Chapter 28 Truman: Neither War Nor Peace Beginnings of the Cold War Dealing With a New World President in His Own Right The Korean War Beginnings of the Cold War Section 1 Truman United Nations Controlling the Atom Problems with the Russians Truman Doctrine A. Characteristics of Truman Missouri No College Education Farmer Served in WWI County Judge Senator Very intelligent, hardworking, and fair B. Building a New World Organization United Nations—replaced League of nations and goal was to preserve peace US Congress ratified UN Charter with a vote of 8-2 United Nations (continued) General Assembly— Included delegates from every member nation. (town hall meeting of the world) – Each member got one vote (except for Russia which got 3) – Responsible for budget and electing new members United Nations (continued) Security Council—eleven members including the Big Five (police force of the world) – Big Five had permanent seats and right to veto – Others were elected to two-year terms – Looked into disputes C. Controlling the Atom Bernard Baruch— proposed a world agency that would oversee atomic energy and inspect atomic plants. Program failed because of the USSR D. Problems with the Russians Forced Communism on Poland Eastern European Countries became Communist Iron Curtain—term used by Churchill to describe the line between Sovietdominated Europe and the West. Problems with the Russians (continued) Soviets prevented free passage of people, information, and ideas across its borders. Turkey and Greece were both facing Communist insurgents Atomic secrets had been leaked to the Russians E. Warnings about Russia Containment—trying to keep the Soviet Union from expanding its area of influence George Keenan—warned that Communism must be contained because they plan to conquer the world. F. The Truman Doctrine Dean Ascheson—warned that if Greece fell to Communism, Asia, Africa, and Europe were in grave danger George Marshall (along with Ascheson)— developed a plan so this would not happen. Truman Doctrine—US policy of economic and military support to those who were being subjugated to outside forces G. Greek-Turkish Aid Bill First law giving aid to oppose Communist expansion Helped defeat the influence of Communism in their countries H. Marshall Plan (ERP) US would help Europe economically over the next 3-4 years to keep its economy healthy and invulnerable. Huge Success…in addition, they were able to buy our goods and kept our economy flourishing. I. Point Four Program Gave economic aid to the poor free nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America Section 2: Dealing with a New World Bringing the Boys Home Atomic Energy Act Converting to Peacetime Taft-Hartley Act An Active Congress The Fair Deal Problems with Germany Berlin Blockade NATO Election of 1948 A. Bringing the Boys Home 1946—armed forces decreased from 12 million to 3 million GI Bill of Rights – Provided hospitals and clinics – Payments to unemployed veterans – Preference for federal jobs – Free tuition, books, and on-the-job training B. Atomic Energy Act Transferred the control of atomic energy from government to civilian hands However, all production facilities and nuclear plants would be government owned. Commission was set up to control the peacetime development of atomic energy C. Converting to Peacetime 1st time the nation did not face a depression after the war No shortage of jobs Troubled by strikes, shortages of resources, and inflation. D. The Taft-Hartley Act Limited Union activities in order to prevent strikes and corruption – Outlawed the closed shop—had to pay dues to join a union – Allowed the union shop—required workers to join a union – Permitted states to enact a right-to-work law—forbid the union shop in that state – Law was passed over Truman’s veto. E. An Active Congress Lowered taxes (especially for the wealthy) Cut back on aid to farmers, social security, and education 22nd Amendment—limited a president to two terms Presidential Succession Act—changed the order in which someone became President if the President dies during office. F. Truman’s Fair Deal Extension of FDR’s New Deal that included civil rights laws. – Desegregated armed forces – Appointed first black governor and judge – Fought for rights of blacks in civil rights cases G. The Problem of Germany After WWII, Germany was split into 4 zones of occupation: US, Russia, Britain, and France. US, Britain, and France merged their together to become one territory Russia felt threatened and started the Berlin Blockade H. Potsdam Conference Leaders met to confirm that Nazi “war criminals” would be tried Many were executed. Many Japanese leaders later faced the same fate I. The Berlin Blockade Germany was divided into eastern and western Germany Russia banned all supplies from entering West Berlin to prevent the Western Powers from forming a government there. J. Berlin Airlift US, England, and France supplied the city with clothing, food and coal by air (Berlin Airlift) Russia accepted defeat and lifted the ban The two sides remained separated with Eastern Germany becoming a satellite nation of Russia. K. NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization— Atlantic Pact that created allies between the US, Canada and ten other Western European nation – Military enforcement for the prevention of the spread of communism – Eisenhower is named first Commander of NATO forces L. The Election of 1948 Tom Dewey—R Truman –D Democrats were divided: – Dixiecrats—insisted on segregation of blacks and nominated Strom Thurmond – Progressives—believed in cooperating with Russia and nominated Henry Wallace – Truman still wins despite the division due to his hard work on his campaign. Section 3: President in His Own Right Truman’s Fair Deal (pros and cons) The Second Red Scare World Situation Worsens Rise of McCarthyism Protecting the United States A. Fair Deal Successful: minimum wage increase, extension of social security, and money for projects to help the poor Unsuccessful: civil rights laws, national health insurance, and aid to farmers B. The Second Red Scare House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)—held public hearings against those who were suspicious of communist activities Richard Nixon—one of the most active members of the HUAC. Alger Hiss—accused of providing documents to the Russians. “Red Herring” C. World Situation Worsens Soviet Union explodes an atomic bomb in 1949 Klaus Fuchs—confessed to giving Russians secrets about the bomb China becomes Communist under Mao Zedong D. Rise of McCarthyism Joseph McCarthy— senator who claimed that the State department was infested with Communists E. Protecting the US McCarran Act—required all Communist Organizations to register with the Attorney General McCarran-Warren Act—new immigration law to keep out Communists. – Quota system, loyalty checks, and deportation Rosenbergs—sentenced to death for giving key secrets to Russians about the bomb.