter the magma or lava, the (greater, lower) is its viscosity.
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false,
change the italicized word or phrase to make it true.
divergent
Shield
Laccoliths
convergent
smallest
continental
decreases
increase
faster
lower
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
In the space at the left, write the word in parentheses that makes the statement correct.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
CHAPTER
Name
T240
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
18
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
18
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
7.
Andesitic magma
Chapter Assessment
high
intermediate
low
4–6%
3–4%
1–2%
Chapter 18 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
10.
8.
oceanic crust
and sediments
Continental crust
6.
upper mantle
Viscosity
Magma Characteristics
Source Material
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
9. rhyolitic magma
5.
Basaltic magma
Type of Magma
Complete the table below.
106
Chapter 18 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
a violent eruption.
is larger than a cinder-cone volcano but smaller than a shield volcano. A composite
105
from escaping. When the lava does erupt, the dissolved gases escape to produce
air, fall back to Earth, and pile up around the volcano’s vent. A composite volcano
Gas Content
Lava that produces violent explosions is very viscous, which prevents the gases
sides and is a relatively small volcano. It forms when tephra are ejected into the
volcano forms when layers of lava alternate with tephra.
more violent explosion than lava that contains small amounts of dissolved gases?
4. Why does lava containing large amounts of dissolved gases generally produce a
released as the lava cools.
The lava from which pumice forms contains a large volume of gases that are
about the volume of gases present in the lava that forms pumice?
3. Pumice is an igneous rock. It is porous and floats on water. What conclusion can you draw
active volcanoes is especially fertile.
eruptions, are made up of minerals that enrich the soil. Thus, farmland around
Volcanic dust and ash, which rain down on the surrounding land during
in spite of the risks. What might be the reason for this?
2. For thousands of years, people have operated farms at the bases of active volcanoes
viscous lava, which has a high silica, high water, and high gas content.
Small volcanoes with steep sides are cinder-cone volcanoes that form from highly
can be drawn about the characteristics of the lava that formed this volcano?
1. The volcano Izalco in El Salvador is a small, steep-sided volcano. What conclusions
Answer the following questions.
Thinking Critically
CHAPTER
Name
lava accumulate during nonexplosive eruptions. A cinder-cone volcano has steep
A shield volcano has broad, gently sloping sides, and it forms as layers of basaltic
4. Contrast the three major types of volcanoes.
volcanic bombs, the largest fragments, can be as large as houses.
2 mm in diameter. Lapilli range from 2 mm to 64 mm in size. Volcanic blocks and
tephra. Dust is less than 0.25 mm in size; ash is larger than dust but less than
Dust, ash, lapilli, volcanic blocks, and volcanic bombs are terms used to classify
and volcanic bombs.
3. Describe the relationship among the terms tephra, dust, ash, lapilli, volcanic blocks,
has an intermediate silica content, viscosity, and gas content.
continental margins from oceanic crust or oceanic sediments. Andesitic magma
Andesitic magma is one of the three major types of magma. It forms along
2. Describe the composition and characteristics of andesitic magma.
Earth’s surface.
gases. Magma exists beneath Earth’s surface. Lava is magma that has reached
Both magma and lava are mixtures of molten rock, mineral grains, and dissolved
1. Compare and contrast magma and lava.
Answer the following questions.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
CHAPTER
Name
Chapter Assessment
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
T241
18
1. Propose a hypothesis that describes the relationship between temperature and
Think about what type of demonstration could be designed to show the effect of
temperature on the viscosity of lava. Then answer the following questions.
18
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Chapter Assessment
temperature
Chapter 18 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
5. What would be the independent variable in this experiment?
surface.
substance to move a specified distance when it is dropped onto an inclined
107
Viscosity might be measured by timing how long it takes a given volume of the
4. How would you measure the viscosity of the substance?
either by cooling it, or warming it, or both
3. How would you manipulate the temperature of the substance?
Suitable choices include thick liquids such as syrup, honey, molasses, or motor oil.
viscosity of lava?
2. What substances could be used to demonstrate the effects of temperature on the
the distance that the substance will be allowed to flow
increase in viscosity, among others.
108
Chapter 18 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
y-axis, or vice versa.
Chapter Assessment
Temperature might be plotted on the x-axis and time/specified distance on the
9. How might your data be displayed on a line graph?
column headings should be included.
for times, or a row for temperatures and a column for times. Correct row and
Tables will vary, but should include either a column for temperatures and a row
8. Design a table that would be suitable for presenting your data.
the amount and type of substance tested, the angle of the inclined surface, and
7. What factors must remain the same?
room temperature as the control.
Answers will vary, but students might select the viscosity of the substance at
6. What could be used as the control?
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
CHAPTER
Name
result in a decrease in viscosity or that a decrease in temperature will result in an
Students’ answers will vary, but could state that an increase in temperature will
viscosity.
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
A substance’s viscosity is a measure of its internal resistance to flow. Viscosity is a property of
lava. When lava is heated or cooled, its viscosity changes.
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
T242
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
19
8. Fracture in rock along which movement occurs
7. Deformation of materials in response to stress
6. Scale that measures energy released by a quake
5. Forces per unit area acting on a material
two directions
4. Seismic wave that causes the ground to move in
seafloor
3. Wave generated by vertical motions of the
2. Scale that rates earthquake intensity
a significant earthquake for a long time
1. Section of an active fault that has not experienced
Date
strain
h. surface wave
g. seismic gap
f.
e. tsunami
d. fault
c. stress
b. Richter scale
a. modified Mercalli scale
Column B
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 19 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
109
fault rupture, the amount of movement along a fault, and the stiffness of the rock.
generated, while the moment-magnitude scale takes into account the size of the
The Richter scale rates magnitude based on the size of the largest seismic waves
12. Richter scale, moment-magnitude scale
the point on Earth’s surface directly above the focus.
An earthquake’s focus is the point of failure of rocks at depth. The epicenter is
11. focus, epicenter
at right angles to the direction along which the wave travels.
direction along which the wave travels. A secondary wave causes rock to move
A primary wave is a seismic wave that squeezes and pulls rock in the same
10. primary wave, secondary wave
is a record produced by a seismometer.
A seismometer is an instrument that records earthquake vibrations. A seismogram
9. seismometer, seismogram
Contrast each pair of related terms.
f
d
c
b
h
a
e
g
Column A
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Reviewing Vocabulary
Earthquakes
CHAPTER
Name
19
forms as a result of horizontal compression and results
normal fault
fault scarp
fault plane
.
110
containing iron, silicon, and magnesium.
11. Earth’s lower mantle is probably composed of oxides
mined that the inner core, which includes the crust
and top of the upper mantle, is primarily igneous in
composition.
10. From studying seismic waves, scientists have deter-
9. S-waves are refracted, or bent, by Earth’s outer core.
of an earthquake is the earthquake’s magnitude.
8. The amount of damage done to structures as a result
with the movement of the ground.
7. A seismometer is designed so that its frame vibrates
at rest during an earthquake because of inertia.
6. On a seismometer, the suspended mass tends to stay
Chapter 19 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
true
lithosphere
P-waves
intensity
true
true
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
5. The surface along which fault movement takes places is the
4. Fault movement can produce a
, an area of vertical offset.
, movement is both horizontal and vertical,
resulting in a lengthening of the crust involved.
3. Along a
in a shortening of the crust involved.
reverse fault
movement is mainly horizontal.
2. A
reverse fault
Date
Chapter Assessment
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
strike-slip fault , the fracture is caused by horizontal shear and
fault plane
strike-slip fault
1. In a
normal fault
fault scarp
Write the term that best completes the statement.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
CHAPTER
Name
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
500
0k
m
9000 k
m
7
10
14
11
4000
6000
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
epicenter.
Chapter 19 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
earthquake locations. Data from a third station are needed to pinpoint the
and sometimes snap, causing earthquakes.
Chapter 19 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
each station. The intersection of two such circles would produce two possible
stress on the rocks making up the plates. To relieve this stress, the rocks bend
Chapter Assessment
thus contributing a set of possible locations lying on a circle centered around
associated with tectonic plate boundaries. Forces that cause plate motion exert
112
8000 10 000 12 000
No; each station’s data can only indicate how far away the earthquake was,
by the two stations? Why or why not?
ve
Distance from epicenter (km)
5. Can the exact location of the earthquake be determined from the data reported
22 minutes
4. About how long did it take for the first S-waves to reach station B?
11 minutes
3. About how long did it take for the first P-waves to reach station B?
14 minutes
2. About how long did it take for the first S-waves to reach station A?
7 minutes
ave
P-wa
S -w
Station B
2000
1. About how long did it take for the first P-waves to reach station A?
Epicenter
¸
Station A
22
20
30
Date
Most of the world’s earthquakes are located in relatively narrow seismic belts
3. Describe the global pattern of earthquake distribution and what causes it.
core have indicated that the inner core is solid.
core is liquid. Studies of the refraction and reflection of P-waves by the inner
disappear as they strike the outer core led scientists to infer that the outer
S-waves are not transmitted through liquid, and the observation that S-waves
cores using seismic data.
2. Explain how scientists have inferred the physical states of Earth’s inner and outer
deformation.
the elastic strain of the material, and the curved segment represents its ductile
a material plotted against the resulting strain. The straight segment represents
The graph shows a stress-strain curve, which represents the stress applied to
segments of the line represent.
1. Describe what the graph shows. Then identify what the straight and curved
Strain
Elastic limit
111
19
Class
An earthquake occurred, and seismic waves were detected by seismic stations A and B as
shown below. Examine the diagram and the travel-time graph. Then answer the questions.
CHAPTER
Name
Study the diagram. Then answer the questions.
Failure
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Thinking Critically
19
Stress
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
CHAPTER
Name
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Time (min)
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T244
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Chapter Assessment
19
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Earthquakes are the result of strain accumulation in rock.
During an earthquake, water-saturated sand can liquefy
and become like quicksand.
5. c
Unreinforced structures made of brittle materials with no
foundation modifications often suffer severe damage.
3. b
4. d
Elevated roadways are planned for an area that has been
leveled with soft-fill dirt.
6. f
built of wood, which is more resilient and less brittle than concrete.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 19 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Newer buildings in the town are unreinforced and built of rigid, brittle materials such as
glass and steel.
Chapter Assessment
f.
e. Most earthquakes occur in seismic belts.
d. The newer part of the town is built on sandy soils that are often wet.
114
Chapter 19 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
soils they are built on likely would undergo liquefaction during an earthquake.
Most structures would probably be badly damaged because the wet, sandy
earthquake, and why?
10. How might existing structures built in the newer part of town fare during an
might be reinforced or built on rubber structures that absorb vibrations, or
c. Fill becomes extremely unstable during earthquakes because seismic waves are amplified as
they travel through fill dirt.
New construction should take seismic risk into account. For example, buildings
b. Instrumentation installed by the scientist shows a significant accumulation of strain.
be altered, and why?
9. Compared to existing ones, how should the construction of new structures
run at ground level.
The roads could be rerouted, or the elevated portions could be redesigned to
No; elevated roads should not be built on fill, which amplifies seismic waves.
suggest should be done differently?
a. The likelihood of earthquakes is high in a seismic gap.
113
the area’s seismic gap suggests that significant strain has accumulated.
2. a
8. Should the proposed road system go through as planned? If not, what do you
more than 100 years since the last one. Earthquakes are the result of strain, and
1. e
area has experienced one earthquake per century, on average, and it has been
The area has had one earthquake per 100 years on average.
The last earthquake occurred 130 years ago.
Related Fact
Yes; most earthquakes occur in seismic belts, and the town is located in one. The
near future?
7. Does the town have a high probability of experiencing an earthquake in the
The town is located in a seismic belt.
Observation
Some parts of the table are missing. Read each statement below the table and determine if it
is an observation made by the scientist or a related fact about earthquakes. Write the letter of
each statement where it best completes the table.
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
CHAPTER
Name
Based on the observations and related facts, how should the scientist answer the following
questions? Support your answers with the appropriate observations and related facts about
earthquakes.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
As part of a public safety campaign, an earthquake scientist has been sent to a small town to
assess its level of risk for an earthquake. The scientist made several observations about the
town. The table lists the scientist’s observations alongside related facts about earthquakes.
19
Class
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
Chapter Assessment
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
T245
20
Date
experience upward movement
6. Mountains that form when large regions of Earth
balanced by the upward force of buoyancy and the
downward force of gravity
5. Condition of equilibrium whereby Earth’s crust is
material is removed
4. Slow process of the crust’s rising after overlying
3. Cycle of processes that form mountain ranges
seafloor and quickly cools
2. Billowy rocks that form when lava erupts onto the
f.
uplifted mountains
e. isostasy
d. pillow basalts
c. orogeny
b. isostatic rebound
a. fault-block mountains
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 20 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
solitary peaks far from tectonic plate boundaries.
large mountain ranges. Volcanoes that form over hot spots are generally
Volcanoes along oceanic-continental convergent margins are usually parts of
9. volcanoes that form along oceanic-continental margins, volcanoes that form over hotspots
major mountain belts.
115
produces an island arc complex. Oceanic-continental plate convergence produces
subduction zones, trenches, and mountain ranges. Oceanic-oceanic convergence
Both are convergent tectonic plate boundaries that result in the formation of
8. oceanic-oceanic convergent boundary, oceanic-continental convergent boundary
and rises higher above the surface than oceanic crust.
less dense than oceanic crust. Continental crust extends deeper into the mantle
basalt; continental crust is composed of granite. Continental crust is thicker and
Both are types of crust that displace the mantle. Oceanic crust is composed of
7. continental crust, oceanic crust
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms or phrases.
f
e
b
c
d
tilted, uplifted, or dropped between large faults
1. Mountains that form when large pieces of crust are
12. Many mountain ranges are formed as the result of tectonic interactions.
convergent boundaries.
11. The tallest orogenic belts are found at continental-continental
10. Individual volcanic mountains on the ocean floor are called plates.
9. Continents are said to float on Earth’s mantle.
composed mainly of granite.
8. Oceanic crust is composed mainly of basalt, and continental crust is
deformation, are uplifted mountains.
7. The Adirondack Mountains, which are made of rocks that show little
mountains.
6. The Appalachian Mountains are an example of divergent-boundary
5. When mountains erode, their roots increase in size.
deepest root.
4. Mt. Everest is the tallest mountain on Earth, so it probably has the
is rising as a result of buoyancy and gravity.
3. Isostasy between Earth’s mantle and crust exists when the mass of crust
the continental crust.
2. The seafloor displaces more of the mantle than the same thickness of
1. About 70 percent of Earth’s surface is below sea level.
116
divergent-boundary features of Earth’s crust.
over hot spots in Earth’s mantle.
14. The Hawaiian Islands formed as the result of the Pacific Plate’s moving
Chapter 20 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
true
nonboundary 13. Broad, uplifted plateaus, such as the Colorado Plateau, are regional
true
true
seamounts
true
true
true
convergentboundary
decrease
true
balanced
true
a
Date
Chapter Assessment
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Column A
20
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
CHAPTER
Name
true
Column B
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Reviewing Vocabulary
Mountain Building
CHAPTER
Name
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T246
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Su
bd
uc
tio
n
zo
ne
Lithosphere
oceanic-continental boundary
Mantle
Lithosphere
Trench
oceanic-oceanic boundary
Lithosphere
Continental crust
Lithosphere
Continental crust
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 20 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
mountain peaks separated by normal faults.
associated with uplifted mountains. Fault-block mountains consist of parallel
dotted with mountains, valleys, and canyons formed by erosion are commonly
The rocks that form uplifted mountains are not very deformed. Broad plateaus
7. How can you distinguish between fault-block mountains and uplifted mountains?
interiors of tectonic plates.
Fault-block and uplifted mountains form as the result of processes in the
mountains that form as a result of tectonic plate interactions.
6. Describe how fault-block mountains and uplifted mountains are different from
rift, it cools, contracts, and becomes more dense.
117
near-surface magma. As new ocean crust forms and moves away from the central
crust to form a gently sloping mountain because the lithosphere is warmed by
floor, the lithosphere bulges up and stands higher than the surrounding ocean
Diagram 3 is a divergent boundary. At a divergent boundary on the ocean
in this type of orogeny.
Mantle
ocean ridge
Magma
Continent
4. continental-continental boundary
3.
Seamount
Lithosphere
5. Which diagram above shows a divergent boundary? Describe the processes involved
2.
1.
Mantle
Lithosphere
Shelf
20
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
W
S
N
2.2 M.Y.B.P
Oahu
3.8 M.Y.B.P
E
0 32 km
0 M.Y.B.P
Hawaii
0.8 M.Y.B.P
Kahoolawe
1.3 M.Y.B.P
Lanai
Maui
State of Hawaii
Molokai
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Chapter 20 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
became large enough to buoy the mountains.
Chapter Assessment
As the mountains get higher, they displace the crust until the mountains’ roots
5. How does the formation of these mountains change the underlying crust?
mountain ranges form just some of the many peaks in a broad, continental area.
The volcanoes that make up the islands are high individual peaks; volcanoes in
volcanoes in large mountain ranges?
4. How do the shapes of the mountains in this complex differ from the shapes of
about 30–50 km south or southeast of Hawaii
and mark the place on the map.
3. Where would you expect the next island in the group to form? Describe its location
The oldest is Kauai. The youngest is Hawaii.
2. According to the map, which island is the oldest? Which is the youngest?
the plate moved slowly over the hot spot, a chain of volcanoes formed.
Plumes of mantle material rose through the crust to form each volcanic peak. As
They formed as a tectonic plate moved slowly over a hot spot in Earth’s mantle.
plate boundaries.
1. Describe the kind of orogeny that formed these islands that are far from tectonic
Niihau
Kauai
Use the map of the Hawaiian Islands to answer the following questions. The dates on the map represent
the approximate times (millions of years before the present [M.Y.B.P.]) that the islands formed.
CHAPTER
Name
Thinking Critically
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Identify the type of boundary in each diagram, then answer the questions.
20
Class
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
CHAPTER
Name
20
Date
Continental
crust
Mantle
North
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 20 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
was forced upward, and the continental crust folded and thickened.
The oceanic plate descended into the mantle. The edge of the continental plate
3. How does the Chugach Range appear to have formed?
oceanic-continental convergent boundary
2. From the diagram, what type of plate boundary exists in the south?
Alaska Range
Which mountain range has the greatest mass above Earth’s surface?
1. Note that the mountains’ roots extend into the mantle.
Oceanic crust
South
Ch
ug
a
c
hR
an
T
a
lke
ge
et
na
M
ou
nt
ain
Al
s
a
s
ka
Ra
ng
e
Metamorphic rocks, such as marble and dolomite, are found along the south side of the
range. Several episodes of uplift, deformation, and intrusion have produced complexly folded,
fractured, and thrust faulted blocks. Erosion and heavy glaciation account for the rugged
mountain profiles and U-shaped valleys evident today.
The central Brooks Range of Alaska is an area of rugged, east-trending ridges with heights
of up to about 2500 m. This range, which stretches across northern Alaska, is part of the Rocky
Mountain system. Sedimentary rocks are common in the Brooks Range. These rocks are
complexly folded and faulted in the Brooks Range and are less deformed elsewhere. Some
marine sedimentary rocks contain small fossils of invertebrates, shells, and corals and are
found near the mountains’ summits of the Brooks Range. The fossils provide information that
is useful in dating rocks and establishing the geological sequence.
119
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Read a geologist’s report below on one area of Alaska. Then use the information in the
report and the cross-sectional diagram of central Alaska to answer the questions.
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Br
oo
k
sR
an
ge
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20
120
Chapter 20 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
mountains.
Chapter Assessment
plate and the once low continental plate) rock can be found within the elevated
folded and twisted so many times that marine sedimentary (from the oceanic
Over many million of years, the rock layers from each of the plates have been
plates’ crusts were involved in the process of uplift which formed the mountains.
When the oceanic plate collided with the continental plate, rocks from both
5. How can you explain the presence of marine sedimentary rock in the Brooks Range?
increasing the height of the mountains.
compressive forces may cause the continental crust to fold and thicken,
upward, and this uplift begins mountain formation. Along with this uplift,
belts. The subducted oceanic plate forces the edge of the continental plate
Convergence between oceanic and continental plates can form large mountain
The Brooks Range formed as a result of oceanic-continental convergence.
formed? What led you to this conclusion?
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
4. From the evidence presented in the report, how do you think the Brooks Range
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
CHAPTER
Name
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Chapter Assessment
21
amber
cast
superposition
cast
, the hardened sap of prehistoric trees.
forms when the hollowed-out impression of a fossil organism becomes
key bed
contains distinctive material that geologists can easily recognize
mold
forms.
nonconformity .
.
Chapter 21 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
correlation
Chapter Assessment
as
13. The matching of rock layers from one geographic area with those of another area is known
a(n)
12. A buried erosional surface between a nonsedimentary rock and a sedimentary rock is called
intrusion is younger than the rock it cuts across.
11. You can use the principle of cross-cutting relationships to infer that a fault or an
rock layer on top of them is called a(n) angular unconformity .
10. The gap in the rock record that occurs between folded or uplifted rock layers and a sedimentary
environmental changes.
9. The science of dendrochronology uses the annual growth of tree rings to date events and
a hollowed-out impression called a(n)
8. When the original parts of an organism in a sedimentary rock are weathered and eroded,
in the rock record and use as a time marker.
7. A(n)
6. The geologic time scale divides Earth’s history into units from its origin to the present.
filled with minerals or sediment.
5. A(n)
4. Fossil insects can be found imbedded in
amber
3. In the process of permineralization , pore spaces within an organism’s shell are filled in
with mineral substances.
.
states that, in an undisturbed sequence, the oldest rocks
evolution
are at the bottom of the sequence and successive layers are younger than those below them.
2. The principle of
1. The adaptation of life-forms to changes in the environment is known as
mold
permineralization
cross-cutting relationships
geologic time scale
angular unconformity
nonconformity
evolution
correlation
dendrochronology
superposition
key bed
Write the term that best completes the statement.
Reviewing Vocabulary
Date
121
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Fossils and the Rock Record
CHAPTER
Name
21
c. epochs.
d. eras.
d. Cenozoic Eras.
c. eon, era, period, epoch
d. epoch, period, era, eon
122
c. mud crack.
Chapter 21 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
8. An example of a trace fossil includes a
a. cast of a clam.
b. worm trail.
Chapter Assessment
d. raindrop impression.
7. An example of a fossil with altered hard parts includes
a. a mummified human body.
c. a saber-toothed cat in tar.
b. a gastrolith.
d. petrified wood.
6. An example of a fossil with original preservation includes a(n)
a. insect imbedded in amber.
c. dinosaur footprint.
b. coprolite.
d. mold of a fish skeleton.
5. Which of the following is true of periods?
a. They are measured in terms of billions of years.
b. Examples include the Paleocene and Oligocene.
c. They are defined by the abundance or extinction of life-forms.
d. Their names are based on the relative ages of life-forms.
to longest?
a. era, eon, period, epoch
b. epoch, eon, period, era
4. Which of the following lists the units of geologic time in order from shortest
3. Which of the following is marked by the appearance of organisms with hard parts?
a. the beginning of the Cenozoic
c. the end of the Mesozoic
b. the end of the Precambrian
d. the beginning of the Cretaceous
2. The Archean and Proterozoic are examples of
a. eons.
b. periods.
1. The Phanerozoic Eon includes the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and
a. Cenozoic Periods.
b. Jurassic Periods.
c. Tertiary Epochs.
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
CHAPTER
Name
Chapter Assessment
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Chapter Assessment
Chapter 21 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
to determine the ages of glacial lake sediments.
evidence of cycles of summer to winter. Varves in different lakes are compared
They form as a result of seasonal variations in lake deposition and provide
Varves are alternating light- and dark-colored bands of sand, clay, and silt.
5. What are varves and how are they used to date geologic events?
lived over a short period of time.
recognized, abundant, and widely distributed geographically. It must also have
or to date a particular rock layer. To be useful, an index fossil must be easily
Geologists use index fossils to correlate rock layers over large geographic areas
an index fossil.
4. Describe how geologists use index fossils. List the characteristics that make
daughter product in a given sample of rock or fossil.
radiometric dating, a process that determines the ratio of parent material to
determines the actual age of a rock, a fossil, or an object. This is done through
P
v
6. L is deposited.
5. N is deposited.
4. I is deposited.
3. Q is deposited.
2. M intrudes and crystallizes.
1. J is deposited.
Q
v
v
v
v
v
v
6
8
O
v
v
v
2
12
7
11
v
N
v
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
v
v
v
L
v
v
v
M
v
9. J is eroded.
8. P intrudes and crystallizes.
7. H is deposited.
v
12. O is deposited.
11. K is deposited.
124
Chapter 21 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
eroded, followed by the deposition of K.
Chapter Assessment
of H. A disconformity occurs between layers J and K. It formed when J was
below were uplifted and the surface was eroded, followed by the deposition
An angular unconformity occurs below layer H. It formed when the layers
how they formed.
Date
10. L, M, N, O, P , and Q are uplifted and eroded.
v
v
J
I
H
K
13. Identify the two types of unconformities in the diagram and describe
Use the diagram above to answer the following question.
4
3
9
1
with another or one rock with another rock. In contrast, absolute-age dating
5
them in order, without exact dates. This is done by comparing one event
10
Relative-age dating places the ages of rocks and the events that formed
3. Contrast relative-age dating and absolute-age dating.
and scale with which these processes occur have changed.
have been occurring on Earth since it formed. However, the rate, intensity,
The principle of uniformitarianism states that the processes occurring today
2. Explain the principle of uniformitarianism.
one area to another.
changes in organisms over time. They also help to correlate rock layers from
provide clues about Earth’s past environmental conditions and evolutionary
Fossils are the remains or evidence of once-living plants or animals. They
1. What are fossils and how are they used to interpret Earth’s history?
123
21
Class
Use the diagram to number the events below in the order in which they occurred.
CHAPTER
Name
Answer the following questions.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Thinking Critically
21
Class
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
CHAPTER
Name
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21
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Chapter Assessment
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Chapter 21 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
and use radiometric dating to determine the age of the rocks.
be found surrounding the granite in the rock record. They could sample
the granite such as the source of the quartzite inclusions, which would likely
To test this hypothesis, they might look for rocks that would be older than
Students should hypothesize that Earth is more than 3.2 billion years old.
would go about testing your hypothesis.
3. Use the data above to state a hypothesis about the age of Earth. Describe how you
likely older than the 75 000 year usefulness of C-14.
granite is not. Also, the half-life of C-14 is too short, and this granite is most
No; C-14 is only used to find the age of materials of an organic origin, which
2. Can scientists use the isotope C-14 to date the granite? Explain your answer.
and older than the granite, or more than 3.2 billion years old.
125
inclusions. From this, you can conclude that Earth is at least as old as the quartzite,
became dislodged during the intrusion became incorporated into the granite as
intruded by magma that cooled and crystallized into granite. Pieces of quartzite that
that underwent metamorphosis to form quartzite. The quartzite was then
Prior to the formation of the granite, a sandstone layer must have been deposited
Explain your answer.
1. From this data, what conclusion can you draw about the age of Earth?
6
8
11
16
Grams of Thorium-234 Remaining
24
48
Days
72
96
126
Chapter 21 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
96 days, or 4 half-lives
7. How long will it take for 15 grams of the original thorium-234 to decay?
4 grams
6. Predict how much thorium-234 will remain after 2 half-lives.
0
4
8
12
16
5. Use the data to complete the graph below.
the original amount of thorium-234 (16 grams) decayed.
Chapter Assessment
The half-life of thorium-234 is 24 days. After 24 days, half (8 grams) of
4. Use the data to determine the half-life of thorium-234. Explain your answer.
36
24
12
0
Days Elapsed
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
CHAPTER
Name
In a laboratory, you produce a quantity of the radioactive isotope thorium-234. Over
the course of several weeks, the unstable isotope decays, and you measure the amount
of thorium-234 remaining in the sample. You obtain the following data.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Radiometric dating has proved invaluable to scientists in the attempt to determine how long
ago Earth formed. A granite intrusion found in South Africa that contains inclusions of the
metamorphic rock quartzite is hypothesized to be one of the oldest rocks on Earth. Using
radiometric dating, scientists determined the age of the rock to be approximately 3.2 billion
years.
21
Class
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
Grams of Thorium-234
T250
Chapter Assessment
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
T251
22
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
11. Building blocks of proteins
Varangian glaciation
g. zircon
f.
e. stromatolite
d. hydrothermal vent
c. Ediacaran fauna
b. cyanobacteria
a. amino acids
Column B
Chapter 22 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
10. Fossils of soft-bodied Proterozoic organisms
9. Hot water vent at volcanic seafloor rift
million years ago
8. Glacial event that occurred between 700 and 800
7. Stable mineral that commonly occurs in granite
6. Mat or mound composed of billions of cyanobacteria
5. Tiny, threadlike photosynthetic organisms
Chapter Assessment
a
c
d
f
g
e
b
Column A
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
rusty red in color as a result of the presence of iron oxides.
and iron oxides, while a red bed is a rock younger than 1.8 billion years that is
A banded iron formation is a deposit that consists of alternating bands of chert
4. banded iron formation, red bed
ancient continent that formed the core of modern-day North America.
A microcontinent is a small piece of continental crust, while Laurentia was an
3. microcontinent, Laurentia
Canadian Shield is the Precambrian shield of North America.
A Precambrian shield is a continental core of Archean and Proterozoic rock; the
2. Precambrian shield, Canadian shield
prokaryotes.
cells, which contain nuclei and are more complex and larger than those of
127
contain a nucleus, while a eukaryote is an organism that is composed of multiple
A prokaryote is a simple organism composed of a single cell, which does not
1. prokaryote, eukaryote
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
Reviewing Vocabulary
The Precambrian Earth
CHAPTER
Name
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
22
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
plate tectonics.
4. Early in the Proterozoic, microcontinents began to collide as a result of
minerals near Earth’s surface.
3. Lava flowing from the hot interior of Earth concentrated denser
of Earth increased.
2. As a result of meteor bombardment of Earth, the size and temperature
4.6 million years old.
1. The oldest rock samples collected from the Moon are approximately
likely formed as a result of the cooling of
prokaryotes
clay minerals
, the stable core of a continent.
clay minerals
Archean
can cause amino acids to join
.
.
128
glaciation
may have played a critical role.
Chapter 22 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
widespread
12. A major extinction of acritarchs occurred near the end of the Proterozoic, in which
prokaryotes
11. Single-celled organisms that belong to the Kingdom Monera are
together in chains.
10. Heat, cyanide, and certain
present on Earth during the
9. Miller and Urey demonstrated that the basic building blocks of life were most likely
craton
8. The buried and exposed parts of a continental shield together compose the
crust
glaciation
Archean
the uppermost mantle.
7. Earth’s earliest
craton
crust
Write the term that best completes the statement.
large amounts of the gas that eventually formed the ozone layer.
Chapter Assessment
cyanobacteria 6. Early life, mainly the Ediacaran fauna, modified the atmosphere by generating
vapor, and oxygen and nitrogen gases vented from volcanoes.
carbon dioxide 5. Earth’s early atmosphere likely contained large concentrations of water
true
less-dense
true
billion
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
CHAPTER
Name
T252
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
22
B
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 22 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
margins of Laurentia.
129
It added a considerable amount of continental crust to the southern and eastern
The Grenville Orogeny is the final phase of continental accretion to Laurentia.
4. What is the Grenville Orogeny and how did it affect Laurentia?
These seams are belts of deformed rocks that form mountain ranges.
Orogens are seams where microcontinents were joined together.
130
Chapter 22 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
synthesize a new type of enzyme that was in turn capable of synthesizing DNA.
enzymes. As RNA molecules replicated, they may have developed the ability to
molecule, can act as an enzyme, and therefore can replicate without the aid of
production of enzymes. Experiments have shown that ribozymes, a type of RNA
of RNA and DNA, yet at least one of these amino acids is necessary for the
molecules on Earth. Scientists know that enzymes are necessary for the replication
Evidence suggests that RNA molecules may have been the first replicating
populated by prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
4. How might a theoretical “RNA world” have evolved into an organic “DNA world”
cells, leading to the eventual development of organisms composed of many cells.
ways. This ability could have enabled eukaryotes to evolve into different kinds of
live in different environments, and get nourishment and reproduce in different
3. What are orogens and what land feature is associated with them?
have, as a result, been able to develop features that would have allowed them to
Proterozoic.
have been able to carry out processes that prokaryotes could not have. They may
Answers will vary. Since organelles perform separate functions, eukaryotes would
perform separate functions. How might the presence of organelles have given ancient eukaryotes
an advantage over prokaryotes?
3. Besides having a nucleus, eukaryotes also have a number of other cell parts, called organelles, that
organisms appeared first on Earth and gradually evolved into more complex forms.
It is most likely that the more simple prokaryotes evolved first because simpler
2. Which of these two types of cells most likely evolved first? Explain your answer.
the other cell and has a nucleus.
does not have a nucleus. A is a eukaryote cell. It is larger and more complex than
B shows a prokaryote cell. It is smaller and less complex than the other cell and
eukaryote cell? Explain your answer.
It formed during the Proterozoic and started to break up at the end of the
2. When did the ancient continent shown in the diagram form and start to break up?
the supercontinent Rodinia
1. Identify the ancient supercontinent shown in the diagram.
750 million years ago
Nucleus
No nucleus
1. Which cell most likely represents a prokaryote cell and which represents a
A
Organelles
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Study the diagram, which shows two different cells. Then answer the questions.
CHAPTER
Name
Thinking Critically
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Use the illustration to answer the following questions.
22
Class
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
CHAPTER
Name
Chapter Assessment
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22
17. 540 million
16. 670–570 million
15. 700 million
14. 800–700 million
13. 1.2–0.9 billion
12. 1.8–1.6 billion
11. 2.1 billion
10. 2.5 billion
9. 3.0–1.8 billion
8. 3.4 billion
7. 3.5 billion
6. 3.9–3.5 billion
5. 4.2 billion
4. 4.6–3.9 billion
3. 4.6 billion
2. 4.6 billion
Chapter Assessment
h
c
q
p
g
f
o
e
l
k
i
m
b
n
j
d
1. 4.6 billion
Time Line (years before present)
a
They are probably about the same age, 4.6 billion years old.
about 1.7 billion years
Volcanic islands collide with Laurentia.
Rocks of oldest meteorites form
j.
Stromatolites increase local oxygen levels.
Chapter 22 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
organisms appear.
q. First undisputed multicellular
p. Varangian glaciation occurs.
o. Oldest known eukaryotes appear.
meteors occurs.
n. Heavy bombardment of Earth by asteroids and
m. First living things appear.
l.
k. Oldest known stromatolites appear.
Oldest known cyanobacteria appear.
i.
131
h. Proterozoic ends and Rodinia begins breaking apart.
g. Grenville Orogeny occurs.
f.
is completed.
e. Formation of most granite continental cores
132
Chapter 22 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Grenville Orogeny
22. Which occurred first, the Varangian glaciation or the Grenville Orogeny?
when stromatolites increased local oxygen levels.
Chapter Assessment
the first reds beds could be placed at the same time or after 3.0–1.8 billion years,
atmosphere by the cyanobacteria in stromatolites. Therefore, the formation of
Possible response: Red beds appeared as a result of the oxygenation of the
line would you place the formation of the first red beds? Explain your answer.
21. Without knowing the date the event occurred, approximately where on the time
the heavy bombardment of Earth by asteroids and meteors
on Earth?
20. What event may have overlapped with the appearance of the first living things
c. Ediacaran fauna flourish.
d. Oldest moon rocks form.
zircon from granite crust and the completion of the formation of most granite
continental cores?
19. About how much time passed between the formation of the oldest dated
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
b. Oldest dated zircon from granite crust forms.
a. Earth forms.
Events
18. How do the ages of Earth and the Moon compare?
Answer the following questions.
CHAPTER
Name
A geologist has gathered rock and fossil evidence and used it to date various events in Earth’s
history. She needs your help in arranging the events listed below on a time line and interpreting the time line. Complete the time line by filling in each event in the correct position.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
22
Class
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
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T254
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Chapter Assessment
23
Column A
inland uplift
6. Mountain range in present-day Colorado formed by
on top of each other
5. Repeating pattern of sedimentary sequences stacked
4. Contains fossils of soft-bodied Cambrian organisms
of eastern New York state
3. Mountain-building event named for the mountains
2. Continental edge with no tectonic activity
1. Ancient geographic setting of an area
Column B
f.
Taconic Orogeny
e. passive margin
d. paleogeography
c. cyclothem
b. Burgess Shale
a. Ancestral Rockies
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 23 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
which allowed reptiles to colonize dry land.
land. An amniote egg has a shell that protects the embryo in a liquid-filled sac,
133
transfers water through its stalks and stems, which allowed plants to colonize dry
Both were developments that allowed life to live on land. A vascular plant
10. vascular plant, amniote egg
the extinctions of an unusually large number of these species.
living in the Middle Paleozoic seas. The Middle Paleozoic mass extinctions caused
Both are part of Middle Paleozoic history. The Paleozoic fauna were the animals
9. Paleozoic fauna, mass extinction
Baltica. The Antler Orogeny was a collisional event in western Laurentia.
Both are collisional tectonic events. The Caledonian Orogeny joined Laurentia and
8. Antler Orogeny, Caledonian Orogeny
and a shoreline moves seaward.
rises and a shoreline moves inland, while a regression occurs when sea levels fall
Both are results of a change in sea level. A transgression occurs when sea level
7. transgression, regression
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
a
b
c
d
e
f
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Reviewing Vocabulary
The Paleozoic Era
CHAPTER
Name
23
Paleozoic
vascular plants
organic reef
organic reef
Cambrian
lagoon
, which is the calm area
Paleozoic
was a time of active mountain building.
the late Devonian wiped out 95 percent of all marine genera.
10. The second Middle Paleozoic mass extinction that occurred during
Antler Orogeny.
9. The Taconic Mountains of eastern New York resulted from the
slowly during the Paleozoic than it rotates today.
8. The growth lines on Devonian coral indicate Earth rotated more
covered Laurentia.
7. Corals and sponges built reefs in the warm, shallow sea that
134
barrier reef.
12. The Great Permian Reef Complex is the remains of a fossilized
environment of sandy beaches.
Chapter 23 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
true
coal swamps 11. The largest insects that ever lived were preserved in the ideal
50 percent,
or half
Taconic
rapidly
true
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change
the italicized word or phrase to make it true.
6. The Late
vascular plants .
5. The ability to transfer water through stems and stalks characterizes
including the development of animals with skeletons.
4. The
Shield and
explosion was marked by great diversity of life,
3. Fragile organisms can live in a(n)
behind a reef.
Precambrian
is a structure composed of carbonate skeletons made
by living organisms, such as coral.
2. A(n)
transported to the shoreline.
were weathered from the rocks of the
Date
Chapter Assessment
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
1. On Laurentia, large, sandy beaches formed when sand-sized fragments of quartz
lagoon
Precambrian
Cambrian
Write the term that best completes the statement.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
CHAPTER
Name
Chapter Assessment
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T255
23
ds
ton
e
s to n
e
shal
e
sand
sandsto
ne
shale
shale
limestone
limestone
This is called a regression.
and precipitate out of solution as evaporite minerals.
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 23 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
135
been deposited on top of carbonate sediment in formerly deep-water areas. The
the continental shelf and reduced the living space for marine animals.
136
Chapter 23 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
cooler periods.
Chapter Assessment
A falling sea level is associated with the accumulation of glacial ice during
3. What might have caused the change in sea level that is shown in the diagram?
result is that shallower water deposits overlie deeper water deposits.
will eventually be deposited on top of the clay-rich sediment, which in turn, has
continue to fall, the shoreline continues to recede. The sandy beach sediment
older clay-sized sediments that were once under deeper water. If sea levels
sandy beach sediment, which occurs in shallow water, now occurs on top of the
During a regression, the shoreline of a beach moves seaward. The deposition of
One cause may have been a major marine regression, which would have reduced
5. Explain one possible cause of the Permo-Triassic Extinction Event.
It ran from modern-day New Mexico through Minnesota.
4. What was the location of the paleoequator of the Middle Paleozoic in Laurentia?
Michigan Basin, Ohio Basin, Appalachian Basin
today’s commercially mined evaporite minerals?
2. Explain in detail how the sediment pattern shown in the diagram occurred.
The sea level fell, and the shoreline of the beach moved seaward.
sodium. These elements combine with other elements or compounds in the water
3. What three North American basins once had the right conditions to produce
sedimentation pattern shown in the diagram? What is this change called?
1. What probably happened to the location of the shoreline to produce the
san
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
which causes the remaining water to become oversaturated with calcium and
The shallow, warm, and quiet lagoon water promotes a high evaporation rate,
of evaporites?
2. Why does the high evaporation rate in lagoon settings favor the formation
the Cambrian.
Transcontinental Arch. Laurentia was surrounded by passive margins throughout
was covered by a shallow, tropical sea except for the Canadian Shield and the
Laurentia was located near the equator and surrounded by ocean. Laurentia
Early Paleozoic.
1. Describe the paleogeography and the tectonic conditions of Laurentia in the
Use the diagram to answer the following questions.
CHAPTER
Name
Answer the following questions.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Thinking Critically
23
Class
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
CHAPTER
Name
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T256
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23
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
A
B
C
yes
yes
yes
Evidence of
Marine Environment
(yes/no)
C
Limestone
Shale
Key
3. For sequence B, what evidence led to your conclusions about the occurrence of
sequence indicates a swampy land environment, which later became a marine
environment again.
water, then shallow water.
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Chapter 23 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
138
A sequence of cyclic deposits that appears as a repeating pattern of sedimentary
The presence of marine fossils throughout indicates a marine environment.
Chapter 23 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
forming and melting of glaciers.
Chapter Assessment
rock types is called a cyclothem. Cyclothems probably are the result of repeated
primary cause of this pattern of deposits?
environment?
7. What are cyclic deposits like those represented in sequence C called? What is the
marine environment. The presence of insects and coal in the middle of the
regression. The environment started out under deep water, then less-deep
2. For sequence A, what evidence led to your conclusions about the type of
The presence of marine fossils throughout most of the facies indicates a mostly
6. For sequence C, what evidence led to your conclusions about the type of environment?
started out under shallow water, then somewhat deeper water, then deep water.
then shale, then limestone is consistent with a transgression. The environment
water, then shallow water, then swampy land. The later sequence of sandstone,
with a regression. The environment started out under deep water, then less-deep
The sequence of limestone, then shale, then sandstone, then coal is consistent
of transgressions, regressions, or both?
5. For sequence C, what evidence led to your conclusions about the occurrence
reptiles in the upper part of the sequence indicates a land environment.
indicates a marine environment. The presence of the fossils of amphibians and
The presence of marine fossils throughout all but the upper part of the sequence
4. For sequence B, what evidence led to your conclusions about the type of environment?
was first under deep water, then less-deep water, then shallow water.
then shale, then sandstone is consistent with a regression. The later environment
somewhat deeper water, then under deep water. The later sequence of limestone,
a transgression. The environment began under shallow water, then under
The sequence of sandstone, then shale, then limestone is consistent with
transgressions, regressions, or both?
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
The sequence of limestone, then shale, then sandstone is consistent with a
137
23
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
CHAPTER
Name
transgressions, regressions, or both?
yes
yes
no
Evidence of
Land Environment
(yes/no)
Insect fossils
Marine fossils
Amphibian and reptile fossils
Burrow
1. For sequence A, what evidence led to your conclusions about the occurrence of
Sedimentary
Sequence
Coal
Sandstone
Shale
Sandstone
Evidence of
Regression
(yes/no)
B
Sandstone
Shale
Limestone
Shale
Sandstone
Evidence of
Transgression
(yes/no)
A
Limestone
Shale
Sandstone
Limestone
As a geologist, you know that Earth’s history is recorded in its rocks. Like a detective, you must
infer what has occurred based on the physical evidence you find. Three different sedimentary
sequences are shown in the diagram. Use your knowledge of how sedimentary layers are deposited to “read” these sequences and fill in the data table based on the evidence. Then answer
the questions.
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
Chapter Assessment
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
T257
24
8. Modern human species
arboreal lifestyle
7. Mammal possessing specialized traits related to
linear valleys in Nevada, Utah, and Mexico formed by
extensional tectonism
6. Area of north-to-northeast trending mountains and
5. Metal common in meteorites and asteroids
4. Seed-bearing plants that have flowers
continents collided
3. Separated Africa and Eurasia before these two
Pangaea created more continental-shelf habitat
2. Marine organisms that evolved as the breakup of
America during the Triassic.
1. Mountain ranges that formed in western North
Column A
Cordillera
h. modern fauna
g. primate
f.
e. Tethys Sea
d. iridium
c. Homo sapiens
b. Basin and Range Province
a. angiosperms
Column B
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 24 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
other hominoids by their larger brains, smaller canine teeth, and smaller faces.
hominids and great apes. Hominids are bipedal and are also distinguished from
139
Both are primate groups. Hominoid is a larger group of primates that includes both
11. hominoid, hominid
temperature.
outside temperature, while an endotherm maintains a relatively constant body
Both are animals. An ectotherm has a body temperature that varies according to
10. ectotherm, endotherm
“lizard-hipped” dinosaurs.
Ornithischia were the “bird-hipped” dinosaurs, while the Saurischia were the
They are the two major groups of dinosaurs recognized by hip structure. The
9. Ornithischia, Saurischia
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
c
g
b
a
d
e
h
f
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Write the letter of the term from Column B next to its matching item in Column A.
Reviewing Vocabulary
The Mesozoic and
Cenozoic Eras
CHAPTER
Name
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
24
Rocky Mountains
phytoplankton
sauropods
ice age
mammals
oceans
oceans
batholiths
ammonites
.
made up the base of
are often used as index fossils because these
phytoplankton
exist throughout the Cordillera.
mammals
with a single jawbone arose from mammal-like reptiles.
.
ice age
began, great savannas became arid land
140
land, which supported a diversity of large mammals.
14. As the climate cooled during the late Eocene, forests gave way to open
from the north moderated the temperature of Antarctica.
13. When Antarctica and Eurasia were connected, a current of warm water
Chapter Assessment
12. Some paleontologists hypothesize that some groups of dinosaurs were endotherms.
Cenozoic, which was a time of many biological firsts.
11. The first mammals, birds, and flowering plants arose during the
this supercontinent and two oceans defined Earth’s paleogeography.
10. Throughout the Early and Middle Triassic, before Pangaea split apart,
substantially when Pangaea broke apart.
9. Deformation along the western margin of North America increased
Chapter 24 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
true
Australia
true
Mesozoic
one ocean
true
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
and many savanna mammals became extinct.
8. As the Pliocene
the Rocky Mountains .
7. Orogenic events at the end of the Mesozoic uplifted massive blocks of crust to form
sauropods
6. The largest land animals that ever lived were the quadrupedal, plant-eating
5. Early
marine animals were widespread and abundant during the Mesozoic.
4. Fossils of
the food chain during the Mesozoic.
3. Tiny, ocean-dwelling organisms called
of granite called
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
2. As a result of the earliest of the Mesozoic orogenies in North America, large bodies
1. As Pangaea split apart, the rifts flooded to form new
batholiths
ammonites
Write the term that best completes the statement.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
CHAPTER
Name
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Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
24
Date
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 24 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
covered some areas north of the present-day Ohio and Missouri rivers.
courses of the Ohio and Missouri rivers. At its peak, glaciers up to 3 km thick
Pleistocene. The southernmost point of glacial advance was approximately the
arctic ice cap, which set the stage for the ice ages of the Late Pliocene and the
During the Pliocene, the water of the Arctic Ocean began to freeze to form an
What was the extent of the glaciation in North America?
5. How did cooler temperatures of the Pliocene help cause the Pleistocene glaciation?
the Gulf of Mexico.
141
Evidence includes presence of iridium, soot, charcoal, and a huge impact crater in
Evidence for a meteor impact is found in the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary.
4. What evidence indicates that a very large meteorite hit Earth at the end of the Cretaceous?
Archaeopteryx
the similarities between theropod dinosaurs and the oldest known bird,
3. What evidence leads many paleontologists to hypothesize that birds are related to dinosaurs?
river systems transported sediments from the mountains to the sea.
the east of the sea, and the newly formed Cordillera rose high in the west. Large
A shallow sea covered central North America. The Appalachian Mountains lay to
2. Describe the paleogeography of North America as sea levels rose during the Jurassic.
major changes in the fossil record, to mark the end of one era or period and the
142
Chapter 24 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
identify them by smaller divisions.
Chapter Assessment
enable them to make finer distinctions between time periods so that they can
information on the events that occurred during the era. This information may
Since the Cenozoic Era spans a more recent period of time, scientists have more
epochs, while the Mesozoic is not?
4. What might you conclude by observing that the Cenozoic Era is divided into
developed.
by the dominance of mammals. Primates and, eventually, human beings
became extinct at the end of the Mesozoic, and the Cenozoic was characterized
of the period the land was covered with trees, shrubs, and vines. Dinosaurs
middle of the Cretaceous Period, there were no flowering plants, but by the end
dominating the land and water. Mammals were small and primitive. Before the
The Mesozoic was known as the age of the dinosaurs, with large reptiles
3. Compare and contrast the life-forms of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras.
characterized by ice ages alternating with warmer periods.
Climates during the Mesozoic were generally warm, while the Cenozoic has been
Atlantic Ocean formed, and rifting and mountain-building occurred in many areas.
supercontinent Pangaea and the single global ocean. As Pangaea broke apart, the
During the early part of the Mesozoic, Earth’s paleogeography was defined by the
and climate.
2. Compare and contrast the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras in terms of paleogeography
group of organisms to mark the boundaries of a time period.
beginning of the next. They also may use the appearance or dominance of one
Scientists often use major geological events, such as mass extinctions, ice ages, or
continent to expand and then fracture and break apart.
1. Describe how scientists determine the divisions in the geologic time scale.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Pangaea probably broke apart because it held heat beneath it, which caused the
1. According to a current, widely held hypothesis, what caused the breakup of Pangaea?
Answer the following questions.
CHAPTER
Name
Thinking Critically
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Answer the following questions.
24
Class
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
CHAPTER
Name
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Triassic Period
Jurassic Period
Cretaceous Period
Chapter Assessment
Mesozoic Era
Organism
Cypridea
Arthropoda
245 M.Y.B.P.
208 M.Y.B.P.
146 M.Y.B.P.
66 M.Y.B.P.
Mollusca
Mollusca
Echinodermata
Mollusca
Late Triassic-Late
Jurassic
Aeger
Arthropoda
Triassic-recent
Jurassic-Cretaceous
Mytilus
Pleurotomaria
56 M.Y.B.P.
66 M.Y.B.P.
Eocene Epoch
Paleocene Epoch
66 M.Y.B.P.
Chapter 24 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
35 M.Y.B.P.
23 M.Y.B.P.
5 M.Y.B.P.
1.6 M.Y.B.P.
Miocene Epoch
23 M.Y.B.P.
Paleogene Period
Oligocene Epoch
1.6 M.Y.B.P.
Neogene Period
Pliocene Epoch
Pleistocene Epoch
0.01 M.Y.B.P.
Cretaceous
Crateraster
Recent
Quaternary Period
Holocene Epoch
Late Cretaceous
Gonioteuthis
Mid Jurassic-Early
Cretaceous
Range
Genus
Phylum
143
24
Sedimentary Sequence B
144
Chapter 24 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
existed for only a short period of time.
Chapter Assessment
No; it existed for a relatively long time. Good index fossils are organisms that
8. Would Pleurotomaria be a good index fossil? Why or why not?
yes; in the mid-to-late Jurassic
7. Do the ranges of Aeger and Cypridea overlap? If so, when do they overlap?
the mid-to-late Jurassic
6. Aeger, Cypridea, and Pleurotomaria existed at the same time for a brief period. When was this?
Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous
5. What geologic periods are represented by sedimentary sequence B?
Gonioteuthis; it lived for the briefest period.
4. Which of the three organisms in sedimentary sequence A would be the best index fossil? Why?
no
3. Do the ranges of Aeger and Gonioteuthis overlap?
Mytilus
2. Which of the organisms in sedimentary sequence A lived for the longest period of time?
Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene, Neogene, Quaternary
1. What geologic periods are represented by sedimentary sequence A?
Sedimentary Sequence A
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Use the sedimentary sequences below to answer the following questions.
CHAPTER
Name
You are to deduce the periods of geologic time represented in two different sedimentary sequences by
examining the fossils in each. The fossilized organisms contained in the sedimentary sequences are shown
in the table. The geological time scale follows the table. Examine the table and the time scale. Then answer
the following questions.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
24
Class
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Cenozoic Era
Chapter Assessment
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Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
25
desalination
desertification
natural resources
desalination
6.
solar energy
3.
stone, which lies on or near Earth’s surface.
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 25 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
145
146
b
d
reducing the available supply. Nonrenewable resources exist in fixed amounts
and are renewed only by processes that take millions or billions of years.
a
e
c
Both are natural resources. Renewable resources can last indefinitely without
8. renewable resource, nonrenewable resource
It is usually valueless or even hazardous.
mined at a profit. Gangue is the material left after ore is extracted from a mine.
Both are the results of mining operations. Ore is a natural resource that can be
trees
sunflower
Chapter 25 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
14. Bringing water from areas of plenty to areas of need
directly to plant roots
13. System of perforated pipes used to provide water
12. Three percent of Earth’s water
such as gold dust and gold nuggets
11. Sand and gravel bars that contain heavy sediments,
10. Gas that makes up most of the atmosphere
Column A
9.
8.
7.
fish
Column B
pineapple
freshwater
Chapter Assessment
e. placer deposit
d. trickle irrigation
c. nitrogen
b. transport of surface water
a. freshwater
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
5.
wind energy
7. ore, gangue
peats
m os
4. agricultural crop
2.
Both are rocks. Bedrock is unweathered, solid parent rock that can be mined in
quarries. Aggregate is a mixture of particles, such as gravel, sand, and crushed
Oil
prod
of M uct
aine
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Circle the pictured items that are renewable resources on Earth. Then list each item below
the illustrations.
chicken
sustainable yield
25
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
CHAPTER
Name
1.
6. aggregate, bedrock
when they occur in large
to create freshwater from ocean water.
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
5. Some countries use
quantities.
in arid and semiarid regions.
air pollution
desertification
4. Excess nitrogen and sulfur cause
3. Loss of topsoil leads to
renewable resources at the same rate they are consumed.
2. A process of management called sustainable yield ensures the replacement of
the soil and crust; and natural cycles.
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
1. On Earth, natural resources include(s) air, water, and land; all living things;
air pollution
Write the term that best completes the statement.
Reviewing Vocabulary
Earth Resources
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Name
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T261
5. Drawdown can make a well run dry.
distances.
4. Two thousand years ago, Romans built dams to transport water over
shortages.
3. The continent of Africa has the most countries with chronic water
precipitation.
2. The major water problem in the eastern United States is too little
1. Most freshwater is used to irrigate crops.
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 25 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
environments and so retains its useful properties.
Answers may vary. Sample answer: Water remains a liquid in most Earth
10. Water has a high boiling point.
of the weathering process in cold climates.
Answers may vary. Sample answer: This expansion fractures rocks and is part
9. Water expands when it freezes.
of living things.
Answers may vary. Sample answer: Water can carry nutrients into the tissues
8. Water is a versatile solvent.
from abrupt temperature changes.
Answers may vary. Sample answer: Organisms living in water are protected
increase in temperature.
7. Liquid water can store a large amount of heat without a correspondingly high
Give an example why each property below makes water an important resource on Earth.
use sources 6. The best way to reduce the need for freshwater is to find new sources.
more efficiently
true
aqueducts
true
western
true
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25
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Freshwater
marsh
Desert
Marsh
Thorn
scrub
Lower
savanna
Ocean
Savanna
Rain forest
Human
habitat
Orchard
Air exhaust
148
Chapter 25 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
pollution.
Chapter Assessment
escape. Biosphere 2 could develop “sick” building symptoms due to indoor air
Because of the tight seal of the building, any toxic materials would be unable to
figure in construction and in interior design. The materials were tested for toxicity
before they were used. Why?
3. Technologically advanced materials are an important part of Biosphere 2. They
levels had gotten out of balance, which would be harmful to humans and animals.
Life on Earth relies on a delicate balance of carbon dioxide and oxygen. These
were too high and oxygen levels were too low. Why would these levels be a problem?
2. The Biosphere 2 sealed experiment with humans was stopped because carbon dioxide levels
71 percent of Earth’s surface is covered by water.
The water resource is a much smaller percentage of the surface of Biosphere 2;
1. How does the water resource in Biosphere 2 differ from Earth’s water?
Air intake
South lung
CO2 supply tank
Agro-forestry
West lung
Biosphere 2 is a sort of greenhouse in the Arizona desert. It contains medium-sized communities of plants and animals. For a while, it was used in an experiment to see how humans and
Earth systems interact. The whole complex was tightly sealed from the environment. It had a
set amount of water, air, soil, and organisms (including eight people). Electrical equipment
moved air among the buildings and controlled temperature. Biosphere 2 was carefully planned
to be a self-sustaining ecosystem.
Use the information and the plan of Biosphere 2 to answer the questions that follow.
CHAPTER
Name
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Thinking Critically
25
Class
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
CHAPTER
Name
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Chapter Assessment
25
Date
Road
Gravel pit
S
E
Forest lands—
lumbering and recreation
Stream
W
N
Town
forest
Woods
Truck
farm
Chapter Assessment
goal.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 25 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
and local farmland, so the proposals would adversely affect that conservation
Answers may vary. Sample answer: The town would lose its local gravel source
the land-use proposals affect that goal?
1. Resource conservationists recommend that towns use local resources. How would
The housing development would replace most of the cornfields northwest of the town
between the river and the highway. Forty houses would be built on 0.5-hectare lots. A U-shaped
access road would connect to the road currently located between the highway and the town.
The paper factory would be on a site of about 3 hectares approximately 4 km west of town
where the gravel pit is now. It would include wood storage, the factory, a water-pumping station, an access road, and employee parking. A great quantity of water is used in making paper.
This water would be pumped from the river and then distributed into the air as steam or
restored as clean, warm water into the river.
The shopping plaza would cover about 4 acres northeast of town where the truck farm is now.
It would include a supermarket, small shops, and parking. It would create some jobs and generate traffic drawn from neighboring towns.
Forest
Cornfields
River
y
hwa
Hig
Marsh
Read the descriptions of the projects and look at the map of the township. Then answer the
questions that follow.
149
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
You are on the planning board of a small township (population 2000) in the eastern United
States. The town appeals to hikers, canoeists, and fishers. This year, three major land-use proposals came up for the board’s review: a shopping plaza, a factory that makes paper, and a
housing development.
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
25
150
Chapter 25 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
time and fuel consumption that might be required to shop elsewhere.
Chapter Assessment
Answers will vary. Sample answer: The shopping center would save people’s
best addition to the community? Why?
6. Based on the information included here, which project do you think would be the
changes to the town roads?
hooked up to sewers or on septic systems? Will the new traffic patterns require
from the housing development be treated? Will the housing development be
from the paper factory before it reenters the river? How will the solid waste
Answers will vary. Sample answer: Is there a reasonable way to cool the water
answered before deciding on these proposed land uses?
5. What three questions would you, a planning board commissioner, like to have
river healthy.
lands might decrease negative fertilizer effects on the river and help keep the
was clean, it would heat up the river and affect fishing. Less agricultural use of
River water quality might be degraded by the paper factory. Even if waste water
recreational use of the river?
4. What potentially positive or negative impacts might the proposals have on the
especially if the land is currently irrigated.
development might use less groundwater than current agricultural lands,
parking lot would increase runoff into the river. The shopping plaza and housing
The paper factory would use water from the river, but the shopping plaza
decrease demands?
3. Which proposals would increase demands on the water supply? Which would
increase motor vehicle emissions in the area.
traffic. Truck and employee traffic to and from the paper factory would also
cars in town, as would a shopping plaza. Both of these would increase local
additional exhaust from motor vehicles. A housing development means more
Any increase in traffic through town would increase air pollution due to
emissions? Explain your answer.
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
2. Which proposals might affect the level of air pollution from motor vehicle
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
CHAPTER
Name
Chapter Assessment
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T263
26
Date
organic waste
fossil fuels
formed over thousands or
, which are burned to
e. peat
cogeneration
is capturing and using heat during
Chapter Assessment
without damaging Earth’s environment.
Chapter 26 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
11. On a global scale, sustainable energy meets current and future energy needs
creates an electric current.
10. Sunlight falling on a(n) photovoltaic cell produces a flow of electrons, which
electric generation.
9. A common method of
energy efficiency .
8. The use of energy resources in ways that are productive is known as
151
10. hydroelectric power
9. geothermal energy
8. field crops
7. fecal material
6. ethanol
5. coal
4. charcoal
3. bitumen
2. biogas
1. bagasse
F
B
O
O
F
B, F
O
F
B, F
19. wood
18. wind power
17. tidal power
16. petroleum
15. peat
14. nuclear energy
13. natural gas
12. methane
11. kerogen
152
Chapter 26 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
bitumen, ethanol, methanol, kerogen
Chapter Assessment
geothermal energy, wind energy, nuclear energy, shale oil, bagasse, biogas,
Possible responses: solar energy, hydroelectric power, tidal power, wave power,
22. List five alternative energy resources.
petroleum
Possible responses: charcoal, fecal material, field crops, peat, wood, coal,
21. List four traditional fuels.
the Sun; geothermal and nuclear energy
What are the two exceptions?
20. What is the ultimate source of energy for most of the energy sources listed above?
O
O
B
B
B
c. gasohol
d. geothermal energy
F
B
b. bitumen
a. biogas
millions of years from the compression and decomposition of organic matter.
7. Energy sources known as
produce heat or power.
6. Materials like wood and coal are
fuels
5. Gas mixture produced by decomposition of
4. Gasoline mixed with ethanol
3. Light, spongy plant material used as fuel
2. Can be separated from tar sand and refined
Earth’s internal heat
1. Energy contained in water and steam heated by
Complete each statement.
a
c
e
b
d
F
B
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
For each item, write F for fossil fuel, B for biomass fuel, or O for other source of energy.
Some items may have more than one answer. Then answer the questions.
B
Column A
26
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
CHAPTER
Name
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Column B
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Reviewing Vocabulary
Energy Resources
CHAPTER
Name
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T264
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
C
D
4. barrier of impermeable rock
3. water
2. gas
1. oil
B
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Cooling
tower
Air and
water
vapor
Air
with geothermal zones.
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 26 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
matter in tropical swamps, whereas oil forms from organic matter in seas.
buried, compressed, and altered over geologic time. Coal forms from organic
Both form from organic matter that settles to the bottom of water and gets
8. Compare and contrast the formation of coal and oil.
electricity.
It is burned to provide energy to power plants, which convert the heat to
7. How is coal transformed into electricity?
peat, lignite, bituminous coal, anthracite; anthracite
percentage: anthracite, bituminous coal, lignite, peat. Which of these fuels burns
hottest and cleanest?
154
Chapter 26 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
power plant as a backup system for windless periods.
Chapter Assessment
Possible response: Use wind power to generate electricity. Use a geothermal
combining the use of two resources to produce a reliable supply of electricity.
4. Your community is also known for its steady winds. Propose a strategy for
disrupt ecosystems, and transporting it is not practical.
hot-water reservoirs can be depleted, it can pollute air and water, it can
favorable sites and the steam is generally pollution-free. No, because the
Possible answers: Yes, because geothermal energy is abundant and reliable at
your answers with either the advantages or disadvantages of using this energy resource.
3. Should your community build the proposed power plant? State your opinion and back up
Yes; areas near plate boundaries, where volcanoes often occur, usually coincide
with oil.
6. Put these fuels in order from the smallest percentage of carbon to the largest
likely to be a good location for the proposed power plant? Explain your answer.
gas migrates into and gets trapped in the permeable sedimentary rocks along
2. Your community is located near a chain of volcanic mountains. Is your location
water and steam heated by Earth’s internal heat
1. What is the “fuel” used to generate electricity in the power plant?
Injection
well
Water Hot
well
Condensate
Geothermal zone
Production
well
Air
Condenser
Steam
Turbine
Generator
Date
The same processes that form oil form natural gas at the same time. Natural
5. Explain why natural gas is usually found with oil.
Answer the following questions.
A
D
B
C
A
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26
Class
Study the diagram, which shows a plan for a proposed power plant in your community.
Then answer the questions.
CHAPTER
Name
Thinking Critically
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Match each letter on the diagram with the appropriate term below.
26
Class
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
CHAPTER
Name
Chapter Assessment
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
T265
% of Total Electricity Used
3
Clothes washing/drying
300
110
40
18
1200
300
Microwave
Coffee maker
Toaster
Clock
Refrigerator
Attic fan
Chapter Assessment
1152
150
50
110
440
1560
624
1000
Chapter 26 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Iron
Vacuum cleaner
Stereo/CD player
TV
Dishwasher
Washer
Clothes dryer
Appliance
4
Cooking
Annual Usage (KwH)
5
Refrigeration
Range
Appliance
12
10
Lighting
22
Hot water
Cooling
44
Heating
Use Category
Annual Usage (KwH)
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Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
156
Chapter 26 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
baths.
Chapter Assessment
they are not using them, and getting a low-flow shower head instead of taking
setting it lower, getting more energy-efficient appliances, turning off lights when
to work or using public transportation, getting an automatic thermostat and
75 percent. They might save about 20 percent, however, perhaps by riding bikes
Possible response: No, they probably cannot change their lives enough to save
If yes, point out some of the ways they can do this. If no, give a percentage that
you think they can achieve, and explain why.
5. Do you think Dave and Lila can reach their goal of using 75 percent less energy?
public transportation
petroleum resources they consume by riding bikes to work, carpooling, or using
Possible responses: using passive or active solar heating strategies; reducing the
What suggestions could you make that they might not have thought of?
4. It is possible that Dave and Lila have not considered all their energy-saving options.
when they leave the room, and use fluorescent lightbulbs.
insulate the pipes and water heater, use their fireplace for heating, turn off lights
insulation, install weather stripping around doorways, caulk around windows,
the thermostat, get an automatically controlled thermostat, install more-efficient
Possible responses: Heating and lighting are not represented. They could lower
How could they try to decrease spending in those categories?
3. Which of Dave and Lila’s use categories are not represented on the appliance list?
often. They could use the iron less by buying clothes that do not need ironing.
dishes by hand. They could watch the TV or listen to the stereo/CD player less
dried their clothes on a line. They could use the dishwasher less by washing
Possible responses: The clothes dryer could be used less often if Dave and Lila
2. Which appliances could Dave and Lila use less often? Explain your choices.
clothes dryer, refrigerator, range, vacuum cleaner
than the one they have, a range that is 10 percent more efficient, a different refrigerator that is
10 percent more efficient, and a clothes dryer that cuts drying time by 50 percent. Prioritize
these potential purchases from most to least helpful for reaching their goal.
1. Lila has discovered that she could buy a vacuum cleaner that is 20 percent more energy efficient
Use the tables on the previous page to answer the following questions.
CHAPTER
Name
Dave and Lila are trying to figure out how to
use less energy because they want to spend less
money and they are concerned about depleting
Earth’s resources. Their goal is to cut their
energy use by 75 percent. They drive to work,
and they heat their home, shown below, with
electricity. They have made two tables
summarizing their electricity use.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
26
Class
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
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T266
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
27
Date
Chapter Assessment
farm fields.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 27 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
pollution from widely spread areas, such as rainfall dissolving chemicals on
point of origin, such as sewage-treatment plants. Nonpoint sources generate
Both are types of sources of water pollution. Point sources come from a single
5. point sources, nonpoint sources
against the Sun’s harmful ultraviolet radiation.
chemical in smog. In the stratosphere, ozone also forms an important shield
fumes. Ozone, a gas molecule made of three oxygen atoms, is the primary
Both are types of air pollution. Smog is fog combined with smoke and chemical
4. smog, ozone
refers to the farming practice of planting only one species in a field.
involves a wide variety of organisms, or biological diversity. Monoculture
Both describe the number of types of organisms in an area. Biodiversity
3. biodiversity, monoculture
adequate replanting.
land, deforestation harms it by removing all trees from a forested area without
restoring land to its natural state after mining. Whereas reclamation restores
Both are related to the use of land resources. Reclamation is the process of
2. reclamation, deforestation
growth increasingly as population increases.
Density-dependent factors, such as disease or parasites, affect population
such as droughts or floods, limit growth regardless of population size.
157
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Both are factors that affect population growth. Density-independent factors,
1. density-independent factors, density-dependent factors
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
Reviewing Vocabulary
Human Impact on
Earth Resources
CHAPTER
Name
27
Date
5.0.
5. Acid precipitation is precipitation with a pH less than
greenhouse gas carbon dioxide is largely responsible
for the phenomenon of ozone depletion.
4. Many scientists believe that human production of the
environment can support.
3. Carrying capacity is the number of organisms a given
materials and convert them to less-harmful substances
in a process called reclamation.
2. Naturally occurring bacteria can be used to eat toxic
population continues to increase, the population as a
whole is in a state of density.
1. As long as the number of reproducing adults in a
c. stripping of the surface landscape.
d. pollution of the air.
c. increased flooding.
d. increased biodiversity.
c. acid precipitation.
d. nitrogen dioxide.
158
c. Endangered Species Act.
d. Clean Water Act.
Chapter 27 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
a. Safe Drinking Water Act.
b. Clear Water Amendment.
10. The primary federal law that protects our nation’s water from pollution is the
atmospheric moisture to form
a. ozone.
b. CFCs.
9. Sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-burning power plants combines with
which can result in
a. increased groundwater recharge.
b. pollution of the air.
8. As a result of urban development, land becomes covered with cement and asphalt,
seeping through piles of this rock can lead to
a. pollution of streams.
b. the formation of acid precipitation.
7. Mineral extraction from underground mines creates waste rock, and rainwater
6. A population that is at the carrying capacity for its environment is in
a. decline.
c. growth.
b. equilibrium.
d. collapse.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
true
global warming
true
bioremediation
exponential growth
Chapter Assessment
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
CHAPTER
Name
Chapter Assessment
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
T267
Groundwater
Garbage
Sand
Liner
Sand Compacted
solid
Liner
waste
Clay
Subsoil
1. A natural forest is cut and replaced by a tree farm in which one species of tree is
160
Chapter 27 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
resources and produce more pollution. As a result, their impact is greater.
burn fossil fuels such as coal and oil also produce many types of pollution.
Chapter 27 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
countries with lower standards of living, United States residents consume more
Chapter Assessment
Because the United States uses a larger share of Earth’s resources than other
motor vehicles that burn fossil fuels in the form of gasoline. Power plants that
resources than someone from another country with lower standards of living?
Explain your answer.
5. Do you, as a United States resident, have a greater or lesser impact on Earth’s
available in an area or that need less water.
conserve water by planting crops that can grow using the natural rainfall
water, planting crops that need irrigation wastes water resources. Farmers can
Some crops need more water than others. Because irrigation wastes a lot of
4. How can choosing to plant one crop instead of another be a method of water conservation?
new materials, and save landfill space.
such as trees or minerals. They also prevent pollution created by manufacturing
producing them. Although they are often more expensive, they save resources
There must be a market for recycled materials in order for companies to continue
smarter purchase in the long run?
3. Why might buying a more expensive product made of recycled materials be a
pour into the air and less acid precipitation would form.
would mean a decrease in the use of cars, meaning fewer nitrogen oxides would
that cause acid precipitation come from cars. Increased use of buses and trains
atmospheric moisture to create sulfuric acid and nitric acid. Most nitrogen oxides
Acid precipitation forms when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides combine with
2. How could an increase in the use of buses and trains decrease the effects of acid precipitation?
have been destroyed, and many organisms have been eliminated from the area.
one-species tree farm does not provide a complete and stable ecosystem. Habitats
forest ecosystem had many different species of organisms and the replanted
vegetation, which prevents erosion of topsoil. On the negative side, the natural
Possible responses: On the positive side, the land has been replanted with
planted. What are the positive and negative impacts of this practice?
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
The single largest source of air pollution in the United States is exhaust from
4. Describe the major sources of air pollution from fossil fuels.
causing a thinning of the ozone layer.
When they migrate into the upper atmosphere, CFCs destroy ozone molecules,
gases are released from old refrigerators, cleaning agents, and aerosol cans.
CFCs are chlorofluorocarbons, gases found in the atmosphere. Most of these
3. What are CFCs, and what role do they play in depletion of ozone in the atmosphere?
Answer the following questions.
and groundwater.
This layer helps minimize the leakage of toxic liquids into the surrounding soil
2. What is the purpose of the layer of materials at B?
This layer helps reduce the volume of trash and eliminate windblown trash.
1. What is the purpose of the layer of materials at A?
B
Sand
Clay
Garbage
A Topsoil
A Modern Landfill
159
27
Answer the following questions.
CHAPTER
Name
Use the diagram to answer questions 1 and 2.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Thinking Critically
27
Class
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
CHAPTER
Name
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T268
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
27
Date
BEFORE
Marsh
River
Oil tank
AFTER
Air-conditioning/
refrigeration units
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 27 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
send exhaust pollutants into the air.
customers’ cars and the large trucks delivering products each day would
chimney. The air conditioning/refrigeration system could emit CFCs. The
Yes; the heating system will burn oil and thus emit pollution through the
2. Would the proposed changes have any impact on the air? Explain your answer.
habitat and valuable ecosystem.
of topsoil. The marsh is a wetland, and its loss means the loss of a wildlife
The removal of the trees and grass during construction could result in erosion
Bare fill
dirt
River
Paved parking
Paved
lot and truck
parking lot
loading area
Fertilized grassy
Store
park area
1. What impact might the cutting of the forest and the destruction of the marsh have?
Forest
Chimneys for oil
heating system
Your job is to determine the impact of the proposed plans on the surrounding land, air, and
water. Then you will report your findings to the other members of the City Council so they
can vote to accept or reject the new development plan.
161
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Jiffy Supermarket wants to open its newest and biggest 24-hour store in Apple City. The
supermarket has submitted plans for the store to the City Council, of which you are a member.
The plans show that Jiffy wants to build the market on an area of forest and marshland along
the banks of the Apple River. Jiffy Supermarket plans to cut the trees and build the store in the
middle of the property. The diagrams show the area before and after the proposed development.
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
27
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Chapter 27 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Answers will vary. Accept all reasonable responses that are supported by facts.
5. Would you recommend the approval of the proposed plans? Explain your decision.
the riverbank.
around the construction site to catch eroded sediment, and plant vegetation on
refrigeration systems do not use CFCs. Require that the developers place barriers
lot and replant trees on part of the property. Make sure the air-conditioning and
sure the oil tank is well protected from leaks. Decrease the size of the parking
operation of the market so there isn’t as much car and truck pollution. Make
developers build a replacement wetland somewhere else. Limit the hours of
along the river to limit erosion and preserve the ecosystem. Require that the
Possible responses: Leave at least part of the forest and marsh in place in a strip
environmental impact of the proposed plans?
4. What changes or preventative measures might you suggest to minimize the
could leak into the groundwater.
wash into the river or seep into the groundwater. Oil from the storage tank
and other chemicals to wash into the river. Fertilizers used on the grass could
clogging it with sediment. Runoff from the parking lot could cause oil, gasoline,
during heavy rains. Soil could wash from the exposed riverbank into the water,
ground, reducing groundwater supplies and increasing the possibility of flooding
Yes; paving the land means fewer opportunities for rainwater to soak into the
Explain your answer.
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
3. Would the proposed changes have any impact on the river and the groundwater?
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
CHAPTER
Name
Chapter Assessment
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
T269
28
Column A
Column B
spinoff
autumnal equinox
j.
winter solstice
o. mare
n. regolith
m. ecliptic
l.
k. ejecta
synchronous rotation
i.
h. summer solstice
g. apogee
f.
e. interferometry
d. perigee
c. solar eclipse
b. albedo
a. reflecting telescope
Chapter 28 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
15. Farthest point from Earth in the Moon’s orbit
surface
14. The portion of sunlight reflected by the Moon’s
the northern hemisphere has its minimum daylight
hours
13. Earth’s position near or on December 21, at which
12. Closest point to Earth in the Moon’s orbit
11. The blocking of the disk of the sun by the Moon
act as one
10. Process of linking separate radio telescopes to
9. Loose, ground-up rock on the Moon’s surface
8. A dark, smooth plain on the surface of the Moon
orbital period are equal
7. Moon’s state, in which its rotational period and its
are equal
6. Earth’s position when the lengths of day and night
northern hemisphere has its maximum daylight
hours
5. Earth’s position around June 21, at which the
mirrors
4. A device that brings visible light to a focus with
the Moon’s surface
3. Material blasted out during impacts that falls back to
2. Plane of Earth’s orbit about the Sun
has common commercial uses
1. Technology developed in the space program that now
Chapter Assessment
g
b
l
d
c
e
n
o
i
j
h
a
k
m
f
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Reviewing Vocabulary
Date
163
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
The Sun-Earth-Moon System
CHAPTER
Name
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
28
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
(reflecting, refracting) telescope.
2. The telescope that uses lenses to bring visible light to a focus is a
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(new moon, full moon).
12. A lunar eclipse can only occur during the phase of the
the Sun and Moon.
Chapter Assessment
11. A (solar eclipse, lunar eclipse) occurs when Earth passes between
sunlight portion that we see appears to (increase, decrease) in size.
10. When the Moon waxes during its lunar cycle, the amount of its
(axis, orbit) is tilted 23.5 relative to the ecliptic.
9. One reason different seasons occur on Earth is because Earth’s
caused by the (orbit, rotation) of Earth.
8. The daily rising and setting of heavenly objects like the Sun is
same time as Earth and from similar materials is called the
(capture, simultaneous formation) theory.
7. The theory that suggests the Moon was formed at about the
a result of space-object impacts.
6. (Ejecta, Albedo) is the material blasted out of the Moon’s surface as
because the Moon has no (erosion, valleys).
5. The Moon’s surface is very different from the surface of Earth
was (Mercury, Apollo).
4. The space exploration program that landed astronauts on the Moon
Chapter 28 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
full moon
lunar eclipse
increase
axis
rotation
simultaneous formation
Ejecta
erosion
Apollo
order to most effectively collect infrared and ultraviolet radiation,
X rays, and gamma rays.
above the atmosphere 3. Telescopes are placed (on a mountaintop, above the atmosphere) in
refracting
electromagnetic spectrum 1. The arrangement of waves that includes gamma rays, X rays, ultraviolet radiation, visible light, infrared radiation, microwaves, and
radio waves according to wavelength and frequency is called the
(electromagnetic spectrum, electromagnetic radiation).
In the space at the left, write the term or phrase in parentheses that makes the statement correct.
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D
C
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experience erosion except by surface creep. As a result, the craters are preserved.
away by erosion. The Moon, lacking an atmosphere and flowing waters, does not
On Earth, the craters caused by bombardment by space objects have been worn
4. Why is the Moon’s surface so heavily pitted with craters, while Earth’s is not?
formed after intense bombardment by space objects.
and heavily covered with craters. Highlands are slightly older than maria, and
in some of the impact basins. C is a highland, which is light in color, mountainous,
The maria formed after a period of bombardment when lava welled up and filled
A is a mare, which is a dark, smooth plain and lower in elevation than a highland.
3. Compare and contrast the type, appearance, and formation of features A and C.
B
2. Which feature is a mountain range?
into the Moon’s surface.
It is an impact crater that formed when an object from space crashed
1. What is feature D and how did it form?
A
B
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C
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Chapter 28 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Moon, impact craters are preserved until later craters cover them.
Chapter Assessment
Crater A must be the oldest because it is covered by craters B and C. On the
craters is the oldest? Explain your answer.
3. The drawing shows several impact craters on the Moon. Which of the three labeled
B
A
and winters would be colder.
and farther from the Sun in winter. As a result, summers would be warmer
more severe. Each hemisphere would lean more toward the Sun in summer
If Earth’s axis were tilted at an angle of 60, the seasonal changes would be
angle of 60? Explain your answer.
2. How would conditions on Earth be different if Earth were tilted on its axis at an
the year.
neither hemisphere would lean more or less toward the Sun any time of
climate at any given location would be much the same year-round because
If Earth were not tilted on its axis, there would be no seasonal changes. The
Explain your answer.
Date
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1. How would conditions on Earth be different if Earth were not tilted on its axis?
Answer the following questions.
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Study the photograph of the Moon. Then answer the questions.
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Chapter 28 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
exist in below-freezing temperatures.
is very cold all the time. Neither liquid water nor water vapor could
The poles receive very indirect sunlight, which means the temperature
Water at the poles on the Moon would have to be in the form of ice.
liquid, gas, or ice? Why?
2. If there is water near the poles on the Moon, what form do you think it takes—
up water.
surface regolith at the poles. Hydrogen is one of the two elements that make
spectrometer measurements indicating the presence of much hydrogen in the
167
increased the likelihood of water being there, based on the spacecraft’s neutron
No, the data did not prove the existence of water on the Moon. It only
on the Moon? Explain your answer.
1. Based on data from Lunar Prospector, can researchers conclude that there is water
Binder’s goal is to eventually create a lunar base on the Moon. Humans could live there as
well as use the base as a stepping stone to the planets. If this happens someday, the information
gathered by Lunar Prospector will have contributed in no small fashion.
The spacecraft also collected data that suggest the Moon has a small iron-rich core. It is
much smaller than the iron core of Earth, but then the Moon is much smaller than Earth.
Lunar Prospector flew over the Moon’s north and south poles many times. These regions
are cold and shadowed, never receiving any of the sun’s light or heat. The spacecraft’s neutron
spectrometer measurements indicated the presence of much hydrogen in the surface regolith
at the poles.
One device on the Lunar Prospector was a neutron spectrometer. As cosmic rays from space
hit the surface of the Moon, they cause sprays of neutrons and other particles. When the neutrons mix with the regolith on the moon, they lose various amounts of energy, depending on
what elements are present in the regolith. Hydrogen takes away more energy than other elements. Hydrogen is one of the basic elements needed to form water, H2O.
The Lunar Prospector spacecraft spent 19 months collecting data from its orbit around the
Moon. From January of 1998 to July of 1999, the craft, which is about the size of an oil drum,
performed to a high level of efficiency, according to mission researcher Alan Binder.
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Chapter 28 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
robotics to collect regolith samples at both poles.
Answers will vary. Possible response: Have the craft land and use
What kinds of tasks would you have the craft perform in order to prove or disprove
the existence of water on the Moon?
4. Imagine you are the mission researcher for the next craft that will visit the Moon.
that material would have to be iron.
Chapter Assessment
made up of material from Earth as the collision theory implies, some of
data suggests that the Moon also has an iron core. If the moon is partly
to be supported. Earth has a large iron core, and the Lunar Prospector
The theory of the collision between Earth and a Mars-sized body seems
Lunar Prospector? Explain your answer.
Date
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3. Which theory of the Moon’s origin seems to be supported by data collected by the
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29
eccentric orbit around the Sun
6. Small, icy body made of ice and rock that has a highly
bright, glowing streak of light in Earth’s atmosphere
5. Interplanetary material that burns up and becomes a
are formed
4. Cloud of gas and dust from which stars and planets
gravitational force on Earth
3. The wobble of Earth’s axis caused by the Moon’s
sinking
2. Cloud type that is low, warm, dark-colored, and
Class
Date
precession
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Chapter 29 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
169
farthest away from the Sun, it is at aphelion. When it is closest, it is at perihelion.
Both describe positions in a planet’s orbit around the Sun. When a planet is
9. aphelion, perihelion
Uranus, and Neptune. They are more gaseous, lack a solid surface, and are larger.
surfaces and are smaller. Gas giant planets are farther from the Sun: Jupiter, Saturn,
planets close to the Sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. They have solid, rocky
Both are categories of the planets of our solar system. Terrestrial planets are the four
8. terrestrial planets, gas giant planets
was based on computations.
laws were based on observations, while Newton’s law of universal gravitation
planet orbits a point between itself and the Sun called the center of mass. Kepler’s
called an ellipse. Newton’s law of universal gravitation determined that each
Both explain planetary motion. Kepler’s laws showed that planets orbit in a shape
7. Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, Newton’s law of universal gravitation
f.
e. 1 astronomical unit
d. comet
c. belt
b. interstellar cloud
a. meteor
Column B
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
1. Earth’s average distance from the Sun: 1.496 108 km
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
d
a
b
f
c
e
Column A
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Reviewing Vocabulary
Our Solar System
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29
Date
eventually became the Sun.
10. The dense concentration of gas at the center of the solar nebula
Sun than Neptune is.
9. Pluto’s orbit is so eccentric that while at perihelion, Pluto is closer to the
Saturn and Uranus.
8. Neptune has clouds and atmospheric belts and zones similar to those of
through its equatorial plane is 7 percent larger than the diameter
through its poles.
7. The rapid rotation of Saturn distorts its shape so that the diameter
planets from the time of the solar system’s formation.
6. Asteroids are thought to be leftover planetesimals that never formed
Mars inhibits infrared radiation from escaping and keeps the surface
extremely hot.
5. The high concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere of
planets in our solar system.
4. Mercury has the largest day-night temperature difference of all the
bodies orbit Earth; therefore, Earth is not necessarily the center of
the solar system.
3. Galileo’s discovery of Jupiter’s moons proved that not all celestial
unique size and shape with the Sun at one focus.
2. Kepler’s first law demonstrates that each planet has an elliptical orbit of
the solar system.
1. In the early 1500s, Tycho Brahe formulated the heliocentric model of
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Chapter 29 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
two clusters 11. The Oort cloud and the Kuiper belt are asteroid belts.
of comets
true
true
Jupiter
Jupiter
true
Venus
true
true
true
Nicolaus
Copernicus
Chapter Assessment
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
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3
6
7
8
9
Neptune
Pluto
Sun
9.
10.
Uranus
7.
8.
Saturn
6.
5.
3.
Mars
Earth
2.
Jupiter
Venus
1.
4.
Mercury
Date
perihelion
5.
Sun
Orbit of Pluto
3.
Elliptical Orbit of a Planet
Sun
perihelion
6.
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Chapter Assessment
Chapter 29 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
in a constant period of time, it would have to travel faster.
171
area, when a planet is closest to the Sun, it would have to travel farther; to do so
equatorial plane. Pluto has a very eccentric orbit that brings it within Neptune’s
Chapter 29 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
out an equal amount of area in an equal amount of time. To maintain a constant
satellite, Charon, which is in synchronous orbit with Pluto, and it orbits Pluto’s
orbit at perihelion.
Kepler determined that an imaginary line between the Sun and a planet sweeps
aphelion
of Earth’s moon. Its atmosphere is composed of methane and nitrogen. It has a
explain the difference in the speed of the planets?
foci
semimajor axis
2.
7. How does a model of the solar system in which the planets have elliptical orbits
4.
1.
aphelion
major axis
major axis
semimajor axis
foci
Use the terms below to label the two diagrams.
Kepler’s laws of planetary motion demonstrate that each planet’s orbit around the Sun sweeps
out in a shape called an ellipse, rather than a circle. This means that a planet does not maintain
a constant distance from the Sun. Kepler found that an imaginary line between the Sun and a
planet sweeps out equal amounts of area in equal amounts of time. Kepler also discovered a
mathematical relationship between the size of a planet’s ellipse and its orbital period.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Pluto has a solid surface. It is made of half rock and half ice and is about the size
15. Describe the surface, size, atmosphere, satellite, and orbit of Pluto.
Mars; Olympus Mons
14. Which planet has the largest mountain in our solar system? What is this mountain called?
Mars
13. Which planet has a reddish color caused by a high iron content?
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
12. Which are the gas giant planets?
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
11. Which are the terrestrial planets?
Answer the following questions.
10
1
2
4
5
The Solar System
Planetary Motion
CHAPTER
Name
Label the diagram of our solar system by writing the name of each body next to its number.
Note that the diagram is not to scale.
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Class
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Chapter 29 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
been transported down the slope.
173
other end is an area of accumulated debris, called the apron, that appears to have
Both pictures show a deep channel region with an alcove at its upper end. At the
3. Compare the two images and explain how the gullies are made.
The Mars features resemble Earth’s gullies left by flash floods.
2. What features on Earth do these Mars features resemble?
flows.
formed by flowing water and deposits of soil and rocks transported by these
The Mars Global Surveyor has taken images of features that look like gullies
water on Mars?
1. Based on the information above, why do scientists believe they may have found
The presence of liquid water on Mars has implications for the questions of past and present
life. If life did develop on Mars, and if it survives, these landforms are the place to look for it. If
water is available, human exploration crews to Mars could access and use it. The water could
be used for drinking, creating breathable air, and extracting oxygen and hydrogen for rocket
fuel.
The gully landforms on both Mars and Earth are divided
into three parts: the alcove, the channel, and the apron. The
alcove is a deep channel with a collapsed region at its upper
end. At the other end is an apron, or area of accumulated
debris that appears to have been transported down the
slope. The Mars gullies have been observed on cliffs and
appear to be extremely young.
In recent years, the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft
observed features that suggest there may be current sources
of liquid water at or near the surface of Mars. These small
features—about the size of a sport utility vehicle—have
been compared to the features left by flash floods on Earth.
The features look like gullies formed by flowing water and
the deposits of soil and rock transported by these flows.
Possible Present-Day Sources of Water on Mars
Applying Scientific Methods
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and to extract oxygen and hydrogen for rocket fuel.
humans who may land on Mars. It could be used to drink, to create breathable air,
develop there, the gullies would be the place to find it. Also, water would help
that life has existed on Mars, not only in the past, but also presently. If life did
Water is necessary for life. If the gullies are new, that means there is a possibility
Chapter 29 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
closer and more accurate pictures to determine the existence of life.
Chapter Assessment
include ideas about the advancing technology of space probes that can take
our own planet better and to learn more about life on Earth. Answers may also
Sample answer: Exploring life on other planets may help scientists to understand
they might find it?
5. Why are scientists still looking for life on other planets? Does it seem possible that
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Date
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4. Why is the presence of liquid water on Mars important? How could it help humans?
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immense that nothing—not even light—can escape it
8. Small, massive, dense object that has a gravity so
90 percent of stars fall
7. Section of the H-R diagram into which about
of the light emitted by the Sun comes
6. Lowest layer of the Sun’s surface from which most
polarity, and minimum to maximum sunspots over a
period of 22.4 years
5. Minimum to maximum sunspots, a reversal of
mythological character, or an everyday object
4. Group of bright stars named for an animal, a
3. Visible light arranged according to wavelengths
itself to form a new star
2. Cloud of interstellar gas and dust that collapses on
such as four hydrogen nuclei combining to form a
helium nucleus
1. Combining of lightweight nuclei into heavier nuclei,
Date
nebula
h. spectrum
g. solar activity cycle
f.
e. main sequence
d. constellation
c. fusion
b. photosphere
a. black hole
Column B
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Chapter Assessment
Chapter 30 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
heavy atomic nuclei into smaller, lighter atomic nuclei.
lightweight nuclei into heavier nuclei, while fission is the process of splitting
Both are atomic reactions that produce energy. Fusion is the combining of
11. fusion, fission
of groups of stars. Binary stars are made up of two stars.
175
Both are stars that are gravitationally bound to each other. Clusters are made up
10. clusters, binary stars
measures brightness at a distance of 10 parsecs.
appears to be. Absolute magnitude takes into account differing distances and
Both classify the brightness of stars. Apparent magnitude is how bright a star
9. apparent magnitude, absolute magnitude
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
a
e
b
g
d
h
f
c
Column A
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.
Reviewing Vocabulary
Stars
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and constellation.
Sun
solar wind
solar interior
solar wind
.
flows outward from the corona to the entire solar system.
176
solar flares
.
Chapter 30 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Sun’s surface called
14. Earth is bombarded with particles and radiation after violent eruptions from the
13. The
corona
is not solid, but gaseous, because of its high temperature.
12. The top layer of the Sun’s atmosphere is the low-density
11. The
Chapter Assessment
solar interior
contains 99 percent of the mass in the solar
solar flares
system, it controls the motion of the planets.
10. Because the
corona
Sun
9. The mass of a star determines the star’s temperature, luminosity,
8. Stars are assigned a spectral type, with M being the hottest stars.
nineteenth century, demonstrates the relationship of luminosity and
temperature.
7. The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (H-R) diagram, first plotted in the
distance of stars up to 300 pc away.
6. Using the parallax technique, astronomers can accurately measure the
surface temperature of a star.
5. Absolute magnitude takes distance into account when indicating the
4. Astronomers can sometimes identify binary stars even if only one star is visible.
for nearly 50 years.
3. In the 1600s, the solar activity cycle stopped, and there were no sunspots
the star’s core convert one element into another.
2. As a star ages, its internal composition changes as nuclear reactions in
to the Sun’s interior.
1. In the convective zone of the solar interior, volumes of gas carry energy
Write the term that best completes the statement.
diameter
coolest
twentieth
century
500 pc
brightness
true
true
true
surface
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
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spectrum
spectrum
spectrum
bright lines at certain wavelengths.
An emission spectrum is produced from a noncompressed glowing gas and has
emission
by elements in the cooler gas that absorb light at specific wavelengths.
produces a continuous spectrum. The spectrum has a series of dark lines caused
An absorption spectrum is produced by a cooler gas in front of a source that
absorption
compressed glowing gas. The spectrum has no breaks.
A continuous spectrum is produced by a glowing solid, liquid, or highly
continuous
Chapter Assessment
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Chapter 30 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
that make up the Sun’s outer layers can be identified.
177
same location as the emission lines made by the laboratory element, the elements
Chapter 30 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
Sun and its life cycle, and how it will affect Earth.
178
more about stars at different evolutionary stages, we can better understand the
different gases with the dark lines in the solar absorption spectra. When the
absorption lines caused by the element in the gas emitted by the Sun are in the
The Sun is a star, and its composition is very near that of other stars. By learning
at specific wavelengths. So, scientists compare laboratory emission spectra of
understand the Sun?
4. How does understanding the formation and evolution of stars help scientists
our own star, the Sun.
elements in the universe. By learning about stars, we will better understand
Stars are the building blocks of our galaxy and the source of the majority of
3. Why is it important that astronomers learn about stars?
perpendicular to the line of sight.
The Doppler effect will not detect any portion of the motion that is
this effect not detect?
2. The shifts in spectral lines are an example of the Doppler effect. What motion will
become longer. The higher the speed, the larger the shift will be.
redshift occurs when the star is moving away from Earth. The wavelengths
shifted toward shorter wavelengths, hence the blue end of the spectrum. A
Blueshifts occur when the star is moving toward Earth. The spectral lines are
1. Explain blueshifts and redshifts.
Answer the following questions.
Dark spectral lines are caused by different chemical elements that absorb light
4. How do scientists use spectra to identify the elements in the Sun’s outer layer?
Answer the following question.
3.
2.
1.
Wavelength Shifts
One of the many ways scientists learn more about stars is the use of spectral lines. They help
scientists determine the speed of a star’s motion. Motion between the source of light and the
observer cause the spectral lines to shift in wavelength. Depending on whether the wavelength
is shorter or longer, the observer can determine if the star is moving toward or away from
Earth. These shifts are called blueshifts and redshifts. The larger the shift, the higher the speed
of motion. The shifts in spectral lines can also be used to detect binary stars as they orbit
around their center of mass and move toward and away from Earth.
CHAPTER
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CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
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Identify and describe each kind of spectrum and explain how each is produced.
30
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Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
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Chapter Assessment
right next to each other.
Chapter 30 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
magnetic configuration in which oppositely directed magnetic fields were seen
179
magnetic field. The region that produced the June 6 eruptions had a complicated
to occur together. They occur together when there is a rapid change in the Sun’s
tons of ionized gas traveling at speeds as high as 2000 km/s. The two do not have
Sun associated with sunspots. A coronal mass ejection can carry up to 10 billion
A solar flare is a violent eruption of particles and radiation from the surface of the
always appear at the same time?
3. Explain the difference between a solar flare and a coronal mass ejection. Do both
communications failure.
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Chapter 30 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
charged particle hits. An aurora is the result of a geomagnetic storm.
Chapter Assessment
Earth’s magnetic field lines. The color depends on the atom or molecule that the
An auroral display is sky glowing as charged particles rain down from space along
7. Explain what an auroral display is. How does it occur?
purplish-red border.
and neutral nitrogen glows red. Together, neutral and ionized nitrogen create a
about 100 km up, the color is yellow-green. Ionized nitrogen gives off blue light,
strike oxygen molecules 320 km up, the color is red. When particles strike oxygen
Auroras can be red, yellow-green, blue, or purplish. When energetic particles
6. What colors can an auroral display be? What causes these different colors?
midnight. Auroras have been seen as far south as Texas and Florida.
Higher latitudes, such as Alaska, Canada, and the Scandinavian countries around
seen below this point? Where?
5. What is the best place and time to see an aurora borealis? Has an aurora ever been
must already have stored energy to be released in the form of an aurora.
electric power transmission equipment and satellites, which could mean a
disturbance must encounter Earth’s magnetic field directly, and the magnetosphere
magnetosphere and unleash a geomagnetic storm. This could interfere with
from space along Earth’s magnetic field. For an intense auroral display to occur, the
An aurora is a result of a geomagnetic storm in which charged particles rain down
4. What is an aurora, and what two conditions must be present for an intense auroral display?
If the solar wind from the CME is strong enough, it can compress the
2. How could the CME cause a geomagnetic storm? How would a geomagnetic storm affect Earth?
amount of activity indicates a solar maximum.
The Sun is most likely at a solar maximum of the solar activity cycle. A great
activity cycle? What does this mean? How long might this period last?
1. Based on this amount of activity, where do scientists believe the Sun is in its solar
The June 6 CME was accompanied by two intense solar flares. The region that produced the
June 6 eruption had a complicated magnetic configuration—oppositely directed magnetic fields
were seen right next to each other.
During an aurora, the sky glows as charged particles rain down from space along Earth’s
magnetic field lines. The resulting color depends on the type of molecules that the charged
particles hit. Energetic particles striking oxygen molecules at an altitude of about 320 km cause
all-red auroras. Oxygen at lower altitudes, about 100 km high, produce brilliant yellow-green
colors. These are the brightest and most common auroras. Ionized nitrogen gives off blue light,
and neutral nitrogen glows red. The nitrogens create the purplish-red lower borders and ripple
edges seen in many auroras. Auroras are at least 60 km above Earth and can extend about
1000 km above the planet. The best places to see an aurora borealis display include Fairbanks,
Alaska, parts of eastern Canada, Iceland, and the Scandinavian countries. These sites are close
to the average auroral oval around Earth’s north magnetic pole. It is best to see an auroral display during the hours of local midnight. The farther south, the less chance of seeing an aurora
borealis display, but displays have been seen as far south as Florida and Texas.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
CMEs carry up to 10 billion tons of ionized gas that can travel at speeds up to 2000 km/s. This
ionized gas hits Earth’s magnetosphere, and most of the incoming material is deflected from the
planet. However, should the solar wind be very strong, it can compress the magnetosphere and
unleash a geomagnetic storm, which can induce electric currents in Earth that can interfere with
electric power transmission and satellites. CMEs can occur without flares, but whenever they occur
together, it means there is a rapid, large-scale change in the Sun’s magnetic field.
30
Class
Under the right conditions, when the CME arrived at Earth’s magnetosphere, energy would be
released in the form of an intense auroral display. For an intense auroral display, the emission
must encounter Earth’s magnetic field directly, as opposed to a glancing blow, and the magnetosphere must already have stored energy, ready to be released in the form of an aurora.
CHAPTER
Name
On June 6, 2000, the orbiting Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) recorded a powerful
series of solar eruptions, including a full-halo coronal mass ejection (CME.) The velocity of the
ejected material was 908 km/s, and it was estimated that the CME was to reach Earth in
48 hours, or midday June 8.
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Applying Scientific Methods
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Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
31
Date
a vacuum and expanded very rapidly for a fraction of a
second before settling into a more orderly expansion
8. Model that says the universe began as a fluctuation in
weak radiation from all directions in space
7. Persistent noise discovered in 1965 that is caused by
to all observers and that it has always looked that way
6. Proposes that the universe looks the same on large scales
expanding ever since
5. States that the universe began as a point and has been
per megaparsec
4. A value of approximately 70 kilometers per second
millions of light-years in size
3. Gigantic formation of clusters of galaxies hundreds of
activities are located
2. Core of a galaxy in which highly energetic objects or
1. Study of the universe
Hubble constant
h. superclusters
g. active galactic nucleus
f.
e. steady-state theory
d. cosmic background radiation
c. Big Bang theory
b. cosmology
a. inflationary universe
Chapter Assessment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 31 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
open. If the average density equals the critical density, the universe is flat.
is closed. If the average density is lower than the critical density, the universe is
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open universe. If the average density is higher than the critical density, the universe
matter of the universe. Critical density is the dividing point between a closed or an
Both are factors in the expansion of the universe. The average density is the total
10. average density, critical density
pulsation periods between 1 day and more than 100 days.
and 1 day and, on average, have the same luminosity. Cepheid variables have
pulsation period. RR Lyrae variables have periods of pulsations between 1.5 hours
Each is a variable star that has a relationship between its luminosity and its
9. RR Lyrae variables, Cepheid variables
Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.
a
d
e
c
f
h
g
slowing has occurred in its expansion as a means of determining how
much further it will slow.
5. One way to determine the fate of the universe is to measure how much
now in the expansion of the universe.
4. Cosmic background radiation provides information about conditions
and found that the redshift of a galaxy depends on its distance from
Earth.
3. Edwin Hubble measured the redshifts and distances of many galaxies
called dark matter composed of dim stellar remnants that have no mass.
2. Studies provide evidence that there is a great amount of unseen matter
1. Most galaxies in the inner region of a large cluster are spirals.
182
Irr
E7
SB
E0
14. Irregular galaxy
13. Very elongated elliptical
12. Round elliptical
11. Flat disks that do not have spiral arms
10. Loosely wound arms and a small, dim nucleus
9. Tightly wound arm and large, bright nucleus
8. Barred spiral
7. Normal spiral
S
S0
Chapter 31 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Irr
E7
E0
S0
c
a
SB
S
c
a
Chapter Assessment
Edwin Hubble sorted galaxies according to their shapes. Write the letter notation below next
to its corresponding galaxy shape.
Hubble Space 6. A key goal of the Fermilab is to gather data that would help to pinpoint
Telescope
the value for H, the Hubble constant.
true
very early
true
ellipticals
have mass
b
Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the
italicized word or phrase to make it true.
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Column A
31
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)
CHAPTER
Name
Reviewing Vocabulary
Column B
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
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Galaxies and the Universe
CHAPTER
Name
Chapter Assessment
Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
T279
31
Chapter Assessment
4.
3.
2.
1.
spiral galaxy
irregular galaxy
galaxy clusters
Chapter 31 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Example: Possible answer: Local Group
shaped galaxies or galaxies with more than one nucleus.
183
ellipticals and spirals. The galaxies often merge to form strangely
are ellipticals. Galaxies in the outer portions are a mix of
30 million ly. In a cluster, most of the inner region galaxies
hundreds of member galaxies and may range in sizes up to
Description: These groups of galaxies may have from a few to
Type:
Example: Possible answer: Large and Small Magellanic Clouds
Description: These galaxies do not fit the elliptical or spiral
classification. They typically have no distinct shape.
Type:
ellipticals to very elongated ellipticals.
Description: Galaxies that are not flattened into disks and do
not have spiral arms. Their shapes range from round
Type:
elliptical galaxy
Example: Possible answer: Milky Way
spirals.
of an old stellar population. There are normal and barred
interstellar matter and young star clusters. A bulge consists
Description: Disklike galaxy with spiral arms consisting of
Type:
elements.
as 99.9 percent, with the rest of the elements being mere traces of heavy
Chapter 31 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
of the galactic disk.
Chapter Assessment
radiation wavelength of 21 cm, which can penetrate the interstellar gas and dust
Hydrogen is plentiful and concentrated in the spiral arms. Hydrogen atoms emit a
5. Why is hydrogen emission useful in mapping the arms of the Milky Way galaxy?
supernovae explosions.
This pattern suggests that the arms are continually forming as a result of
4. What does the Milky Way fragmented spiral-arm pattern suggest?
formed after this time orbit in the plane of the disk.
force of its own gravity, and rotation forced it into a disklike shape. Stars that
the inner portion of the original cloud. The cloud eventually collapsed under the
the halo, which contains the oldest stars, is spherical. The central bulge represents
parts formed first and that the galaxy began as a round cloud. This explains why
Since old stars are found in the halo and bulge, astronomers believe that these
3. How do astronomers explain the formation of the Milky Way galaxy?
arms of the disk, where the interstellar gas and dust are concentrated.
The old stars are in the halo and bulge. The young stars are in the spiral
2. Where are the old and young stars of the Milky Way galaxy located?
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Date
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
The stars in globular clusters have a proportion of hydrogen and helium as high
1. What elements make up the stars in globular clusters?
Answer the following questions.
CHAPTER
Name
Identify the type of galaxy and write a brief description for each illustration. If indicated,
give an example of the galaxy type.
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Date
Thinking Critically
31
Class
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)
CHAPTER
Name
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Answer Pages Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Chapter Assessment
31
3000 light-years
75 000 light-years
Date
3 million suns
20 million suns
200 million suns
2 billion suns
Black Hole Mass
Chapter Assessment
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Chapter 31 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
The Hubble Space Telescope precisely measures the speed of gas and stars around a black
hole. This measurement provides clues for the existence of a black hole. Astronomers determine the mass of each black hole by measuring the motion of stars swirling around it. The
closer a star is to the black hole, the faster is its velocity.
Black holes in the centers of giant galaxies—some more than one billion solar masses—had
enough infalling gas to once blaze as quasars. The final mass of a black hole is not primordial,
but instead is determined during the galaxy formation process. This shows that there is a close
relationship between the black hole mass and the stars that comprise an elliptical galaxy or central bulge stars of a spiral galaxy. In most cases, the black holes not only bulked up through the
accretion of gas, but also through mergers of galaxies in which pairs of black holes combined.
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CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
Class
Astronomers are concluding that monstrous black holes were not born that big, as once
believed, but instead grew on a diet of gas and stars controlled by their host galaxies in the
beginning years of the universe. An initial look at 30 galaxies indicates that black holes do not
precede a galaxy’s birth, but instead evolve with the galaxy by trapping an amazingly exact percentage (0.2) of the mass of the stars and gas in a galaxy.
Black Holes: One Size Does Not Fit All
HST
Ground
Applying Scientific Methods
CHAPTER
Name
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CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
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186
Chapter 31 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
determine the mass.
Chapter Assessment
Astronomers measure the motion of stars swirling around the black hole to
around a black hole, which provides clues for the existence of a black hole.
The Hubble Space Telescope precisely measures the speed of gas and stars
8. How does the Hubble Space Telescope measure black holes if black holes cannot be seen?
They can increase in size when two galaxies in a cluster merge together.
7. Other than accruing gas and stars, how else can black holes increase in size?
during the galaxy formation process.
and stars in the galaxy. A black hole’s size is not primordial, but determined
Astronomers learned that black holes evolved with a galaxy and are fed by gas
6. What have astronomers learned from the 30 black holes they now study?
of a galaxy.
Astronomers believed that black holes were born big and preceded the birth
5. According to the article, what did astronomers once believe about black holes?
3 million suns.
The mass of the largest black hole is 2 billion Suns. The mass of the smallest is
4. What is the mass of the largest black hole on the chart? What is the mass of the smallest?
black hole.
column shows a close-up of the black hole. The third column tells the mass of the
The first column shows the location of the black hole in its galaxy. The second
3. What do each of the three columns in the chart show?
suns
2. In the chart, what unit of measurement is used to show black hole mass?
light can escape. It pulls in other stars and gas with its gravitational force.
A black hole is an object with a gravitational pull so intense that not even
1. What is a black hole?
Answer the following questions.
Applying Scientific Methods, continued
CHAPTER
Name
Document related concepts
no text concepts found