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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
Republic of Zambia
SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL HISTORY
SYLLABUS
GRADE 10 – 12
Published by the Curriculum Development Centre
P.O. Box 50092
Lusaka
2012
PREFACE
The History syllabus has been prepared and produced against the background and needs of the Education Sector, Millennium Development Goals and Vision 2030 which emphasise on
Zambia being a middle income country. It is also in line with the structure of the Reviewed Curriculum Framework. The syllabus emphasises the need for the learners to appreciate
their past in order to understand present events and be able to predict what the future may be like. The approach used endeavours to link the learners with the real life experiences as it
allows them to access, criticise, analyse and practically apply the knowledge and skills acquired. Learners will be given practical experiences during the teaching and learning
processes that will provide them with life skills in desk research (already published materials) as well as field research (interviews and questionnaire).
The Outcomes Based Approach employed in the layout of the syllabus should be able to assist learners acquire knowledge, skills and values and positive attitudes which will help them
live fulfilled lives in their communities.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The Curriculum Development Centre is grateful to the Cooperating Partners who provided funds for the preparation of this syllabus.
The Ministry of Education, Science and Technology is also grateful to a large number of people too numerous to mention by name who gave very valuable time and expertise in the
preparation of the syllabus.
However, the Centre is highly indebted to the following people:
Ms Georgina Hamaimbo – out-gone Chief Curriculum Specialist
Mr. Peter K Kasaji – current Acting Chief Curriculum Development Specialist
Mr. Lazarus B Y Kalirani – Acting Principal Curriculum Specialist, Social Sciences
Mr. Gershom B Nsama – Acting Senior Curriculum Specialist, Social Sciences
Mr. David Sikanyiti Mwiinga – Curriculum Development Specialist, History
Ms Beatrice M Hamwiinga, Curriculum Development Specialist, Civics
Mr. Kalonga Moonga – Lecturer, Nkruma College of Education
Mr. Denis Kanyanja – History Teacher, Libala High School
Mr. Joseph Lungu – History Teacher, Chizongwe High School
COPYRIGHT
©
Curriculum Development Centre, Lusaka 2011
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanic, photocopying,
recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Curriculum Development Centre.
AIMS OF TEACHING THE SUBJECT
The History syllabus has been prepared and produced against the background and needs of the Education Sector, Millennium Development Goals and Vision 2030 which emphasise on
Zambia being a middle income country. It is also in line with the structure of the Reviewed Curriculum Framework. It underscores the importance of understanding the historical
development of man from antiquity to the present time. Once this understanding is developed, the learner would be able to appreciate the present events and have an informed direction
of where society is likely to be in future.
To this effect the History syllabus aims at:
•
•
•
•
Applying historical knowledge, skills and values to the understanding of historical events;
Enabling learners evaluate sources of historical information to determine their authenticity;
Empowering learners with skills to write reasoned essays on some historical topics;
Assisting learners in evaluating current social, political, economic and cultural challenges with a view to offering possible solutions.
TEACHING AND LEARNING METHODOLOGIES TO BE USED
These shall include, but not limited to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Desk and field research;
Role play/drama;
Debate;
Teacher exposition;
Group discussions;
Education tours to relevant historical sites;
Learning and teaching aids;
Questions and answers.
TIME ALLOCATION FOR HISTORY
High School History will be offered over a period of three (3) years, i.e., from Grade 10 to 12. Each class taking History will have four (4) periods of allocated per week, each period
lasting forty (40) minutes. All the four periods will be single.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page No.
Preface ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Acknowledgements ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Copyright …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Aims of Teaching History ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Key Competences to be Acquired by Learners …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Teaching and Learning Methodologies to be Used ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Time Allocation for History ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Part I: History of Southern Africa ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Part II: World History from 1870 to 1945 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Part III: World History from 1945 to the Present …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Part IV: History of Central Africa ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
GRADE 10
PART I: HISTORY OF SOUTHERN AFRICA
KEY COMPETENCES TO BE ACQUIRED BY LEARNERS
GENERAL OUTCOME: Appreciate and understand the origins and development of the Southern African society to the present time
KEY COMPETENCES FOR SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL HISTORY
• Write essays on selected topics based on the history of Southern Africa
• Performing elementary historical research from primary and secondary sources;
• Evaluating sources of historical information to determine their authenticity
TOPICS
SUB-TOPIC
SPECIFIC OUTCOMES
10.1
Geographical
Setting
10.1.1
• Describe the physical and climatic •
features of Southern Africa
10.2
Indigenous
Communities
10.2.1
10.3
European
Settler
Communities
Physical and climatic
features of Southern
Africa
Earlier inhabitants of
Southern Africa
10.2.2
Bantu migration into
Southern Africa
10.2.3
Kingdoms and nationstates
10.2.4
The Mfecane
10.2.5
Relationships between
the
Bantu
and
Bushmen
and
Hottentots
Arrival of the Dutch at
the Cape
Arrival of the British at
the Cape
Relationship between
the British and Dutch
settlers at the Cape
The Great Trek
10.3.1
10.3.2
10.3.3
10.3.4
10.3.5 Anglo-Boer War
• Discuss the socio-economic and
political organisation of the Saan
(Bushmen) and Khoi-khoi (Hottentots)
• Describe the movements of Bantuspeaking people into Southern Africa
• Describe
the
establishment
of
kingdoms and nation-states in southeastern South Africa
• Explain the causes and results of the
Mfecane
• Explain the conflict between the KhoiSaan and the Bantu
LEARNING OUTCOMES
KNOWLEDGE
SKILLS
Relief and climatic features of • Map drawing
Southern Africa
• Analysis
• Socio-economic
and
political •
organisation of the Saan (Bushmen) •
and Khoi-khoi (Hottentots)
• Nguni speaking groups in the eastern
wing and the Ambo-Herero group in
the western wing
• Establishment of the Ndwandwe,
Zulu and Ngwane kingdoms and the
Basuto Nation
• Causes: Shortage of land, population
increase
• Effects: social, political and military
• Conflict over land and livestock
o Describe the arrival of the European •
settlers at the Cape
European search for a sea route to
the Far East
o Explain the conflicting political and •
economic interests between the British
and the Dutch
o Describe the causes and course of the •
Great Trek
Conflict over land and attitude
towards the African population
o Describe the Anglo-Boer Wars
•
•
Causes: Introduction of English as
official language and law, circuit
courts, land tenure, attitude towards
Africans
Course: First and Second Trek
First and Second Anglo-Boer Wars
Map drawing
Analysis
•
•
VALUES
Appreciation
Awareness
•
•
Appreciation
Awareness
10.3.6
10.4 Race Relations in
Southern Africa
10.5 Majority Rule
The Union of South
Africa
10.4.1
o Describe the steps leading to the Union •
of South Africa
•
•
•
Relationships between
indigenous
Africans
and the white settlers
10.402 African resistance to
white domination and the
rise
of
African
nationalism
10.5.1 Liberation movements
in Southern Africa
•
10.5.2
•
10.5.3
Attainment of majority
rule
Post-independence
developments
•
•
Vreeniging Treaty, 1902
Unification of states
Boer recognition of British authority
Bloemfontein National Convention,
1908
• Economic reconstruction
• Union Act, 1909 effected 1910
Describe
the
socio-economic • Conflicts over land ownership and
interactions between the European
provision of labour
settlers
and
the
indigenous
communities
• Discovery
of
minerals,
Explain the reasons leading to African
confinement to native reserves,
resistance to white domination
pass system, de-enfranchisement,
land seizure
Describe the various liberation • The African National Congress
movements in South Africa after the
(ANC) and the Pan-Africa Congress
formation of the Union of South Africa
(PAC)
Describe the process leading to the end • End of Apartheid
of Apartheid and majority rule
GRADE 11
SECTION B: WORLD HISTORY FROM 1870 TO THE PRESENT
PART I1: WORLD HISTORY FROM 1870 TO 1945
GENERAL OUTCOME: Appreciate and understand the state and development of the modern world social, economic and political order from 1870 to the present time
KEY COMPETENCES FOR SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL HISTORY
• Mastering major events taking place in Europe and the rest of the world since 1870;
• Offering some solutions to the world’s major economic, social and political challenges
• Write reasoned essays on selected topics based on world history
TOPICS
SUB-TOPIC
SPECIFIC OUTCOMES
11.1 Geographical
Setting
11.1.1
• Locate on the map of Europe the major •
European empires by 1870
11.2 Nation
Building,
1850 – 1900
11.2.1
11.2.2
11.2.3
Geographical positions
of
major
European
kingdoms, 1850 – 1870
Bismarck
and
the
unification of Germany,
1870
The Ottoman Empire up
to 1914
The British Splendid
Isolation Policy
11.2.4
Russia under Tsarist
rule, 1870 – 1914
11.2.5
France, 1870 – 1914
11.2.6
China, 1900 – 1914
11.2.7
Japan, 1900 – 1914
11.2.8
The United States of
America, 1900 – 1914
• Describe the stages leading to the •
unification of Germany
• Explain Bismarck’s home and foreign •
policies
• Analyse the factors that led to the
decline of the Ottoman Empire
• Assess the advantages and disadvantages
of the British policy of Splendid
Isolation
• Describe
Russia’s
efforts
at
industrialisation leading to the RussoJapanese War of 1904-05
• Assess the impact of Russia’s defeat by
Japan on revolutionary activity leading
to the 1905 Revolution
• Explain the efforts France made to
regain her lost provinces of Alsace and
Lorraine to Germany
• Describe China’s political, economic
and social development before the First
World War
• Describe Japan’s political, economic and
social development before the First
World War
• Briefly
explain
America’s
noninvolvement in the alliance systems of
LEARNING OUTCOMES
KNOWLEDGE
SKILLS
Political set up of Europe by 1870
• Map reading
•
• Analysis
•
• Comparing and •
Political divisions of Europe by
contrasting
•
1870
•
Economic status of major world
•
nations by 1914
•
•
•
VALUES
Appreciation
Reflection
Self-identity
Courage
Loyalty
Independence
Patriotism
Cooperation
Bravery
11.3
Rivalry
Among
Major
World
Kingdoms
and Nations
11.3.1
The European Alliance
Systems
Europe before 1917
• Describe the alliance systems that
European states entered into before 1914
11.3.2
European scramble and
partition of Africa
First World War
• Describe the reasons for the European
scramble and partition of Africa
• Explain the causes of the First World
War
11.3.3
11.4
The World
During the
Inter-War
Era
11.4.1
The end of the First
World War and the
Treaty of Versailles
•
•
11.4.2
11.4.3
The Weimar Republic –
1919-1933
The rise of Adolf Hitler
•
•
•
11.4.4
The rise of Benito
Mussolini in Italy
•
•
11.4.5
1917 Russian Socialist
Revolution
•
•
•
11.4.6
The Spanish Civil War,
1936 – 1939
11.4.7
China from 1919 to 1939
•
•
Discuss terms of the Treaty of
Versailles and their impact on defeated
nations
Describe Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen
Points
Explain the weaknesses of the Weimar
Republic
Discuss the circumstances that led to
the rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazism
Analyse Hitler’s political career,
showing his role in the Second World
War, 1939-1945
Discuss the circumstances that led to
the rise of Benito Mussolini and
Fascism in Italy
Analyse Mussolini’s political career,
showing his role in the Second World
War, 1939-1945
Describe conditions in Russia under
the monarchy
Discuss the role of Lenin in the 1917
Socialist Revolution and thereafter
Describe Stalin’s home and foreign
policy
Explain the causes of the 1936 – 1939
Spanish Civil War and the role played
by Francisco Franco
Discuss the political and economic
developments in China from 1919-
• Three Emperor’s League, Dual
Alliance, Triple Alliance
• Entente Cordiale, Dual Entente and
Triple Entente
• Social, economic, political reasons
• System of alliances, militarism,
nationalism, international crises,
the Eastern Question, domestic
political factors
•
Terms of the Versailles Treaty
•
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
• The Weimar Republic
• The rise of Hitler and Nazism
• Hitler’s
policies
domestic
and
foreign
• The rise of Benito Mussolini
• Mussolini’s domestic and foreign
policies.
• Russia under Tsarist rule
• Lenin and the formation of the
Bolshevik Party
• The Russo-Japanese War and the
1905 Revolution
• Russia during the First World War
• The October 1917 Socialist
Revolution
• Russia after 1917
• The Spanish Civil War and General
Franco
• China before the First World War
11.4.8
11.4.9
Japan from 1919 to 1939
The Second World War
•
•
11.5
Attempts at
World
Peace and
the Balance
of
Power,
191
to
Present
11.5.1
The League of Nations
•
11.5.2
The United
Organisation
•
Nations
•
•
11.5.3
11.5.4
11.5.5
11.6
Other
International
Organisatio
ns
11.6.1
The
North
Atlantic
Treaty Organisation
The
Non-Aligned
Movement
The Warsaw Pact
•
•
•
The Commonwealth of
Nations
The European Union
•
•
11.6.7
The
Caribbean
and
Pacific States
The Organisation of
African Unity/African
Union
The Organisation of
American States
The
Economic
Community of West
African States
The Maghreb Union
11.6.8
The Arab League
11.6.2
11.6.3
11.6.4
11.6.5
11.6.6
11.6.9
The
Association
of
South-East
Asian
Nations
11.6.10 The Common Market for
Eastern and Southern
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1939
Describe the political and economic
developments in Japan from 1919 to
1939
Discuss the causes of the Second
World War
Assess the successes and failures of
the League of Nations
Outline the steps leading to the
formation of the United Nations
Describe the objectives, structure and
functions of the United Nations
Organisation
Assess the achievements and failures
of the United nations
Describe the objectives of The North
Atlantic Treaty Organisation
Describe the objectives of The NonAligned Movement
Describe the objectives of The
Warsaw Pact
Describe the objectives of The
Commonwealth of Nations
Describe the objectives of The
European Union
Describe the objectives of The
Caribbean and Pacific States
Describe the objectives of The
Organisation of African Unity/African
Union
Describe the objectives of The
Organisation of American States
Describe the objectives of The
Economic Community of West
African States
Describe the objectives of The
Maghreb Union
Describe the objectives of The Arab
League
Describe the objectives of The
Association of South-East Asian
Nations
Describe the objectives of The
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
China during the First World War
China during the inter-war period
Japan before the First World War
Japan during the First World War
Japan during the inter-war period
Causes of the Second World War
Successes and failures of the
League of Nations
The formation of the United Nations
(its objectives, structure, functions,
failures and achievements)
Objectives of the North Atlantic
Treaty Organisation
Objectives of the Non-Aligned
Movement
Objectives of the Warsaw Pact
• Objectives of the Commonwealth
of Nations
• Objectives of the European Union
• Objectives of the Caribbean and
Pacific States
• Objectives of the Organisation of
African Unity/African Union
• Objectives of the Organisation of
American States
• Objectives of the Economic
Community of West African States
• Objectives of the Maghreb Union
• Objectives of the Arab League
• Objectives of the Association of
South-East Asian Nations
• Objectives of the Common Market
Africa
11.6.11 The Southern
Development
Community
11.7
Contempor
ary Issues
11.7.1
11.7.2
11.7.3
11.7.4
11.7.5
Africa
The Middle East Crises
DR Congo regional
conflict
Rwanda genocide
The land issue in
Zimbabwe
International terrorism
•
•
•
11.7.6
HIV/AIDS
•
11.7.7
Environmental
degradation
Child labour and child
abuse
Human trafficking
•
11.7.8
11.7.9
11.7.10 Gender-based violence
•
•
•
Common Market for Eastern and
Southern Africa
Describe the objectives of The •
Southern
Africa
Development
Community
Discuss the major causes of conflicts •
and their consequences in the modern
world
Discuss the efforts applied in conflict
resolution in the modern world
Discuss the effects of HIV/AIDS in
economic development
Discuss major causes and effects of
environmental degradation
Discuss the effects of child labour and
abuse to children
Describe possible solutions to human
trafficking
Discuss gender-based violence
for Eastern and Southern Africa
Objectives of the Southern Africa
Development Community
Contemporary issues
GRADE 12
PART IV: HISTORY OF CENTRAL AFRICA
GENERAL OUTCOME: Appreciate the origins and development of the Central African society to the present time
KEY COMPETENCES FOR SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL HISTORY
• Detailing major political changes which took place in Central Africa in general and Zambia in particular since the era of Bantu migrations;
• Analysing the economic, social and political problems Zambia and the rest of the world are facing and offering possible solutions to them;
• Write reasoned essays on selected topics based on the history of Central Africa
TOPICS
SUB-TOPIC
SPECIFIC OUTCOMES
12.1 Geographical
Setting
12.1.1
• Describe the physical features of Central Africa in
relation to population distribution by 1800
Physical
and
climatic
features and their influence
on population distribution
LEARNING OUTCOMES
KNOWLEDGE
SKILLS
• Influence of relief and rainfall
• Map drawing
patterns
on
population
• Interpretation
distribution
VALUES
• Appreciation
• Acceptance
12.2 Indigenous
African
Population
12.2.1
Bantu
migrations
Central Africa
into
• Describe the causes and courses of Bantu
migrations
• Locate on the map the areas of Bantu settlement
after migration
12.2.2
12.2.3
12.2.4
12.2.5
12.2.6
12.2.7
12.2.8
12.2.9
Decentralised societies of
Southern Zambia – TokaLeya, Valley and Plateau
Tonga
Decentralised societies of
Central Zambia – Lenje,
Soli, and Sala
Decentralised societies of
North-eastern Zambia –
Senga, Kunda, Tumbuka
Centralised Societies of
Central
Africa
–
Luba/Lunda
Centralised Societies of
West Central Africa –
Kongo/Dongo
Centralised Societies of East
Central Africa – the Ngoni,
the Chewa of Kalonga and
Undi, and Mwenemutapa
Centralised Societies of
Western
Zambia
–
Luyikingdom
Centralised Societies of
Northern Zambia –Bemba
and Kazembe-Lunda
• Discuss the results of the Bantu migrations
• Describe the social, political and economic
organisation of decentralised societies
• Identify decentralised societies
• Describe the social, political and economic
organisation of centralised societies
• Identify centralised societies
• Causes:
social,
political,
economic
• Courses: Earlier migrations of
the Tonga and Eastern Province
groups and later migrations
from Luba-Lunda kingdom
• The Tonga in southern Zambia,
Luyi in western Zambia, Bemba
in northern Zambia, Lunda in
north-western Zambia and
Luapula
• Results of Bantu migrations
(social, political, economic)
• Social, political, and economic
organisation
• Tonga, Lenje, Soli, Sala, Senga,
Kunda, Tumbuka
• Social, political, and economic
organisation
• Luba-Lunda, Ngoni, Luyi,
Shona
• Analysis
• Identification
• Location of
places
• Comparing
and
contrasting
• Critiquing
• Sense
of
belonging
• Awareness
• Courage
• Patriotism
• Self-identity
12.3
European
Communitie
s
12.3.1
12.3.2
12.3.3
12.3.4
12.4
Race
Relations in
Central
Africa
12.4.1
12.4.2
12.4.3
12.4.4
13
12.5
Majority
Rule
Explorers:
David
Livingstone and Henry
Morton Stanley
Traders: Westbeech
Missionaries:
David
Livingstone,
Francois
Coillard
European scramble for the
colonisation
of
Central
Africa
Relationship
between
indigenous Africans and
white settlers
Direct and indirect colonial
rule
Early African resistance to
white domination
The
rise
nationalism
of
African
The Federation of Rhodesia and
Nyasaland
12.5.1 Post-independence
developments
• Discuss the activities of the explorers and early
missionaries in Central Africa that opened the
way for colonialism
• Discuss the importance of Livingstone’s work in
Central Africa
• Describe the activities of the Portuguese in
Angola and Mozambique
• Discuss the moves made by the British to colonise
Zambia, Malawi and Zimbabwe
• Coming of explorers and
missionaries to Central Africa
• Results of the activities of
explorers
and
early
missionaries
• Importance
of
David
Livingstone’s
works
in
Central Africa
• Colonisation of Central Africa
• Describe the relationship between Africans and
whites towards land, tax and labour provision
• Discuss colonial direct and indirect methods of
ruling Africans
• Distinguish between primary and secondary
resistance
• Discuss specific incidents of early African
resistance to colonialism
• Describe important welfare associations which
represented the interests of Africans
• Describe how early African church leaders
resisted colonial rule
• Describe the methods employed by Africans in
resisting colonial rule
• Explain the role of educated Africans in the
struggle for independence
• Describe the role played by labour movement in
fighting colonial rule
• Analyse the political parties and liberation
movements in Central Africa that fought for
independence
• Discuss the reasons for and against the formation
of the Federation
• Analyse the successes and failures of the
Federation
• Reasons behind the uprisings
against colonial rule
• Early resistance to colonial rule
in Central Africa
• Welfare societies which strove
to fight for the rights of
Africans
• Role of independent African
churches
in
resisting
colonialism
• Analyse the development of economic and
political systems of the three territories
• Economic
developments:
mining,
agriculture
and
manufacturing,
regional
economic
blocks,
infrastructure
• Political developments: attitude
towards multi-partism
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