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SOCIOLOGY Chapters 1­2.notebook
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Chapter One­ An Invitation to Sociology
Section 1: The Sociological Perspective
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Fill in the rest of the sentence with what you think these should end with...
1. Someone who can't find a job (potentially on federal assistance) is...
2. Homelessness is the result of...
3. Immigrants come here because of...
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Don't do this ^^^^^
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What do you think PERSPECTIVE is?
How is it important in your life? What kind of things shape your perspective?
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Perspective
Someone explain to me the directions on how to get to Mount Pleasant
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Perspective­­ GUIDED NOTES
Perspective is a particular point of view.
Write this­­>They vary greatly and even though we are looking at the same object our views may vary.
Write this (if you want?)­­>We don't realize how much our attitudes and beliefs are determined by our perspectives.
You don't need to write this­­>Looks at patterns of social relationships in modern societies. (Male vs. Female avg. Salaries). 12
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Which is cuter?
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What is your perspective on this symbol?
Does it differ based on your race, upbringing, education, political views, or where you live?
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What factors have influenced your perspective the most? How have they shaped your perspective and make you think and act the way you do?
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Sociological Perspective­­ GUIDED NOTES
A view that looks at behavior of groups, not individuals.
Sociology DOES NOT study at the individual level...it studies at the social/group level.
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Social Sciences (need to know the differences.)
Sociology, Anthropology, Psychology, Economics, Political Science, and History
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Social Science(s)
Branch of learning that deals with human society. Includes a number of disciplines.
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Sociology­­What is it??
The scientific study of social structure (human social behavior)
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Anthropology­­ What is it??
Investigates culture, the customary beliefs and material traits of groups.
Most closely related social science to sociology.
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Psychology­­What is it??
Investigates human mental and emotional processes.
Focuses on studying the INDIVIDUAL
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Economics­­What is it??
Study of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services
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Political Science­­What is it??
Investigates the organization, administration, history, and theory of government.
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History­­What is it??
Examines past events in human societies.
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What do Sociologists do?­­ GUIDED NOTES
Sociologists do not focus on the behavior of individuals but on the patterns of behavior shared by members of a group or society
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Patterns
Sociologists look for patterned interactions of people in social relationships (social structure)
Emile Durkheim
­Pioneered sociological perspective
A person’s behavior in a group cannot be predicted from their personal characteristics.
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Conformity­­ GUIDED NOTES
• All groups encourage conformity
• Members of a group think, feel, and behave in a certain way
• This happens because members have been taught to value the groups ways
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Sociological Imagination­­ GUIDED NOTES
The ability to see the link between society and self
Helps us understand the effects of events, such as social pressures just discussed, on our daily lives
Using your SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION...think of some current issues in our society that you can see occurring but might be bigger than just one person...
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COAT OF ARMS ACTIVITY
I will pass out the sheet. Read the directions thoroughly and please ask me any questions you have. Complete all parts of the assignment. Regarding 4....write about how your values, relationships, future, and interests have shaped your perspective or attitude on the world and society.
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Chapter One
Section 2: The Origins of Sociology
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How old do you think the field of sociology is?
When did people start studying social structure?
Why do you think studying social structure is important?
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In addition, add years they were alive, where they were born/lived.
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Auguste Comte
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Father of Sociology
Concerned with the improvement of society
Concept of positivism
Social statics and social dynamics
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Harriet Martineau
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Writer
Translated Auguste Comte's works into English
Emphasized sociology as a science
One of early feminists
Main work= Society in America
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Herbert Spencer
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Compared social stability to the human body
Introduced the theory of Social Change called Social Darwinism
The fittest society would survive if people didn't interfere
Poor deserved to be poor, rich deserved to be rich
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Karl Marx
• Thought industrial societies would eventually have only 2 classes‐‐> Bourgeoisie and Proletariat
• Class conflict‐‐The conflict would eventually lead to the Proletariat raising up and overthrowing the bourgeoisie
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Emile Durkheim
• Society exists because of broad consensus or agreement among members
• Mechanical Solidarity‐ in preindustrial societies. Widespread consensus of values and beliefs, pressure to conform and tradition/
family important
• Organic Solidarity‐ in industrial societies. Interdependency based on specialized roles
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Max Weber
• Theory that human beings act on the basis of their own understanding of a situation
• Work= The Protestant Ethic and Spirit of Capitalism
• He believed sociologists needed to place themselves in someone else's shoes to shed your values and see things from a different point of view (VERSTEHEN)
• Weber used Rationalization in studying society
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Jane Addams
• Advocate for working class during early industrial years
• Worked for social justice because of imbalance of power in the classes
• Co‐founder of Hull House
• Nobel Peace Prize in 1931
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Chapter One
Section 3: Theoretical Perspectives 54
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Functionalism
• Approach that emphasizes the contributions (functions) made by each part of society
• Functionalists see parts of society as an integrated whole...a change in one part of society leads to changes in other parts
• Society tends to seek relative stability
• Two Kinds of Functions:
> Manifest functions= intended and recognized
> Latent functions= unintended and unrecognized • Elements of society that don't make positive contributions and have negative consequences result in dysfunction
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Conflict Perspective
• Emphasizing the role of conflict, competition, and constraint within a society
• Focuses on disagreements among groups
> Compete to preserve and promote their own special values and interests
• Dominant group exploits the non‐dominant group
• Power= ability to control behavior of others
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Symbolic Interactionism
• Focuses on the interaction of people based on mutually understood symbols
• Symbol > Anything that stands for something else and has an agreed‐
upon meaning attached to it.
• Three Assumptions
> Learn symbols from the way other react to it
> Base our behavior on symbols
> Use symbols to imagine how others would react to our behavior
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Chapter Two
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First things first...
The methods that sociologists use to conduct research are classified as either quantitative or qualitative. Quantitative
numerical data
Qualitative
narrative or descriptive date
Define the following terms on your guided notes (page 37 in textbook):
3. data
4. population
5. sample
6. representative sample
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DATA
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Drag to the definition
A group of people who represent a larger population
POPULATION
A group of people with certain specific characteristics
SAMPLE
Facts or statistics
REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE
A sample that accurately reflects the characteristics of the population as a whole
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In surveys, information obtained from questionnaires or interviews
Define questionnaire and interview (pg. 37)
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Define the words below. Pg. 38­39.
Closed­ended questions
questions a person must answer by choosing from a limited, predetermined set of responses
Open­ended questions
questions a person is to answer in his or her own words
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Which type of question would be better to use when compiling research?
which would be easier to compute and analyze?
which would be better at seeing underlying opinions?
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> Gun Control (M. Higham) 1. Do you agree or disagree with this statement: "There is a need for stricter gun laws." 2. Many people have said that there is a need for stricter laws on dangerous weapons. Do you agree?
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> Dealing with Violent Crime (M. Higham) 1. What, in your view, is the best way to reduce violent crime in the U.S.: a) reduce the number of guns sold in the U.S. b) increase penalties for violent criminals 2. Should we reduce violent crime by getting guns off the streets, or should we just lock people up longer?
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> Has violent crime increased? (M. Higham) 1. Do you think incidences of violent crime have increased in the = past decade, do you think they have decreased, or have they stayed about = the same? 2. Because of the Columbine tragedy and other shootings, many people = feel that violent crime is worse today than it was 10 years ago. Do you = agree?
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> Gun Control (C. Cooke) 1. With all the gang killings and domestic disputes ending with gun fire, do you think there should be legislation passed to hinder gun ownership? (6 agreed; 4 disagreed) 2. The second amendment guarantees citizens the right to bear arms, should this right be compromised by legislation in the twenty first century? (1 Yes; 9 No)
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Some case studies involve participant observation. PO is a case study in which the researcher becomes a member of the group being studied.
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Chapter Two
Section 2
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INTERVENING VARIABLE: Variable that changes the relationship between independent and dependent variables.
Examples?
government welfare programs intervene the relationship between poverty and hunger
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Positive Correlation
The independent variable increasing/
occurring causes a positive reaction in the dependent variable
What is the independent variable here?
What is the dependent variable here?
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Negative Correlation
A change in the independent variable increasing/decreasing causes an OPPOSITE impact to the dependent variable
What is the independent variable here?
What is the dependent variable here?
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Chapter Two
Section 3: 104
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Go to Section 3 in your textbook and define the following 2 words on your guided notes
Page 55
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
HYPOTHESIS
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Step 1= Identifying a problem
Step 2= Reviewing the literature
Step 3= Formulating hypothesis
Step 4= Developing a research design
Step 5= Collecting data
Step 6= Analyzing data
Step 7= Stating findings and conclusions
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