CLAVICLE (collar bone) Download

Transcript
ANATOMY 35 LAB UNIT 1 STUDY GUIDE
CLAVICLE Right or left?
1. sternal end –flat end
2. acromial end –rounded end
3. conoid tubercle (“cone shaped”) –near round end
4. Acromioclavicular joint
SCAPULA Right or left?
1. Superior border (superior margin)
2. Medial border (vertebral margin)
3. Lateral border (axillary margin)
4. Glenoid cavity (glenoid fossa)
5. supraglenoid tubercles
6 Scapular spine
7. Acromion process
8. Coracoid process (“hook shaped”)
9. Scapular notch (suprascapular notch)
10. supraspinous fossa
11. infraspinous fossa
12- subscapular fossa
HUMERUS. Right or left?
1. Head
2. Greater tubercle
3. Lesser tubercle
4. Intertubercular groove (bicipital groove)
5. Anatomical neck
6. Surgical neck
7. Deltoid tuberosity
8. Medial epicondyle
9. Lateral epicondyle (skip)
10. Capitulum
11. Trochlea
12. Coronoid fossa
13. Radial fossa
14. Olecranon fossa
How to tell R from L Clavicle: Point the
flat sternal end toward the midline. The
clavicle should bulge OUT then IN, and
the conoid tubercle must point DOWN.
Study Tip:
Don’t get the conoid (“cone shaped”)
tubercle of the clavicle mixed up with the
coracoid (“hook shaped”) process of the
scapula or the coronoid (“crow’s beak
shaped”) process of the ulna and of the
mandible!
Scapula has a “c” and so does coraCoid.
Ulna and Mandible have an “n” and so
does coroNoid.
How to tell R and L Scapula:
Hold the scapula by the spine and place
the subscapular fossa behind you on top
of your own shoulder blade (smooth side
against your skin). The glenoid cavity
should face laterally, not towards the
vertebral column.
How to tell R and L Humerus:
Hold the humerus on the anterior surface
of your arm with the olecranon fossa
touching your skin (facing posteriorly).
What direction is the head facing? It
should be should face medially towards
the body.
ULNA. Right or left?
1. Olecranon process
2. Coronoid process (“crow’s beak”)
3. Semilunar notch (trochlear notch)
4. Radial notch (or groove)
5. Styloid process
6. Head
7. Ulnar tuberosity
RADIUS Right or left?
1. Head
2. Neck
3. Radial tuberosity
4. Styloid process
5. Ulnar notch
6. Proximal and distal radioulnar joints
How to tell R and L Ulna:
Bend your elbow 90 degrees, then place
the ulna on your forearm with the
semilunar notch facing the ceiling. The
radial notch should be on the thumb side,
not the pinky side because the radius is on
the thumb side.
How to tell R and L Radius
Place the radius on your forearm with the
styloid process on the thumb side, facing
laterally. The distal shaft should scoop
upwards towards the ceiling, not touching
your skin.
1
CARPALS
1. TRAPEZIUM (by the thumb)
2. TRAPEZOID (right beside thumb)
3. CAPITATE (base of 3rd met)
4. HAMATE (base of 4-5th mets)
5. TRIANGULAR or triquetrum (lateral-most)
6. PISIFORM (on palmar side, under triangular)
7. LUNATE (the one next to scaphoid)
8. SCAPHOID (the largest; near the thumb)
Mnemonic for carpals:
“Physical Therapy Lots of Studying, Time
To Come Home”.
Physical: pisiform
Therapy: triangular
Lots: lunate
Studying: scaphoid
Time: trapezium
To: trapezoid
Come: capitates
Home: hamate
METACARPALS; They are numbered metacarpal 1-5 (write “2nd metacarpal, 4th metacarpal”, etc)
PHALANGES (plural) PHALANX (SINGULAR): Proximal, intermediate, distal, (write “1st distal phalanx, 2nd
intermediate phalanx”, etc). NOTE: The thumb is called the pollex and does not have the intermediate
phalanx. The hand is called the manus
JOINTS: Metacarpal Phalangeal Joint (MPJ)
Proximal Interphalangeal Joint (PIPJ)
Intermediate Phalangeal Joint (IPJ)
Distal Interphalangeal Joint (DIPJ)
LOWER EXTREMITY
OS COXA (or Pelvic bone or Innominate bone): Right or left?
It looks like one bone but it is the fusion of 3 bones during childhood (ileum, ischium, and pubis):
1. Acetabulum
2. Obturator foramen
3. Pelvic brim
ILIUM
1. Iliac crest
2. Iliac fossa
3. Anterior superior iliac spine (“As Is”)
4. Anterior inferior iliac spine
5. Posterior superior iliac spine
6. Posterior inferior iliac spine
7. Greater sciatic notch
8. Arcuate line
9. Sacroiliac joint
10. Auricular surface
How to tell the difference between a
male and female pevis:
The female pelvis (R) has a wide pubic
arch; the pubic arch of a male pelvis (L) is
shaped like a “V”.
ISCHIUM
1. Ischial spine
2. Ischial tuberosity
3. Lesser sciatic notch
PUBIS (or Os Pubis or Pubic bone)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Superior ramus
Inferior ramus
Pubic symphysis
Symphyseal surface
5. Pubic arch
How to tell R from L Os Coxa:
Place the auricular surface against the clothing on your
hip, with the pubis facing anteriorly. The acetabulum
should point laterally.
2
FEMUR (right or left?)
1. Head
2. Neck
3. Greater trochanter
4. Lesser trochanter
5. Intertrochanteric line
6. Intertrochanteric crest
7. Lateral condyle
8. Medial condyle
9. Intercondylar notch
10. Lateral epicondyle (skip)
11. Medial epicondyle
12. Linea aspera
13. Gluteal tuberosity
14. Popliteal fossa
TIBIA (right or left?)
1. Medial malleolus
2. Medial condyle
3. Lateral condyle
4. Intercondylar eminence
5. Tibial tuberosity
6. Fibular notch
FIBULA (right or left?)
1. Head
2. Lateral malleolus
How to tell R and L Femur:
Place the femur on the anterior surface of
your thigh, with the linea aspera touching
your skin (facing posteriorly). What
direction is the head facing? It should be
should face medially towards the body.
How to tell R and L Tibia:
Place the tibia on the anterior surface of
your leg with the tibial tuberosity facing
anteriorly (not touching your leg). What side
is the medial malleolus on? It should be
medial, towards the midline of the body.
How to tell head from malleolus on fibula:
The head is flatter on top and the malleolus is pointy at the
tip, and the malleolus has its smooth facet more on the side
of the bone, instead of on the top.
How to tell R from L fibula: Place the smooth facet of the
lateral malleolus on a paper and trace just the malleolus.
Notice one side is rounded (anterior) and one side is straight
(posterior). Now place the smooth facet against your sock at
your lateral ankle. The rounded anterior edge should face
forward, not backward.
1. The anterior edge of the lateral malleolus is curved.
2. The posterior edge is straight(er)
FOOT:
TARSALS:
1. TALUS
JOINTS: Metatarsal Phalangeal Joint (MPJ)
a. Facet for medial malleolus
Proximal Interphalangeal Joint (PIPJ)
b. Facet for lateral malleolus
Intermediate Phalangeal Joint (IPJ)
2. CALCANEUS
Distal Interphalangeal Joint (DIPJ)
a. Calcaneal tuberosity
3. NAVICULAR
4. CUBOID
5. CUNEIFORMS (MEDIAL, INTERMEDIATE, LATERAL)
METATARSALS (1-5). The 5th metatarsal has a STYLOID PROCESS
PHALANGES (proximal, intermediate, distal). The big toe is called the hallux and does not have the
intermediate phalanx.
PATELLA (right or left?)
1. Apex
2. Base
3. Medial articular facet
4. Lateral articular facet
5. Medial and lateral border
How to tell medial from lateral facet on patella:
Place the patella on the table, facets facing down.
The bone will always fall on the side of the lateral
facet, with the medial facet not touching the table.
Now you can tell which side is the lateral border,
and which is a right or left patella.
3
SKULL
Cranium (the whole skull except for mandible)
Calvarium (lid of the cranium)
Anterior, Middle, and Posterior cranial fossa
Frontal bone
1. Coronal suture
2. Supraorbital foramen (supraorbital notch)
3. Superior orbital fissure
4. Inferior orbital fissure (actually, this is part of the sphenoid bone)
5. Glabella
6. Frontonasal suture
7. Frontal sinuses
8. Superciliary arch
Parietal bones
1. Sagittal suture
2. Squamous suture (squamosal suture)
Occipital bone
1. Lambdoidal suture
2. Foramen magnum
3. Occipital condyles
4. Hypoglossal canal
5. Inferior nuchal line
6. Superior nuchal line
Temporal bones
1. External auditory meatus (eternal acoustic meatus)
2. Mandibular fossa
3. Tempomandibular joint (TMJ)
4. Zygomatic process (don’t write “zygomatic” since that is another bone)
5. Styloid process
6. Mastoid process
7. Stylomastoid foramen
8. Squamous portion
9. Petrous portion (contains the ear ossicles/bones)
10. Jugular foramen
11. Internal auditory meatus (internal acoustic meatus)
Sphenoid bone (know it in the skull and also disarticulated)
1. Sella turcica (where the pituitary gland sits)
2. Lesser wings
3. Anterior clinoid process
4. Greater wings
5. Optic foramen (for optic nerve)
6. Pterygoid processes (“wing-like”): Right medial and lateral , left medial and lateral.
7. Foramen ovale
8. Foramen spinosum
9. Foramen rotundum )
10. Carotid canal
11. Foramen lacerum
4
Ethmoid bone (know it in the skull and also disarticulated. Seen in one place in the skull; don’t confuse with vomer)
1. Crista galli
2. Cribiform plate (area with holes in it for olfactory nerves)
3. Olfactory foramina (the holes in the cribiform plate)
4. Ethmoid sinuses
5. Perpendicular plate
6. Middle nasal conchae
Optic foramen
Foramen lacerum
Foramen rotundum
Foramen ovale
Foramen spinosum
Internal
auditory
meatus
Carotid canal
Foramen magnum
Mandible
1. Ramus
2. angle
3. Body
4. Condylar process (mandibular condyle)
5. Mandibular notch
6. Coronoid process
7. Alveolar process
8. Mandibular foramen
9. Mental foramen
Jugular
Foramen
Other skull bones:
1. Zygomatic bones
2. Nasal bones
3. Lacrimal bones
Lacrimal canal
4. Vomer bone (seen in two places;
don’t confuse with ethmoid bone)
5. Inferior nasal conchae
FETAL SKULL
1. Anterior fontanel
2. Posterior fontanel
3. Mastoid fontanel
4. Sphenoid fontanel
5. Occipital bone
6. Frontal bone
7. Parietal bone
8. Temporal bone
9. Sagittal suture
10. Metopic (frontal) suture
5
Maxilla
1. Alveolar processes
2. Maxillary sinuses
3. Zygomatic process
4. Infraorbital foramen (for trigeminal nerve)
5. Incisive foramen
6. Frontal process of the maxilla
7. Hard palate
8. Palatine suture
Palatine bones
1. Horizontal plate
NOTE: Do not use the terms hammer,
anvil, and stirrup on the exam!
EAR BONES
1. Malleus (mallet shaped)
2. Incus (anvil shaped)
3. Stapes (stirrup shaped)
Frontal bone
Ethmoid
bone
Sphenoid
bone
Zygomatic
bone
BONES OF THE ORBIT
Superior orbit: Frontal bone
Inferior orbit: Maxilla
Lateral orbit: Zygomatic bone
Medial orbit: Ethmoid
Posterior orbit: Sphenoid
Maxilla
The zygomatic arch (cheek area) consists of three bones:
1) Zygomatic bone
2) Zygomatic process of the temporal bone
3) Zygomatic process of the maxilla
6
ATLAS (Don’t just call it C-1)
1. Transverse process
2. Transverse foramen
3. Anterior tubercle
4. Posterior tubercle
5. Superior articular process or facet
6. Inferior articular process or facet
7. Vertebral foramen
AXIS (Don’t just call it C-2)
1. Dens or odontoid process
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Superior articular process or facet
Inferior articular process or facet
Transverse process
Transverse foramen
Spinous process
Vertebral foramen
NOTE: The superior and inferior articular
processes of all the vertebrae are the parts
of the bone that project outward. There is
a smooth facet on each that is covered in
cartilage in real life. The smooth part is
the articular facet, which is on the process.
I will accept either “process” or “facet”
since it is difficult to tell which one is
labeled with the sticker.
CERVICAL VERTEBRAE- 7 of them
1. Spinous process
2. Transverse process
3. Transverse foramen
4. Lamina
5. Pedicle
6. Body
7. Vertebral foramen
8. Superior articular process
9. Inferior articular process
THORACIC VERTEBRAE – 12 of them
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Inferior costal facet for head of rib
Superior costal facet for head of rib
Costal facet for tubercle of rib
Inferior articular process
Superior articular process
Transverse process
Spinous process
Pedicle
Lamina
Body
Vertebral foramen
LUMBAR VERTEBRAE – 5 of them
1. Spinous process
2. Transverse process
3. Lamina
4. Pedicle
5. Body
6. Vertebral foramen
7. Inferior articular process
8. Superior articular process
7
SACRUM
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Apex (the apex of the sacrum touches the base of the coccyx)
Sacral promontory (upper lip of sacrum on internal side)
Sacral foramina
Median sacral crest
Lateral sacral crest
Transverse lines
Ala
Superior articular process
Sacral canal
COCCYX
1. Apex
KNOW THE FOLLOWING ON A VERTEBRAL COLUMN:
1. Intervertebral foramina
2. Intervertebral disc
STERNUM
MANUBRIUM
Jugular notch
Clavicular notches
Costal notches
BODY
Costal notches
XIPHOID PROCESS
RIBS: (Twelve pairs of ribs altogether)
Identify 1st Rib and 12th rib
Know the following on a full skeleton only
7 TRUE RIBS
5 FALSE RIBS (2 of these ribs are the floating ribs)
2 FLOATING RIBS
How to tell true from false rib:
A true rib inserts directly into the sternum
(by way of its costal cartilage).
A false rib’s costal cartilage inserts into
the costal cartilage of the rib above it.
Two of the false ribs are floating ribs that
have no costal cartilages and do not insert
into the sternum at all.
How to tell R from L rib:
Place rib on table with groove facing
down, then the head should stick up in the
air. The head of the rib is posterior and the
rib should curve laterally.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ugirFd
7a-mM
COSTAL CARTILAGES
Know the following on a single rib: R or L?
1. Head
a) superior demifacet
b) inferior demifacet
2. Neck
3. Costal tubercle
4. Costal angle (where rib first bends)
5. Costal groove (depression in shaft)
HYOID BONE
1. Body
2. Greater horn
3. Lesser horn
8
HISTOLOGY = “tissues”
EPITHELIUM:
Simple squamous
Found in lungs (deep region), kidney glomerulus, and blood vessels
Simple cuboidal
Found in kidney tubules, hepatocytes (liver), and thyroid follicles
Simple columnar
Found in stomach and intestines (areas that secrete substances)
Identify goblet cell (secretes mucous)
Pseudostratified columnar
Found in trachea and bronchi (not the deep area of lungs)
Identify goblet cell (secretes mucous) and cilia
Stratified squamous
Non-keratinized: Found in oral cavity, esophagus, anus, vagina (moist skin areas)
Keratinized: Found in dry skin areas (epidermis)
Identify stratum corneum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum spinosum,
stratum basale, dermal papilla, and interpapillary peg
Stratified cuboidal
Found in sweat glands
Transitional
Found in urinary bladder and ureter
CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER (FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE)
Adipose (fat)
Identify adipocyte, nucleus, lipid droplet
Reticular
Found in lymph node and spleen
Identify reticular fibers
Areolar (Loose)
Found in upper dermis and visceral (organ) serous (watery secretion) membranes
Identify fibroblasts (dark nuclei), collagen fivers (wide, pale), elastic fibers (dark, thin)
Dense regular
Found in tendons and ligaments
Identify collagen bundles, fibroblast nuclei
Dense irregular (substitute this in place of dense elastic)
Found in joint capsules
9
SPECIAL CONNECTIVE TISSUE
Cartilage Types:
Hyaline
Found in most joints, trachea, nasal septum, costal cartilage, epiphyseal (growth) plates
Identify chondrocytes, lacunae
Elastic
Found in outer ear and epiglottis
Identify chondrocytes, lacunae, elastic fibers
Fibrocartilage
Found in vertebral discs, meniscus of knee joint, pubic symphysis
Identify chondrocytes
Bone
Compact bone
Found in diaphysis (shaft) of long bones
Identify osteon, central canal, lamellae, canaliculi, osteocytes
Cancellous (spongy) bone
Found in epiphysis (ends) of long bones
Identify trabeculae and bone marrow
Blood
Identify red blood cell, white blood cell, platelet (thrombocyte)
10