D US-China Education Review B, ISSN 2161-6248 September 2013, Vol. 3, No. 9, 690-702 DAVID PUBLISHING Effective Communication in Educational Administration Ibrahim Habaci, Efraim Ezgin Çelik Mehmet Habaci, Fadime Adigüzelli, Sultan Kurt Canakkale 18 Mart University, Kiev National Dragomanov Pedagogical University, Canakkale, Turkey Ukrania, Turkey Communication has great value for humans. People with good communication skills are able to convey their thoughts, knowledge, ideas, etc., effectively to other people. As in all dimensions of social life, in educational organizations, good communication is crucial. For an active, qualified, and productive education, effective communication skills are needed among school managers and teachers, both in the school environment and outside of it. Communication in educational administration includes manager-employee, student-employee, teacher-teacher, and teacher-student relationships. Effective communication in a school setting influences the motivations and satisfaction of managers, teachers, and students. Managers with effective communication skills make it easier for the organization to reach targets. Effective communication between teachers can be even more fruitful. Employees, managers, and teachers in schools should analyse the communication process, and use it effectively in educational activities. This case will not only help the school achieve its objectives, but also play an important role in socializing students. Keywords: education, communication, student, teacher, manager Introduction Communication is an indispensable fact of human life. Firstly, a human being communicates with his/her mother even while in the womb, via the placenta. In the 10th week, he/she communicates with people via his/her sense organs. Over time, the effect and style of communication increase in complexity. As a social being, a human is required to communicate with other people for survival. Humans are influenced by the communication of the real world and vice-versa. In today’s world, sometimes, called the “communication era”, educational organizations are set up to integrate people into the new “communicative” world. Effective communication in a school setting allows change and the proper shaping of the world, as well as providing a great advantage for the school in reaching its objectives. Maintaining an effective communication process in education depends on the managers responsible for the educational settings, teachers, who play the most fundamental role in the shaping of education, students, who have the potential to shape the world, and families, which are important in shaping children as social beings. The Aim and Significance of the Study The aims of this study are to explore, in the light of related literature, the effects of effective Ibrahim Habaci, Ph.D., assistant professor, Department of Educational Administration, Canakkale 18 Mart University. Efraim Ezgin Çelik, specialist; research assistant, Department of Educational Administration, Canakkale 18 Mart University. Mehmet Habaci, Ph.D., Department of Educational Administration, Kiev National Dragomanov Pegagogical University. Fadime Adigüzelli, Ph.D., Department of Educational Administration, Kiev National Dragomanov Pegagogical University. Sultan Kurt, Ph.D., Department of Educational Administration, Kiev National Dragomanov Pegagogical University. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION 691 communication on educational settings and their quality, and examine the communication skills of managers, teachers, and students in schools and classrooms. Communication in schools should be handled not only from the perspective of educational administration, but also taking into account the social dimension: This paper also investigates the internalization of communication by managers and teachers, and the effects of this. This has significance with regard to the overall effectiveness of educational activities, the socialization of students, individual expression, the robust pursuit of organizational objectives, etc.. Research Model This study adopted a documental literature review approach. This approach is defined as collecting data from existing documents (Karasar, 2012, p. 183). Documental reviewing as a data-collecting tool is indispensable for almost all research. Definition of Communication Humans seek to convey messages to each other in a family, school, classroom, or indeed, in any social environment in order to pursue self-expression, establish their perception of their surroundings, augment their awareness of others, and maintain their existence as social beings. The etymological origin of “communication” dates back to Latin, and the words “communıs” and “communicare” (Gürüz Eğinli, 2008, p. 5). Communication affects people’s thoughts and attitudes as well as leading to the sharing of knowledge, sensations, and thoughts. In other words, communication is a system of relationships to convey knowledge between people (Gürüz Eğinli, 2008, p. 5). Communication is a knowledge-conveying process between an source and a receiver who understands the message correctly (İşcan, 2013, p. 3). The Components and Process of Communication Communication has five components. The source is a person who has been influenced by the content of the message, which is mobile between the source and the receiver. The channel is the means by which the message is transmitted. Lastly, feedback refers to the reaction of the message receiver. Source The source is considered as the basis of communication. The source is the starting point, a person who has thoughts, ideas, and messages to convey (Gürüz Eğinli, 2008, p. 9). A source who explains the message properly and effectively has reliability, moral values, skills in emphasis, and education. Message The message is considered to be all meaningful units that pass between source and receiver. Each message has a meaning, which the source seeks to share. However, the receiver is not necessarily able to understand the same meaning as the source (Kaya, 2010, p. 8). This difference in understanding signifies an unsuccessful transmission of the message, which necessitates a negotiation of meaning to some extent. In order for effective communication to take place, messages should be clear and transmitted by a suitable channel. They should be transmitted in good time and there should be no external factors influencing the message between source and receiver. Channel This refers to the methods and techniques which bear the message to the receiver in accordance with the EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION 692 objectives of the source in the process of communication (Ergin, 2008, p. 69). The channel can sometimes be a person who starts the communication with gestures, mimicking, vocalisations, facial expressions, or words. It could also be a book, a scenario, the Internet, or currently the most-used mass medium. The receiver generally gives feedback to the source by the same channel after the message is received. The feedback is required to be parallel with the content of the message carried by the channel. Receiver The receiver is a person or group who analyses the messages coming from source, in accordance with some specific biological and psycho-social process, and who responds to these messages orally or non-orally (Erdem, 2005, p. 223). As interpersonal communication is mutual, the receiver replaces the source in the process of feedback. Feedback Feedback is defined as the perception and response of the receiver in relation to the message sent by the source. After the receiver accepts a message from the source and analyses it, he or she gives feedback. The extent to which the transmitted message is understood or not is demonstrated in the feedback. Accordingly, the process of feedback has great value in effective communication. The components of communication are illustrated below (see Figure 1). Channel Source Message Receiver Feedback Figure 1. The components and process of communication. Noise refers to anything that affects the proper perception of a message by the receiver. The sources of noise can be physical, neurophysiologic, or psychological (Kaya, 2010, p. 11). Significance of Communication Communication is both an individual and socio-cultural notion. Communication principally enables relationships with people. It has an important role in a person’s self-development. Existence of self and acceptance by others are provided by communication. Communication is also the biggest provider of self-realization, as well as providing the ability to share among human beings. Communication’s social dimensions include: Providing necessary information to the society, helping the socialization process of people, motivating people towards objectives, preparing discussion, providing education, providing cultural development, entertaining, and providing social integration between individuals and societies (Kaya, 2010, p. 15). The communication process is used to change people’s behaviours by establishing a networking system to provide interpersonal links and effective coordination (Bursalıoğlu, 2002, p. 110). Failed communication is the main source of disagreement, resentment, and misunderstanding in today’s EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION 693 world. Failed communication results in much wasting of time as a result of misunderstandings in schools, families, and in all dimensions of social life. It also causes moral deformations (Bridge, 2003, p. 8). Communication Barriers and Errors Interpersonal communication barriers signify all the factors preventing effective communication between people concerning negotiation of the same meaning (Gürüz Eğinli, 2008, p. 209). General communication barriers include the following: (1) Prejudice; (2) Misunderstanding of the objective of communication; (3) Lack of confidence in the source; (4) Not providing the needs of the receiver; (5) A restricted common life setting; (6) Difference between social capitals; (7) High level of anxiety; (8) Lack of love and respect; (9) Errors in speech and diction; (10) Wrong choice of words; (11) Physical and psychological situation of source; (12) Not listening effectively; (13) Not determining the aim of the communication; (14) Not preparing the communicational setting properly; (15) Factors related to role and status. Factors Facilitating Communication In order for robust communication to take place, the communicational setting is required to be well designed. The easiness and comfort of communication depend on factors including the following: Being free from prejudice, selecting appropriate communication channels in terms of ethical and moral values, use of “I” instead of “you”, abstaining from accusative statements, making pertinent repetitions, maintaining an atmosphere of confidence between receiver and source, and behaviour attracting the interest of the receiver, using meaningful symbols and codes, maintaining communication in accordance with general moral values, determining the objective of communication in advance in accordance with the cultural background of the receiver, and establishing mutual perceptions of the message by both sides. Communication in Management Processes Communication is directly associated with all management processes. Communication takes place almost all the time in this context (Habaci, 2013, p. 269). Robust and effective communication depends on managers using their responsibilities properly, and employees having knowledge of these responsibilities. The objective in communication is to change something in the person who is being contacted (Türkmen, 2003, p. 28). Effective communication is the best path to realize common objectives in an organization. In today’s world, where communication has gradually been declining, communication strategies differ between managers to employees; that is, horizontal and vertical communication types are seen. Communication is the continuous EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION 694 process which enables organizational culture to be conveyed between people, maintaining a robust future for the organization. An effective organization is always communicating with the world as well as its own components. School directors are expected to have a comprehensive knowledge of humanities, impressive communication skills, and leadership personalities (Açıkalın, 1998, as cited in Habaci, 2013, p. 269). With these qualities, school directors can construct an effective school culture and organizational setting. He/she can thus develop teacher satisfaction and maintain a reliable educational environment (Çelik, 2000, as cited in Habaci, 2013, p. 269). Directors should communicate both horizontally and vertically in organizations and seek to develop their communication with employees. They should also establish information offices to ensure the proper flow of information. This will remove communication barriers and open new channels. It is the responsibility of directors to participate in communication, motivate people, discourage gossip, respect varied views, and make use of different communication tools (Şişman, 2012, p. 191). In addition, Karagözoğlu cited the following (Karagözoğlu, 1985, pp. 64-70): (1) A robust, hierarchical communication network should be maintained; (2) The director should adopt a policy of communicating with all parties; (3) The director should not forget his status as an employee as well, and be close to all employees; (4) The director should properly analyse symbols and principles in transmitted information; (5) The director should coordinate formal and informal communication in accordance with the objectives of the organization; (6) The director should develop a communication model consistent with the hierarchical system of the organization; (7) The director should refrain from acts hindering communication in the organization, and seek to improve any such environment that exists; (8) The director should organize meetings to solve organizational problems and address others’ ideas; (9) The director should maintain an independent setting in which idea and thoughts can be expressed at ease; (11) The director should make use of non-oral communication, such as gestures, and not digress from objectives; (11) Employees should be kept aware of the hierarchical structure; (12) The director should not use his/her office to harm others. Communication in Education When the notion of communication is discussed in terms of education, two dimensions can be seen clearly. One is administration, and the other involves teaching and learning. Educational institutions determine social behaviours, cultures, organizational structures, and interpersonal relationships. Learning democratic behaviour, the power of independent and scientific thinking, and critical, creative, and productive thinking skills are all shaped by educational institutions. Directors and vice-directors have great importance in educational settings. In order to attain school objectives, develop school qualities, maintain school culture, and create a positive environment, mutual communication needs to be increased. An effective education depends on the responsibilities of the director, EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION 695 vice-director, and teachers. A director should communicate robustly with his/her staff, as well as members of parent-teacher associations, parents, bus drivers, etc. (Habaci, 2013, p. 270). Learning has been defined as “a product of life and a permanent behavioural change”. The aim of the source is always to change the behaviour of the receiver. The aim of communication is therefore not the content of the message but the giving of the message to the receiver. The aim and responsibility of a teacher is to provide students with target behaviours within the framework of educational curricula. In other words, teachers should first make these target cognitive and affective behaviours clear psycho-motor. Communication is a process of the sharing of ideas, knowledge, attitudes, emotions, news, and skills, and through this process, behaviours can be changed. ”Learning” signifies the permanent behavioural change as a result of communication processes; learning can, therefore, be considered a product of effective communication. No learning can occur without effective communication (Ergin & Birol, 2005, p. 30). In communication processes in education, the source is the teacher and the receiver is the student. The message is the course book, the content of the curricula, or the voice of the teacher. The channel is the teaching processes or materials used. The responses of the students represent the feedback (see Figure 2). Method (Channel) TEACHER (SOURCE) CONTENT (MESSAGE) STUDENT (RECEIVER) Feedback-Response and Behaviours of Students Figure 2. Communication process in education. Communication in School The objectives of communication in schools are to maintain school culture and prepare tasks. People in the school must be informed about all the tasks executed. In this way, many reflexive opinions are created. Communication is a complicated and important process that takes place everywhere, all of the time. Teachers make their lessons via oral, written, video, computer, and many other means. Students learn through similar tools. Communication is particularly important for directors, who must understand the notion of communication because communication constitutes the main core of interpersonal relationships, organizational processes, and the structures of the school (Hoy Miskel, 1998, p. 341). One of the main conditions for attaining success in education is maintaining an effective environment for communication in the organization. If people listen to each other attentively, communication will be impressive and solution-oriented. There are many people in a school—director, vice-director, teachers, students, and other employees, and they should all EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION 696 be in harmony with each other. Hence, in order for school success to develop, communication must be seen as a seminal and essential notion (Habaci, 2013, p. 268). Communication Networks A communication network is a formal and/or informal series of systems by which people can communicate at ease. These networks can include horizontal relationships within a hierarchical structure. In order to maintain effective and robust communication in school, and to make sure all employees are kept informed about events in the school, these networks need to be managed and maintained properly. Communication in school involves director-teacher, teacher-teacher, and teacher-student relationships; outside of school, school-family communication is also important. Communication Skills of Directors A robust communication network in school makes for effective communication that will help maintain cultural and social development. Maintaining effective communication is the responsibility of directors. In order for educational organizations to establish robust communication, directors should be able to empathize with employees. Communication channels need to be constructed in organizations, and these channels must always be open so that every employee can participate in any decision process related to the organization. The director of the school should be informed about informal as well as formal communication networks between groups and individuals; he/she should also be familiar with this process. If the director is not familiar with communication networks in the school, this may negatively influence his/her decision-making. An educational director is required to be able to communicate effectively, work with others cooperatively, and support and train employees. Directors should have effective communication skills, with different points of view in order to communicate with people from different cultural backgrounds. Educational organizations should be based on the principles of communication and service. An effective director of an educational organization should have many qualities connected to communication proficiency. Some of these are listed below. (1) Planing communication well; (2) Timing the transmitting of information appropriately; (3) Initiating communication with self-confidence; (4) Communicating without prejudice; (5) Taking precautions for people having prejudices; (6) Selecting appropriate messages according to needs and interests of employees; (7) Being equipped with sufficient knowledge on important; (8) Being able to provide exact information for employees; (9) Ability to communicate without any discrimination; (10) Ability to use varied communication networks; (11) Being consistent with the real life context; (12) Dressing appropriately; (13) Abstaining from any act hindering communication; (14) Listening to others; (15) Being able to empathise with employees; EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION 697 (16) Correctly transmiting messages; (17) Paying attention to feedback; (18) Analytically analysing messages after communication. Proficiency in social relationships is the most important feature of a director. This proficiency is more crucial for educational managers because education is a well-organized system, and directors should communicate with parties outside of the organization as well as those within it. Director-Teacher Communication As almost all individuals in an educational organization have the same craft knowledge and abilities, mutual communication is easier to achieve than in more heterogeneous groups. In a communication process, there is a constant interaction between receiver and source. In order to coordinate, manage, and influence the teachers and other employees, a director should have knowledge of his/her employees’ thoughts, so, he/she can predict their behaviours and responses in advance. The quality of communication between director and teachers enables the development of communication channels and the quality of teaching. In this two-way communication between director and teacher, there are several duties. The director should inform teachers about the components of the profession, policies related to education, and the success of the profession. In addition, teachers should inform the director about their professional problems and issues with colleagues. This two-way communication must be face-to-face. Directors and teachers are expected to express themselves properly in this oral communication. If directors behave improperly to their employees, and consider teachers to be beneath them, this will close all the communication channels. If two-way communication is developed between the director and teachers in a school, teachers grow to be proud of working with their director. This will increase awareness of the director among teachers, and vice-versa. If this kind of communication is not developed, communication will remain a hierarchical process, gradually, closing communication channels and thwarting the school’s objectives. Teachers carry great responsibility for the well-being of society, and educational effectiveness should not be disrupted by any communicational problems with the director. As for students, they should gain many critical skills, such as productive, democratic, and analytical skills. This will create a democratic setting for school. Teacher-Teacher Communication In the literature, it is often stated that teachers have many roles to play in a school. Actually, only one role should be attributed to teachers—leadership. Teachers need leadership skills to motivate and guide students. Accordingly, teachers should recognize problems in advance and focus on the solutions. Classrooms should be managed collectively (Aydın, 2010, p. 211). The relationships and communication processes between teachers in a school should be in parallel to the targeted objectives of the organization. The attitudes and behaviours of teachers who have been making a common effort are the factors which positively influence the knowledge and experiences of students. As well as formal relationships and communication in school, teachers continue communication within their own groups. The unpredictable nature of school life leads to this kind of communication being constructed by teachers. However, internal organizational necessity is the main reason for intercommunication. Communication among teachers is a natural process in a school. It involves all kinds of spontaneous EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION 698 intercommunication (Hoşgörür, 2007, p. 166). Teachers are expected to adhere to general communication principles in this process. This case is generally checked by the director. Poor communication leads to prejudices, as well as negatively influencing moral values and the success of students. Teacher-Parent Communication The socialization of individuals starts with the family. Family traditions have a great influence on a person. Each child grows according to the system of his/her family. Many factors influence children, such as love, respect, or tolerance in the family, or a family’s emphasis on problem-solving. The family has a prominent effect on children’s integration into society (Hoşgörür, 2007, p. 158). Families expect their children to be successful. Academic guidance is also given to children by their families. This can lead to many conflicts between family and school in terms of children’s academic success (Fidan, 2012). Teachers should always communicate with children and their parents out of school. This communication should not only take the form of teachers’ complaints to the parents: It will be based on the academic success of children, their social situations, and their socializing. Teachers should choose a face-to-face communication style when communicating with parents. Apart from daily, weekly, and monthly meetings with parents, they should visit their homes. During these meetings, a clear and understandable language style should be used. Teachers should attempt to carry out these meetings at all costs. They should be in a communication process with parents as regards the feeding of students, caring for them, playing games, creating a suitable studying environment, etc.. Effective Communication in the Classroom Communication is one of the most important issues in classroom management. Developing the quality of an educational organization is only possible with consistency with the teacher’s communication in the classroom. All types of activities in the classroom are principally based on effective communication. The main reason for effective communication in the classroom is to create an environment in which messages can be effectively transmitted between teacher and students (Habaci, 2013, p. 272). Communication should be two-way, beyond the concept of “teacher speaks and students listen” (Woolfolk, 1995, as cited in Silman, 2007, p. 44). Communication in the classroom is the multifaceted flowing of knowledge; one-way communication is not to be favoured. Communication should take place between teacher and students and between students and students (Balay, 2009, p. 15). The quality of communication between teacher and students influences a student’s success and behaviour. Students prefer a teacher being friends with them. When a teacher is friendly with students, students’ attitudes towards the teacher will be influenced positively (Celep, 2004, p. 76). In addition to this, when teachers communicate with students, they should approach them as if they were adults. Yet, teachers should also construct necessary social relationships. A teacher should use his/her body language, voice, and social distance properly. Effective Listening The concentration level of students is very important in effective listening—which can also be called “active” listening. That is to say, students should concentrate on the subject in question. People use their cognitive abilities to listen. Student should ask questions to himself/herself during courses, and should analyse EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION 699 topics in a detailed way (Habaci, 2013, p. 272). Body Language and “You” Language When teachers encounter negative cases in the educational environment, they should express their disapproval regarding these cases without judging their students. When a teacher uses body language, he/she explains his/her feelings more effectively and sincerely. In “you” language, there is no direct judgement of others; this language helps students think about their behaviours and evaluate themselves properly. “You” language can also be accusative, helping to cause weakness and conflicts in the classroom. Effective Language Use Creating a democratic classroom environment enables students to feel confident in the learning process. Students need to express themselves and take part in a group where value is attributed to the student (Silman, 2007, p. 54). When a teacher gives feedback to students about their behaviours, he/she should avoid judgemental statements and should guide the students to understand the consequences of their behaviour. The more the cognitive level of students develops, the more the level of effective language use increases. Using of Body Language Communication should be maintained, not only orally, but also through making eye contact, body language (smiling, approval by nodding, blinking, etc.), walking style, etc. (Başar, 2005, p. 81). In order to create such an environment in the classroom, the personal knowledge of the teacher should be sufficient. Body language skills are acquired, at first, by formal education and then through ordinary life. Making Eye Contact Making eye contact has great value in the classroom. This is because if the listener makes eye contact with someone else, they are listening to him/her rather than the teacher, and gives value to him/her. Making eye contact is important in preventing distractions and distractibility (Habaci, 2013, p. 272). It is an efficient technique in a classroom, which also helps control the classroom in general. If a teacher makes eye contact with all the students in the classroom, this will motivate them. Interpersonal Social Distance Social distance of people to each other in everyday life specifies and influences the quality of relationships (Tayfun, 2007, p. 160). A distance of 50 cm is our personal confidence zone for family members and close friends. Colleagues can enter a zone of only 50 cm-120 cm. If the distance increases, communication will become very formal (Tomul, 2005, p. 168). The distance between people is crucial for the robustness of communication. The distance setting should be given according to the sincerity of people wishing to communicate with each other (Habaci, 2013, p. 272). Empathetic Approach Empathy is defined as the ability to understand others by imagining oneself in another person’s place. Empathetic listening leads to an understanding of people’s judgements. If two-way empathetic communication is maintained in a classroom, judgements, prejudices, and unfriendly criticism are removed. Positive Determination Determination is defined as defending a view to the end without conceding. Positive determination means expressing a problem or a subject frankly by using body language and active behaviour (Silman, 2007, p. 46). Negative behaviour in the classroom can be combated by the teacher by using an effective language style and EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION 700 body language. Gestures and mimicking are also very important. Waiting Period An exact waiting period for a question is crucial for the effectiveness of the response (Habaci, 2013, p. 272). Communication Errors, Barriers, and Apprehension in Education General communication errors have a negative influence on the relationship between the source and the receiver. The most frequent communication errors in educational environments are: vague communication objectives lack of trust between teacher and students, failure to meet students’ needs, high levels of anxiety, not giving feedback to compliments, prejudice, misunderstanding of teacher’s statements, drawing different conclusions from the same statement, improper speech style, diction, or use of language, inappropriate speed of speech, vague statements, accusative language, starting lessons without any schedule, deviation of communication in courses, expectation differences between teacher and students, errors arising from role and status, improper use of body language, disregarding cultural patterns in the classroom, etc.. Communication apprehension is defined as anxiety and apprehension related to communication with a person. Communication apprehension is a fear, for example, the fear of speaking in the classroom. This fear factor generally grows in the first years of education, and oral communication, social skills, and self-confidence of students are deeply influenced by it. Communication apprehension generally stems from low material abilities, deficiency in speaking skills, social introversion, low social confidence, social alienation, cultural, and ethnic differences, etc. (Altıntaş, 2005, p. 125). Conclusions and Suggestions Communication has great value for humans in all areas of social life. People who communicate effectively are able to convey their thoughts properly, and thus create a more sophisticated life setting. Communication, rhetoric, diction, and drama lessons should be included in the curricula of secondary schools and faculties of education, including the curricula of the YÖK (Turkish Council of Higher Education), MEB (Ministry of National Education). The most important criteria regarding communication are as follows: Concerning Directors (1) Directors should deal with the notion of communication as leaders in educational institutions; (2) Communication must be initiated with constructive ideas; (3) Barriers of communication need to be recognised and analysed; (4) All available communication means should be exploited (Bursalıoğlu, 2002, p. 119); (5) A properly driven communication network should be created in the school; (6) Communication should be carried out both in and out of school; (7) External factors in the school should be balanced; (8) Communication networks should be used in accordance with the objectives of school; (9) The communication process should be used properly to include employees in the school management; (10) An independent communication environment should be created. Concerning Teachers (1) Respect and compassion should be shown to the students; EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION 701 (2) Communication with students should always take place; (3) Positive statements should be given regarding students’ expectations (Silman, 2007); (4) Confidence should be instilled in the students; (5) A power zone in the classroom should be created with deep knowledge; (6) Behaviour with students should be frank, and lesson units selected properly according to the cognitive and cultural level of the students; (7) Two-way communication is needed; one-way communication interrupts students’ activity; (8) Feedback should be a main concern; (9) Students should be informed about their level; (10) The right channels should be selected; (11) Open-ended questions should be asked to the students; (12) Closed-ended questions should be preferred if only some subjects are in question; (13) Students should be seen as adults; (14) The subject should be reviewed in advance and researched when necessary; (15) Comprehensible language should be used in the process of teaching; (16) Tolerance regarding student mistakes should be shown; (17) No discrimination should be shown to students; (18) Communication with students should take place out of school as well; (19) Eye contact should be maintained with students; (20) Students should be called by their names; (21) Incoherent behaviour should be avoided in and out of school; (22) Students should be listened to for long enough, without interrupting; (23) “I” language should be preferred over “you” language; (24) When speaking with parents, no accusative statements related to students should be used; (25) Teachers should play a guiding role for parents when speaking with their children. 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