05 Sepam advanced co.. Download

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Electrical Distribution Training
Training for Sepam Series
20/40/80
Control and monitoring
functions
Load shedding principle
 Motor load shedding is done to reduce the load on the electrical
system so as to keep the voltage within an acceptable range.
 Block diagram
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Load shedding implementation
 Setting the load shedding function
 The outputs for load shedding orders and inhibition of closing are
part of the switchgear control function.
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Restart principle
 With this function, motors can be automatically restarted after a
shutdown triggered by a voltage dip (load shedding).
 The restart function is to be associated with the load shedding
function. It allows staggered restarting of process motors as long
as the voltage dip that caused load shedding was brief.
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Restart implementation
 Setting the restart function
 The outputs for restart orders are part of the switchgear control
function
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Generator shutdown and tripping
 Generator shutdown and tripping involve:
 tripping of the circuit breaker connecting the machine to the
network (1)
 tripping of the excitation circuit breaker (2)
 shutdown of the prime mover (3).
 The combination of these three orders determines four types of
shutdown and tripping orders:
 total shutdown (1,2,3), often referred to as simultaneous
tripping
 generator tripping (1,2)
 generator separation (1)
 sequential tripping (1,2,3 sequentially).
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Generator shutdown and tripping
Genset shutdown
 The genset shutdown function, only present in generator
applications, is used for mechanical shutdown by shutting down
the prime mover and electrical shutdown by tripping the generator.
 Genset shutdown is a control logic function which may be used to
include or exclude protection function action in conjunction with
genset shutdown. This operation may be disabled.
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Generator shutdown and tripping
Genset shutdown
 Genset shutdown may be initiated in the following
ways:
 by a shutdown order
 by delayed protection functions
– protection functions unrelated to circuit
breaker position:12, 21B, 24, 27TN, 32Q,
40, 51V, 64REF, 67, 67N, 81L, 87M, 87T
– protection functions dependent on circuit
breaker position: 50/51, 50N/51N, 59N.
The time-delayed, non-memorized
outputs of these protection functions
trigger shutdown only if the circuit breaker
is open
 by logic equations
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Generator shutdown and tripping
Genset shutdown
 Participation in the function is to be set individually in the
protection function setting tabs of the SFT2841 software for each
protection unit that can take part in genset shutdown.
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Generator shutdown and tripping
De-excitation
 The de-excitation function, only present in generator
applications, is used to quickly cut off the power supply to an
internal fault when the generator is disconnected from the
network.
 De-excitation is a control logic function that may be used to
include or exclude protection function action. This operation may
be disabled.
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Generator shutdown and tripping
De-excitation
 A de-excitation order may be initiated in the
following ways:
 by a shutdown order
 by delayed protection functions
– protection functions unrelated to circuit
breaker position:12, 21B, 24, 27TN,
32Q, 40, 51V, 64REF, 67, 67N, 81L,
87M, 87T
– protection functions dependent on
circuit breaker position: 50/51,
50N/51N, 59N. The time-delayed, nonmemorized outputs of these protection
functions trigger de-excitation only if
the circuit breaker is open
 by logic equations
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Generator shutdown and tripping
De-excitation
 Participation in the function is to be set individually in the
protection function setting tabs of the SFT2841 software for each
protection unit that can take part in genset shutdown.
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Generator shutdown and tripping
 Add the outputs for the genset shutdown and de-excitation
functions to the control matrix.
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Automatic transfer
Objectives
 Automatic transfer is used to increase the continuity of electrical
power supply:


to automatically replace a failing power supply,
or to temporarily transfer the load to another branch of the power supply
system for maintenance operations.
 An operating configuration is chosen as of the design of the installation
according to technical and economic criteria.
 The chosen transfer principle calls for the installation of breaking
cubicles and voltage sensors.
 A ladder diagram is created to control the transfer of breaking devices
(circuit breakers, contactors or switches) and checking is done to help
with the manual return to the usual operating position.
 The coupling of power supplies (parallel-connected) is a technical
improvement which reduces disturbances for users at the time of the
return to normal operation. Generally speaking, the coupling operation,
when possible, only lasts for a short time.
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Automatic transfer
Description
 The Sepam series 80 substation, transformer, busbars and generator
applications contain preprogrammed logic schemes that cover the
majority of configurations found in MV or LV installations.
 1 out of 2 sources is closed:

There are 2 possible power supplies (one normal and one backup) on the same
busbars. Just one of them supplies the busbars. Transfer consists of switching
completely to the other source.
 2 out of 3 circuit breakers are closed:

2 power supplies are connected to 2 separate busbars, which may or may not be
coupled by a coupling circuit breaker.
Each source is capable of supplying on its own all of the loads of both busbars.
This is why there are some installations with just one power supply and coupling
closed and others with 2 power supplies and coupling open.
 An automatic load shedding system is sometimes associated with the «backup»
power supply.
 When there are 2 independent sources, a synchro-check device (ANSI 25 function)
is required to enable parallel connection (coupling of sources). This function is only
used for the return-to-normal operation.
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Automatic transfer:
«One out of two» transfer (no coupling breaker)
Operating position
Transfer
After transfer
!
NO
normally
open
circuit breaker
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NO
normally
open
circuit breaker
NO
normally
open
circuit breaker
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Automatic transfer:
«One out of two» transfer (no coupling breaker)
Operating position
Manual return
Return of source
with or without coupling
Coupling with or without ANSI 25
!
25
25
NO
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Automatic transfer:
«Two out of three» with coupling open
After transfer
Operating position
Transfer
!
NO
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NO
NO
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Automatic transfer:
«Two out of three» with coupling open
Operating position
Manual return
with or without coupling
Coupling with or without ANSI 25
Return of source
!
25
25
NO
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Automatic transfer:
«Two out of three» with coupling closed
After transfer
Operating position
Transfer
!
NO
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NO
NO
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Automatic transfer:
«Two out of three» with coupling closed
Operating position
Manual return
Return of source
with or without coupling
Coupling with or without ANSI 25
!
25
25
NO
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Automatic transfer
Implementation in SFT2841
First operation: activation of predefined control logic
Tr
Latching of close order
Stabilization of the difference
between the 2 sources
Acknowledgment of the
Type of transfer
“close enable (ANSI 25)” input
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Automatic transfer
Implementation in SFT2841
Description of
standard assignments
- compulsory ____
- optional -------
To record input and
output numbers
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Automatic transfer
Implementation in SFT2841
Second operation:
standard assignment
and activation of the use
of output relays
This input can be connected to one
of the outputs of the MCS025
synchro-check module
Third operation:
add, cancel or reassign inputs
according to the configuration, habits
and operating requirements.
Example:
- no coupling,
- manual control….
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Automatic transfer
Implementation in SFT2841
Fourth operation:
confirm and set the thresholds of the protection functions
used by the transfer function.
Example:
27-1 (20%Un) to activate transfer
59-1 (90%Un) to enable a correct return to normal voltage
No latching
No tripping of CB
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Automatic transfer
Implementation in SFT2841
N.B. No latching or tripping
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Automatic transfer
Implementation in SFT2841
N.B. No latching or tripping
Delete standard «overvoltage» messages
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Automatic transfer
Implementation in SFT2841
Fifth operation:
assign logic to outputs
for interconnection with
other cubicles and indications.
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Automatic transfer
Implementation in SFT2841
Sixth operation:
Delete the standard
«overvoltage» messages for 59 -1
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Automatic transfer
A few comments
 Installations are symmetrical, so ladder diagrams in Sepam units may
be identical,
 The selector designating the «NO» normally open circuit breaker is
used to create the usual operating configuration and therefore
differentiate the operation of automatic transfer ladder diagrams.
 Not all controls are compulsory.
 The inputs (compulsory or optional) have a default value in the ladder
diagrams. This must be taken into account since when they are
declared in Sepam, they become active in the ladder diagrams.
 Internal variables (for example: V-trans-on_flt, V_close_NO_ord...) are
available for «remote control» of transfer and the creation of partially or
totally specific ladder diagrams.
 The «equation editor» and «Logipam» tools provide this adaptation
flexibility.
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Capacitor bank switchgear control
Objective
 The control logic embedded in the Sepam C86 may be used to
protect and control a circuit breaker and 1 to 4 capacitor bank
switches.
 The capacitors banks may be star-connected or delta-connected.



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In the case of star-connection, Sepam provides short-circuit
protection of the link to the capacitor bank steps and monitors each
link between the 2 stars of each step (fault = unbalance current).
In the case of delta connection of each capacitor bank, the Sepam
C86 mainly protects against short-circuits (there is no need for a link
between capacitor banks).
Voltage and frequency monitoring, as well as adaptive thermal
overload protect the capacitors against the destructive effects of
overvoltage and harmonic frequencies (number 13).
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Capacitor bank switchgear control
Description
 Circuit breaker control is linked to capacitor bank control
 voluntary manual control triggers, first of all, the staggered
opening of capacitor bank step switches, followed by the
opening of the circuit breaker.
 When a fault occurs, the circuit breaker opens the circuit and
then orders the simultaneous opening of all the capacitor step
switches.
 Position matching is monitored for each breaking device.
 In «automatic control» mode, an external reactive-energy
regulator can control the use of the capacitor bank steps.
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Capacitor bank switchgear control
Implementation in SFT2841
First operation:
Set the number of capacitor steps
according to the installation,
the connection and capacitor step ratios*
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Capacitor bank switchgear control
Implementation in SFT2841
Second operation:
select circuit breaker control
and capacitor step control.
This is the capacitor
discharge time (given by
the manufacturer)
These times are used to stagger the
opening of the steps.
To adapt control* to different
breaking devices.
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Capacitor bank switchgear control
Implementation in SFT2841
The outputs dedicated to
capacitor bank control are
set up as «latched».
(i.e. not pulse)
Third operation:
assign the inputs and confirm the outputs.
e.g. 3 steps and manual or automatic
control possible by external reactive-energy
regulator.
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Capacitor bank switchgear control
Implementation in SFT2841
Fourth operation:
confirm and set the protection
functions.
Change the messages
when required.
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Capacitor bank switchgear control
Implementation in SFT2841
Fifth operation:
assign the outputs to control
logic and indication.
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Capacitor bank switchgear control
A few comments
 Internal variables are available for «remote
control» and the creation of partially or totally
specific ladder diagrams.
 The «equation editor» and «Logipam» tools
provide some adaptation flexibility.
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