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Creating a New France
Radical Days
Revolts in Paris and the Provinces
• 80% of a peasants
income was spent on
The Great Fear
• A time of rumors that
spread fear among the
– Famine and fear caused
peasants to attack nobles
and their way of life
• Because of their attempts to
impose former medieval
taxes on them
– Attacks ended after the
peasants displayed their
anger for society
Paris In Arms
• Various groups competed for power
– The Moderates – led by Lafayette
• Organized the National Guard to defend Paris
against the king’s troops
– The Radicals
• Established the Paris Commune to get
neighborhoods to protest and create violence
– They also acted as the government of Paris
• They wanted to end the monarchy
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
• The National
Assembly gave up
privileges like:
Manorial dues
Hunting rights
Special legal status
Exemption from
• They also abolished
feudalism making
everyone equal
Declaration of the Rights of Man
• Based on the
Declaration of
– Said men were free &
– Had natural rights of
liberty, property, security
and freedom from
– Gave freedom of religion
– Based taxes on a
person’s ability to pay
Women March on Versailles
• A mob of women
marched to Versailles
– Bread
– Death to Marie Antoinette
• The crowd brought the
king and his wife back to
Paris and kept them
prisoners in their palace
for the next three years
• The National Assembly
came back to Paris with
the king
A Time of Reform
• Reorganizing the Church
– National Assembly voted to sell all church
land to pay off debts and to put the church
under state control
A Written Constitution
• Constitution of 1791 created a limited
monarchy in place of the absolute
monarch that already existed
• Created a Legislative Assembly to:
– Make laws
– Collect taxes
– Declare war & peace
• Would be elected by male taxpayers
The Fateful Flight
• Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI escaped
Paris in a carriage, but were caught when
they stopped in a small town
– They were declared traitors to the revolution
• This led to a more radical phase of the
revolution as other countries denounced it
because they feared the revolution would
spread to their countries
Sans-culottes & Jacobins
• Sans-culottes –
working class men
and women
– Wanted a republic and
a guarantee that their
wages would allow
them to survive
• Got support from the
Jacobins – a club of
lawyers and
Radical Days
• Downfall of the Monarchy
– Violence occurred because revolutionaries believed
the king was supporting other countries in the war
– The palace was invaded by people who killed all the
guards, but the king & his wife managed to escape to
the Legislative Assembly
– Next they attacked prisons where nobles and priests
were being held, killing them as well as common
The French Republic
• Radicals took control of the Assembly and
extended suffrage – the right to vote, to all
male citizens
• Replaced the Legislative Assembly with
the National Convention
• The monarchy was abolished and a
republic was established
Death to the King
• The Jacobins that
controlled the
– Seized all noble land
– Abolished titles of
• They convicted Louis
XVI and Marie
Antoinette and
beheaded them with
the guillotine
The Convention Under Siege
• Maximilian Robespierre became the
leader of the Committee of Public Safety
– Created to prevent counterrevolutionaries
from ending the revolution
– He invented the “Reign of Terror” which
established makeshift courts to kill
approximately 40,000 people in one year
• By the end of the “Reign of Terror,”
Robespierre lost his head too
Reaction and the Directory
• To end the “Terror” the Convention created
another constitution that set up a 5-man
Directory and a two-house legislature
– It proved useless in solving problems
– In 1799 many politicians turned to Napoleon
to solve France’s problems
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