WORLD WAR II Download

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WORLD WAR II
Aim: Explain the dictators that came to power in
Europe in the 1930s.
Do Now: Why do you think a dictator might be
able to gain power during a depression?
What were the results of the Treaty of Versailles?
RISE OF DICTATORS
● Dictator – absolute ruler
● Economic and political problems
● Great Depression
● Result from Treaty of Versailles
RISE OF DICTATORS
● Germany – Adolf Hitler
● Soviet Union – Josef Stalin
● Italy – Benito Mussolini
● Japan – Hideki Tojo
● Spain – Francisco Franco
FASCISM
● Preached an extreme form of patriotism
and nationalism that is often linked to
racism
● Persecute those who disagree
● Mussolini of Italy – Il Duce (Boss/Leader)
● Hitler of Germany – Fuhrer
● NAZI – National Socialist Worker’s Party
WORLD WAR II
Aim: How did Germany/Hitler cause World War
II?
Do Now: How was Hitler able to take control
over Germany?
Take out Dictators worksheet
ADOLF HITLER
● Failed artist – couldn’t get into art school
● German soldier in WWI
● Devastated with German loss
● Blamed politicians (Jews) and Marxists (Communists)
● Leads NAZI Party
● Swastika as symbol
● Superiority of “Aryan” (white) race
ADOLF HITLER
● 1923 – Beer Hall Putsch
● Hitler leads a “coup” – revolt – against government
● Fails and he is imprisoned
● Writes book – “Mein Kampf” – My Struggle
● Becomes famous
● Spoke to mass audiences about making Germany a
great nation again - propaganda
● Hitler becomes Chancellor (head of gov’t) in 1933
ADOLF HITLER
● “Reichstag fire” gives
Hitler total power
● all parties were
outlawed except the
Nazi party
● Announces himself
dictator
AN EVIL CONVERSATION
● Write a script for a possible conversation between one of these
groups
● Hitler and Mussolini (left)
Hitler and Stalin (right)
WORLD WAR II
Aim: How did Hitler plan to go about conquering
Europe?
Do Now: Take out homework.
What happened at the Munich Agreement?
GERMANY
● Betrays Treaty of Versailles
● Hitler builds up army
● Moves troops into Rhineland
● Rome-Berlin Axis – pact between Italy and
Germany
● Takes over
● Austria
France
MUNICH AGREEMENT
● Germany wants Sudetenland
● Europe on brink of war
● Britain Prime Minister – Neville Chamberlain
● Agreement between Hitler and Chamberlain
●
Germany gains Sudetenland
●
Hitler promises to stop seeking more territory
● Appeasement – give in to enemy to avoid conflict
WORLD WAR II
Aim: How was the U.S. gradually brought into
World War II?
Do Now: How did Hitler plan to conquer Europe?
WAR
● Soviet Union and Germany sign Non-aggression Pact
● Agree to not attack one another
● Hitler invades Poland – Sept. 1, 1939
● GB and France declare war
● Allied Powers vs. Axis Powers
● Axis – Germany, Italy, Japan
● Allies – France, Great Britain, China, Mexico, Canada,
Belgium, India, Poland
WAR
● Blitzkrieg – lightning war of attacking quickly
● Germany conquers Poland, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands,
Denmark, Norway
● Lebensraum – “living space” for German/Aryan race
● Natural right as superior race
● France – conquered in June 1940
WAR
● British – no surrender
● Battle of Britain
●
Luftwaffe (German Air Force) vs. Royal Air Force (GB)
● Hitler bombs London and GB
● RAF holds off Luftwaffe
● http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HJhIptKXs1M
WAR – OPERATION BARBAROSSA
● Hitler invades Soviet Union in 1941
●
Breaks pact between Stalin and Hitler
● Attack Leningrad, Stalingrad, and Moscow
●
Do not conquer these cities
● Hitler’s miscalculations
●
Doesn’t concentrate troops on
Moscow
●
Attacks through winter
●
●
Millions starve and freeze
Scorched earth policy
● Turning point – Germans
advance halted in the East
WORLD WAR II
Aim: How was the U.S. gradually brought into
World War II and how was life on the home
front?
Do Now: What was the Lend Lease Act?
Take out homework
USA
● Isolation and neutrality
● FDR vows to stay neutral
● Knows that could be pulled into war
● Prepares US
● Builds up navy
● Neutrality Act of 1939 – “cash and carry act” – warring nations can
buy US goods if they buy with cash and car the goods in their
own ships
● Selective Service and Training Act – peacetime draft of men
● 21 to 35 years old
U.S.A.
● FDR
● Breaks Washington’s precedent of two
terms - wins third term in 1940
● Prepare Americans mindset for possible war
● “arsenal for democracy” – help fight fascism
● Garden hose for neighbor if house on fire
● Lend Lease Act – lend/lease supplies to Allied nations
● US economy getting back on track
● Making more products
● More people working
JAPAN
● Seizing land in Asia
● Northern China
● Moving into Philippines (US territory)
● Need oil and rubber
● US response
●
Applied economic pressure – froze Japanese funds and stopped trading
● Japanese angered
PEARL HARBOR
● Pearl Harbor Hawaii – Dec. 7, 1941 – “a date that will live in infamy”
● Japanese planes attack
● Kill 2400 Americans
● US declares war
● Turning point – US help will turn the tide of the war
PEARL HARBOR WORK
● Open up Pearl Harbor website on eChalk
● Answer questions
● What was important about when the Japanese attacked?
● How did the US react to the attack?
● Click on Lt. Phillip Rasmussen and His P-36A
● Why did Rasmussen use an outdated airplane?
● What did his actions show about this man?
● How could have the Americans been better prepared for the
attack?
HOME FRONT
● Pearl Harbor unites the nation
● Mobilization – military and civilian preparation for
war
● Automakers now make trucks, jeeps, and tanks
● Goods being produced for war effort
WOMEN
● First time large number of women in army
● WACs – Women’s Army Corps
● Worked as nurses and secretaries
● Important roles for war effort
● Work in jobs previously held by men
● No longer just work in home
● “Rosie the Riveter”
MAKING SACRIFICES
● Men drafted into war
● Fear of receiving news of killed family member
● Rations – consumers buy limited amount of a
good
● Gasoline, meat, tires
AFRICAN AMERICANS
● Army is segregated
● 1 million African Americans in army
● Tuskegee Airmen – Fighter Group in Air Force
● Shot down 200 enemy planes
● Move to the northern cities
● Still experiencing discrimination/racism
WORLD WAR II
Aim: How did Japanese-Americans face
discrimination during World War II?
Do Now: How did women take on an important
role during the war?
JAPANESE AMERICANS
● Feared and hated by many Americans after Pearl Harbor
● Nisei – American citizens born in US
● Internment camps – 100,000 Japanese Americans relocated into
detention centers
●
Conditions were harsh
JAPANESE INTERNMENT CAMPS
● Let’s go back in time to January 1942. How do we feel about Japanese people living
in America after the attack on Pearl Harbor?
EQUALITY
ALL AMERICANS
VS
HATRED
FOR THE PEOPLES WHO
ATTACKED THE USA
FOR
JAPANESE INTERNMENT CAMPS
● Let’s go back in time to January 1942. How do we, as many Americans did, feel
about Japanese people living in America?
EQUALITY
HATRED
-ALL AMERICANS DESERVE FREEDOMS - THESE PEOPLE ATTACKED
GUARANTEED BY CONSTITUTION
AND KILLED THOUSANDS
-MOST OF THE JAPANESE HAVE BEEN -ALL JAPANESE HATE USA
LIVING HERE FOR GENERATIONS
-THEY ARE ON THE SIDE OF
-THEY DID NOT ATTACK US, THE
JAPAN, NOT THE USA
JAPANESE COUNTRY DID
DEBATE GIRLS VS BOYS
POSITIVES VS NEGATIVES OF A WOMAN PRESIDENT
YES – WOMAN PRESIDENT
NO – WOMAN PRESIDENT
● EQUALITY
● SEEN AS A MAN’S JOB
● NO DIFFERENCE
● OTHER COUNTRIES WILL
● DOESN’T MATTER WHETHER
MALE OR FEMALE
● DESERVE A POSITION OF
POWER
● WOULD BE BETTER LEADER
VIEW US AS WEAK
● EMOTIONS?
WORLD WAR II
Aim: How did the Allies plan to defeat the Axis
Powers?
Do Now: Define: Allies and Axis Powers.
WORLD WAR II
Aim: How did the Allies defeat Germany in World
War II?
Do Now: World War II Map worksheet
WAR IN AFRICA
● Allies plan – defeat Hitler then Japan
● Start attack in North Africa
●
Give American troops experience
● German General Erwin Rommel – “Desert Fox”
● 1942 – British defeat German at Battle of El Alamein
●
Prevent Germans from capturing Suez Canal
● Late 1942 – American forces land in N. Africa
●
Led by Gen. Dwight Eisenhower
● Drive Germans out by May 1943
MAP
WAR IN ITALY
● Attack from N. Africa
● Take over Sicily
● Gen Patton (US) and Gen Montgomery (GB)
● Allies advance
●
Mussolini overthrown then surrender (1944)
● Air war on Germany – day and night bombings
OPERATION OVERLORD
● Allied invasion of France – June 6, 1944 – D-Day
● Allied commander – Gen. Eisenhower
● Amphibious landing across English Channel
●
Invade beaches of Normandy, France
● Soldiers invade by ship and paratroopers
● Invasion successful
● Late August – France taken by Allies
http://www.army.mil/d-day/
● http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QzgKMDydr5Y
D-DAY
● 5,000 ships carry 130,000 soldiers
●
British, American, Canadian
● More than 10,000 killed
WORLD WAR II
Aim: How did the Allies defeat Germany in World
War II?
Do Now: What was the significance of D-Day?
YALTA CONFERENCE
● Early 1945 – Germany retreating
● Stalin, FDR, Churchill have meeting in Yalta
● Discuss and plan what Europe will look like after the war
● Stalin promises Soviet help against Japan
● International peacekeeping organization – UNITED NATIONS
VICTORY
● US/GB/Fr. Invade from west – Soviets invade from east
● Battle of the Bulge
●
Dec. 1944 – hard fought Allied victory
● 1945 – Allies right outside Berlin
●
Hitler commits suicide
● V-E Day – May 7, 1945 – Victory in Europe
HOLOCAUST
● We must learn so it never happens again
● Do NOT be a spectator
● Speak up and take action against evil
JEWS UNDER HITLER
● 1933 – Jewish rights restricted
●
Couldn’t vote, marry non-Jews, hold office, own businesses, practice
law/medicine
● Yellow stars – star of David – worn by Jews in public
● Krisallnacht – “night of broken glass”
●
Jewish temples and shops destroyed
●
1938
JEWS UNDER HITLER
● Concentration camps – prison camps to hold people for political
reasons
●
Auschwitz and Dachau
● Families hidden for protection (Anne Frank)
● Belongings taken
● Referred to as numbers (dehumanizing) – tattoos
● Fed a little bread and watery soup
THE FINAL SOLUTION
● Death camps – purpose to kill of all Jews
● Healthy – work as slaves
● Sick, old, disabled, mothers, children – murdered
●
Poison gas chambers and furnaces
HOLOCAUST
● The killing of 6 million Jews by the Nazis
●
Scapegoats – blame someone else for bad times
●
Nazis – belief in Aryan race. Wipe out “inferior” races
● Genocide – wiping out an entire group of people
● How could something like this happen?
● Must learn about it to ensure it never happens again
●
Must stand up to evil
●
Don’t be a spectator
NUREMBURG TRIALS
● Nazi leaders put on trial for war crimes
● Crimes against humanity
● 12 are executed
● People are responsible for their actions,
even in war time
WORLD WAR II
Aim: How was the war fought and won in the Pacific?
Do Now: How is the war in the Pacific going to be different
from the war in Europe?
Take out D-Day homework
WAR IN THE PACIFIC
WAR IN PACIFIC
● Japan expanding in Southeast Asia
● Attack American Philippines (1942)
● US and Filipino troops unite
●
Led by General Douglas MacArthur
● Forced to retreat to Bataan Peninsula
●
Macarthur: “I shall return”
● Allies surrender in Philippines
● Bataan Death March
●
20,000 Allies die on 60 mile march
WAR IN PACIFIC
● Bombing of Tokyo – James Doolittle
●
Lifts Allies spirits
● Island hopping – attacking and capturing key islands
● Battles take place in the air
●
Aircraft carriers carry fighter planes
● US victory
●
Battle of Midway
●
Battle of Guadalcanal
WAR IN PACIFIC
● Battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa
● Japanese soldiers – rarely surrender
● Fight to the death
● Kamikazes – suicide pilots
● By 1945 most of Jap. Navy and air force destroyed
● Still must conquer Japan
●
No surrender
ATOMIC BOMB
● Einstein (flees Germany) – warns FDR of Nazis trying to split atoms to
create bomb
● Manhattan Project – top-secret program to develop atomic bomb
●
Scientists – Oppenheimer and Fermi
● 1942 – first nuclear reactor – splitting of atoms
● 1945 – first atomic bomb testing in New Mexico successful
ATOMIC BOMB
● Invasion of Japan would cost between 400,000 and 1 million
soldiers
● President Truman decides to drop the bomb
● Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima – Aug. 6, 1945
●
No surrender after 3 days
● Second bomb dropped on Nagasaki – Aug. 9, 1945
●
Japan surrenders
● Over 100,000 people killed instantly
● Over 50,000 die later from effects of the bomb
●
Radiation sickness/cancer
THE ATOMIC BOMB
Aim: Was it wrong for the US to drop the Atomic Bomb on
Japan?
Do Now: Think about the Aim. Think about how you could
understand both sides of the argument. Make a decision on
your stance.
ATOMIC BOMB - DECISION
● Situation – You are the president of the United States. You are about
to invade Japan’s main islands. From experience at Okinawa and Iwo
Jima, you believe the Japanese will fight to the death and will be
willing to fight for years. An estimate of at least 400,000
Americans will die in an invasion. Now America has in its hands a
weapon equal to 20,000 tons of TNT. It worked in a test, but it may
not work when dropped out of a plane. Possibly you can have a
demonstration of the bomb’s power but if it doesn’t work, the
Japanese resistance will harden. You also wouldn’t mind portraying
this weapon to Stalin and the Soviets to make sure they stay in line.
However, the bomb could kill hundreds of thousands of innocent,
Japanese civilians. In the back of your mind, you remember what
happened at Pearl Harbor.
● What do you do?
●
Use the bomb or attack another way?
YES - Drop the Bomb
● Save American soldier lives
●
At least 400,000
NO - Don’t Drop the Bomb
● Killing civilians is not acceptable
●
Innocent Women and children/infants
● #1 job as president is to protect
● How would you feel as a Japanese
● Death is a part of war
● This kind of death is morally wrong –
American lives
●
Take extreme measures
● Conquer quickly
●
Invasion could take years
●
Bomb takes few days for surrender
● Revenge?
●
Remember Pearl Harbor and Bataan
Death March
● Warning to Soviet Union (Russia)
●
Make sure they stay in line
person – 100% wrong if done to USA
vaporize
● US lives are no more important than
Jap.
● Death in war should be as limited as
possible to soldiers
● Work out another way to win the war
● Revenge is wrong – two wrongs don’t
make a right
● Hypocritical
LEGACY OF WWII
● Women gain independence in USA
● Political/Economic/Physical destruction of
Europe
● Cities in ruins
● Only country to benefit – U.S.A.
● Marshall Plan – US gives $13 billion to help
nations of Europe get back on their feet
● Extreme loss of life
● Over 60 million deaths (civilian and military)
● United Nations – US joins along with 50 nations
LEGACY OF WWII
● World enters the atomic age
● Soviet Union (Russia) conquers Eastern Europe in
1945
● Lands under Stalin’s control
● He makes these Communist countries under U.S.S.R.
● Cold War – conflict between Soviet Union and
U.S.A.
● Never confronted on battlefield
● Threat of war lasts for decades