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Cells
Basic Units of structure and
function of Life
The Cell
 1. The Cell Theory
 All organisms have cells
 Three Parts of the theory
1) All organisms are made of one or
more cells
2) The cell is the basic unit of all living
things
3) All cells come from existing cells
2. Eukaryotic Cells – Have a nucleus
3. Prokaryotic Cells – Do NOT have a Nucleus!
Does It Have A Nucleus Or Not?
4. Prokaryote- A single celled
organism that does not have a
nucleus. Example: Bacteria
5. Eukaryote- an organism that
has a nucleus enclosed by a
membrane. Example: Plants and
Animals, Fungi, Protists
PARTS OF A CELL
• 6. Cells are the
smallest living parts in
organisms
• Basic unit of structure
and function
7. CELL MEMBRANE
All cells have a cell membrane.
Thin layer of tissue that forms the
barrier between the cytoplasm & the
environment outside the cell. “the
skin”
CELL MEMBRANE
•Acts like a
gatekeeper
•Controls what
substances
come into and
out of a cell
•Protects the
cell
•Phospholipids
8. ORGANELLES
•Structures within the cytoplasm
•Each one has a specific job or jobs
•Most are surrounded by a membrane
NUCLEOLUS pg. 70
9. Nucleolus- small object
floating inside nucleus.
This is where ribosomes are
made.
10. NUCLEUS pg. 70
• An organelle that
contains the cell’s
DNA and that has
a role in processes
such as growth,
metabolism, and
reproduction.
• The BRAIN of the
Cell….The Control
Center….
CYTOPLASM
• 11. Gel-like material
inside the cell
membrane and outside
the nucleus.
• Contains Organelles
Unlike gelatin, the
cytoplasm is
constantly moving.
Jello represents the cytoplasm and the
fruit represents the organelles.
Cytoskeleton pg 70
•12. Cytoskeleton – A web of proteins
that makes the cell stable. It acts like
muscles and a skeleton for the cell.
This is what the cytoskeleton looks
like!!!!
13. MITOCHONDRIA pg. 72
Energy
Producers
ATP……
•Rod-shaped
structures
• Produce most of
the energy a cell
needs to carry out
its functions
•Turn GLUCOSE
into ENERGY!
Picture of Mitochondria
MITOCHONDRIA pg. 72
• Mitochondria are where cellular
respiration takes place.
• 14. Oxygen + Glucose
Carbon dioxide + Water and ENERGY
15. RIBOSOMES pg. 71
•Make proteins
•Smallest of all organelles
•All cells have ribosomes
•Like a protein factory
16. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
pg. 71
•Series of maze-like passageways
•Attaches to the nuclear membrane
•Smooth ER- (Does not have
Ribosomes) Makes lipids
•Rough ER(Has Ribosomes…Makes proteins)
16. cont. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
Internal delivery
system that
carries proteins
& other
materials from The ER is like a
one part of the system of
cell to another. conveyors moving
materials from one
place to another.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
17. GOLGI COMPLEX Pg. 73
•Looks like a flattened collection of
sacs & tubes
•Receives proteins & other newly
formed materials from the ER
GOLGI COMPLEX
•Packages
proteins &
releases them
into the cell and
outside the cell. •Cell’s mailroom
Golgi Complex
endoplasmic
reticulum
nucleus
protein
on its way!
DNA
RNA
vesicle
TO:
TO:
TO:
vesicle
ribosomes
TO:
finished
protein
protein
Golgi
apparatus
Making Proteins
18. LYSOSOMES
• Small round
structures
• Contain powerful
digestive enzymes
that break down
Acts as a wrecking food particles,
ball that breaks apart wastes, and cell
parts
wastes; cleaning
crew.
• Animal cells
Lysosomes
PLANT CELLS
•Have a few extra
organelles that
function somewhat
differently
19. Large Central Vacuole
•Large, round,
water-filled sac
•Most plant cells
have one large
central vacuole
•Stores food, water
and waste
•Like a Storage
Tank…..
Large Central Vacuole
20. Chloroplasts pg 72
• Capture energy
from the sunlight
and use it to
produce food for
the cell.
• Chlorophyll gives
plants their green
color.
Chloroplasts have
chlorophyll that soaks
up energy from the
sun and uses it to
produce
food…photosynthesis.
Chloroplast Pictures
21. Chloroplasts pg 72
• Photosynthesis takes place in
chloroplasts.
light Energy
• Carbon dioxide + Water
Oxygen + Glucose
22. CELL WALL
Rigid layer of
material called
cellulose that
surrounds the cells
of plants.
A rigid structure
outside the cell
membrane that
supports & protects
the cell.
Cell Walls
23. BACTERIAL CELLS
•Usually smaller
than plant &
animal cells
•Have a cell wall,
cell membrane,
ribosomes,
cytoplasm, &
genetic
material/DNA.
•Does NOT contain
a nucleus so it is a
PROKARYOTE
Prokaryotic Cell – Does NOT have a Nucleus!
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