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Chapter 7: The World of Islam
Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. The ruling member of a Bedouin tribe was called the
a. majlis.
b. jihad.
c. sheikh.
d. Ka'aba.
e. imam.
2. The Ka'aba
a. was a group of sacred stones revered by the Bedouin tribes, each of which possessed one.
b. was a large black rock that was housed in a central shrine in Mecca, and worshipped by all
pre-Islamic Arabs.
c. represented the monotheism of the Bedouins.
d. was Allah's representative Arab priesthood.
e. was the male initiation ceremony when one formally became an adult.
3. Muhammad began the solitary meditations during which he received the revelations underlying Islam because
a. a dispute with his wife.
b. his desire to expand his knowledge of the message of Allah.
c. the difficulties created in his mind by the conflict between Bedouin morality and the
acquisitiveness created by the commercialism of Mecca.
d. the call of the angel Gabriel.
e. his desire to convert the people of Mecca to Islam.
4. The Koran
a. is the book containing the holy scriptures of Islam.
b. contained the guidelines by which a Muslim was to live.
c. was derived from the revelations of Muhammad.
d. means, literally, "recitation."
e. all of the above
5. The official calendar of Islam begins
a. in 622.
b. when Muhammad and his closest supporters left Mecca and went to Yathrib.
c. with the occurrence of the Hijrah.
d. both a and b
e. a, b and c
6. The jihad was
a. the formal name of the Arab Grand Council.
b. a form of political exploitation strongly denounced by Muhammad.
c. the early term used to describe the Prime Force.
d. a practice which grew out of the Bedouin practice of conducting tribal raids.
e. a large gray rock located in Yathrib.
7. Muhammad and his associates went to Medina
a. because they were promised safe haven by the oracle there.
b. to establish a warehouse to provide a solid financial base for their religious activities.
c. to convert the Jewish population of the city to Islam.
d. both a and b
e. both b and c
Chapter 7: The World of Islam
8. Allah
a. was moved to Yathrib by Muhammad in 650.
b. had no significance until the Muslims made it a chapter in the Koran.
c. was destroyed, by order of AbuBakr.
d. was made an Islamic sacred shrine by Muhammad.
e. was the name of the supreme god of the Arabs before the rise of Islam.
9. Islam is
a. polytheistic.
b. monotheistic.
c. polyandrous.
d. divinistic.
e. both b and c
10. According to Islamic belief
a. Muhammad created the concept of Allah.
b. Allah sent his final message through Muhammad because the ones he sent through
previous prophets had been unsuccessful.
c. the teachings of Jesus and Moses are incorrect and immoral.
d. Allah ordained that Muhammad was a subordinate God.
e. all of the above
11. In addition to being Islam's sacred book, the Koran
a. is composed, in part, of the Christian New Testament.
b. is a collection of 114 chapters that provide the ethical foundation for life.
c. provides a combined, systematized body of legal tenets and theories of political
d. both b and c
e. none of the above
12. Which of the following is not one of the "five pillars" of Islam?
a. Belief in Allah and Muhammad as his Prophet.
b. Observation of the holy month of Ramadan with fasting from dawn to sunset.
c. Standard prayer once a day and public prayer at noon on Sundays.
d. Giving alms to the poor and unfortunate.
e. Praying five times daily and once, publicly, on Fridays.
13. The Hadith and Shari'ah
a. were adopted, respictively, from Jewish and Christian writings.
b. were the "Pillars of Islam."
c. were, respectively, a collection of Muhammad's sayings and a law code.
d. were, respectively, a law code and a marriage manual for Muslims.
e. both b and d
14. The son-in-law and cousin of Muhammad who was murdered after he became caliph was
a. Hashemuti
b. Ali
c. Khadija
d. Al Sadaam
e. Ali Mesharof
Chapter 7: The World of Islam
____ 15. In regard to acceptable behavior for a Muslim, it can be said that
a. all men were permitted to have no more than four wives.
b. extramarital sexual activities were permitted.
c. rules concerning sexual behavior were quite liberal.
d. the consumption of pork and alcohol were permitted in limited quantities.
e. both b and d
____ 16. The theoretical purpose of the jihad was to
a. maintain peak military readiness.
b. wage holy war against all other Muslims on the Arabian peninsula.
c. broaden Muslim hegemony throughout Africa and Europe.
d. strive in the way of the Lord.
e. none of the above
____ 17. Which of the following empires experienced significant defeats at the hands of the seventh-century Arab
a. Hellenistic
b. Byzantine
c. Mauryan
d. both b and c
e. a, b and c
____ 18. All of the following were true about the spread of Arab control except
a. its voluntary and egalitarian features proved quite attractive to many people.
b. if an individual chose not to become a Muslim, he still had to participate in mandatory
military service.
c. as a result of the caliphate being won by the Syrian governor, the Islamic capital was
located in Damascus for a time.
d. Egypt was an early Arab conquest.
e. both a and b
____ 19. The term and position of caliph
a. is equivalent to that of a shaman in New Kingdom Egypt.
b. had no political aspect, as it was a priestly office.
c. was adopted from Byzantine Christianity.
d. referred to the individual who was the temporal successor of Muhammad and who also
was generally considered to be an imam.
e. both b and c
____ 20. Among possible reasons for Arabic expansion accepted by historians is
a. acceptance of the militaristic culture of the Roman Empire by the population of northern
Arabia during the fifth century.
b. the impact of the rigorous military training systems brought to Arabia by high-priced
Chinese army officers.
c. a prolonged drought on the Arabian peninsula.
d. a natural interest in battle among Arabian men and, ironically, unmarried woman.
e. both b and c
____ 21. Muhammad was
a. a Bedouin sheikh until his "arranged" marriage to a wealthy woman, whom he first met at
their wedding.
b. the son, ironically, of a Christian father and a Jewish mother.
c. not well accepted for years after he announced his religious revelations.
d. a caravan manager before he married his wealthy employer.
e. both c and d
Chapter 7: The World of Islam
____ 22. Muhammad's teachings
a. stressed that Islam was not just a religion but also a way of life.
b. required all Muslims to follow the Six Surahs and the "Five Pillars."
c. accepted polygyny, but permitted men to take only four wives.
d. both a and c
e. both b and c
____ 23. Under the Umayyad Dynasty
a. Ethiopia became an Islamic state.
b. the Islamic Arab Empire expanded enormously.
c. Iraqi Shi'ite and Sunnite forces became united.
d. internal authority was strengthened by the propriety of the caliphs' behavior.
e. none of the above
____ 24. Under the Abbasid Dynasty
a. Baghdad became the Islamic capital and non-Arab Muslims became more directly
involved in the life of the empire.
b. Persian influence became stronger and the Muslim Empire oversaw a vast region that
produced great economic prosperity.
c. internal decay, over time, caused Islamic division.
d. both b and c
e. a, b and c
____ 25. The caliphate that is often described as the Abbasid "Golden Age" was the reign of
a. Muhammad Ali.
b. Harun al-Rashid.
c. Abu Bakr.
d. Kabia al-Kahn.
e. Kadija al-Farabi.
____ 26. The Shi'ite capital at Cairo was established under the dynasty of the
a. Umayyads.
b. Abbasids.
c. Fatimids.
d. Seljuk Turks.
e. Golden Horde.
____ 27. The Seljuk Turks
a. provoked the Byzantine request for European aid that led to the Crusades.
b. brought a temporary halt to the conflict between the Sunnites and the Shi'ites.
c. employed a rigidity in Koranic interpretation that hampered Muslim adjustment to social
d. both b and c
e. a, b and c
____ 28. The vizier of the last Fatimid caliph, and the self-proclaimed sultan of Egypt and Syria, was
a. Abu-Benzi.
b. Saladin.
c. Alexius I.
d. Harun al-Rashid.
e. Muhammad Ali.
Chapter 7: The World of Islam
____ 29. As a result of the Crusades,
a. large civilian populations were killed by the Christians.
b. the possibility of Arab unity was enhanced.
c. the way was cleared for the Mongols to sweep into the Middle East.
d. Muslims adopted the more merciful Crusader rules of war.
e. both a and b
____ 30. The Crusades
a. were due, in part, to power shifts stemming from the weakening of the Byzantine Empire
after the rise of the Seljuk Turks.
b. finally determined that Christian forces would dominate the Mediterranean Sea.
c. forced Saladin to reduce his territorial claims and, finally, to accept Christianity, in order
to stay in power.
d. were a period when the behavior of Christian armies was much less brutal than that of
Muslim forces.
e. both a and d
____ 31. Which of the following is not a true statement about the Mongols?
a. They caused great havoc and destruction throughout the Middle East.
b. Their westward advance continued on to absorb the Cordova caliphate in Spain.
c. Over time, their upper class population became Muslim.
d. By the fourteenth century, their empire began to fragment.
e. They often engaged in acts of mass brutality.
____ 32. The Turkish slave-soldiers who overthrew the regime established by Saladinin Egypt were the
a. Manchus.
b. Seljuk Turks.
c. Ottoman Turks.
d. Mamluks.
e. Mongols.
____ 33. The Mongols
a. initially came from the Congo Basin in central Africa.
b. introduced the meaning of ornate rugs to Persia and Egypt, from where it spread across the
Islamic world.
c. adapted quickly to life in the Middle East, as they were already Muslims and greatly
interested in trade and urban development.
d. were unable to capture Cairo, due to the effective resistance of the Mamluks.
e. captured Constantinople two times, but left shortly afterward in order not to destroy the
city's profitable trading system.
____ 34. During the Abbasid Dynasty
a. the Umayyad leaders were slaughtered, to the last individual, during the "Ocean of Blood"
era between 1100 and 1150.
b. a "Persian influence," reflected in the custom of having the caliph hidden from diwan
members by a screen, developed.
c. Ottoman Turks were brought in and used either as peasant farmers or Sunnite priests.
d. caliphs became much more political and authoritarian.
e. both b and d
Chapter 7: The World of Islam
____ 35. In general terms, it can be said that Islamic society
a. was usually extremely intolerant toward Christians and Jews.
b. contained very rigid divisions between Church and State.
c. relied heavily on religious doctrine to determine proper behavior in the areas of politics,
economics, law, and ethics.
d. was more violent than its contemporaries.
e. all of the above
____ 36. Which of the following is an accurate statement about the Arab Empire?
a. It was strongly united under the tight control of the caliph in Baghdad.
b. It created an era of great economic success for the Middle East region.
c. It contained fewer urban centers than any other regime of its era.
d. Limited trade and Islamic principles caused it to have a very unusual society in which
every Muslim received the same income.
e. both a and d
____ 37. During the Umayyad and Abbasid eras, the Middle East
a. experienced the worst economic conditions the area has ever known.
b. major trading cities included Baghdad, Cairo, Basra, Damascus and Marrakech.
c. the majority of the population generally lived on boiled mullet or peas while the upper
classes had meats, vegetables, fish and varied fruits.
d. a minimum housing standard of four clean rooms with at least six window spaces was
rigorously enforced by the government.
e. both b and c
____ 38. Manifestations of the Islamic principle of equality were seen in
a. governmental hostility to all merchants.
b. the Muslim policy regarding reincarnation.
c. the treatment of women in the Muslim society.
d. the uniformity of housing across the Muslim social strata.
e. none of the above
____ 39. A primary contribution of Arab scholarship was the
a. creation of original contributions in the areas of astrophysics and geology.
b. preservation and dissemination of the vast scientific and philosophical knowledge of the
ancient civilizations.
c. establishment of the university system of study.
d. both b and c
e. a, b and c
____ 40. A ninth-century Iranian mathematician created
a. chaos theory.
b. algebra.
c. calculus.
d. geometry.
e. trigonometry.
____ 41. Which of the following was not an achievement of Muslim science?
a. the development of the Upanishads
b. astronomical studies in Baghdad
c. knowledge of the nature of contagion and contamination
d. the development of medicine as a separate field of scientific study
e. none of the above
Chapter 7: The World of Islam
____ 42. All of the following are true statements about Arab and Persian literature except
a. pre-Islamic literature was originally in the form of oral tales of Bedouin life.
b. Persian achievements were greatest in the area of poetry.
c. the Koran was looked upon as dogma that was separate from literary expression.
d. both a and d
e. none of the above
____ 43. The poet who wrote the Rubaiyat and The Tales from 1001 Nights was
a. al-Mutanabbi.
b. Omar Khayyam.
c. Rudaki.
d. Sadi.
e. Tarafah.
____ 44. The poetry of the author of the Rubaiyat
a. was composed and multiply revised before being read.
b. was highly complicated and ephemeral.
c. reflected a staunch belief in the hereafter.
d. attracts little attention in today's accepting and ornately-oriented society.
e. none of the above
____ 45. Who is considered to be the "Persian Shakespeare"?
a. al-Farabi.
b. al-Mutanabbi.
c. Omar Khayyam.
d. Rudaki.
e. Sadi.
____ 46. Respectively, and in the following sequence, the writings of Rumi, al-Mas'udi, and Ibn Khaldun
a. reflected the captivating spell of Sufism, provided most of what we know about the height
of Abbasid rule, and began the search for an historical philosophy.
b. provided most of what we know about the height of Abbasid rule, reflected the captivating
spell of Sufism, and began the search for a philosophy of history.
c. began the search for an historical philosophy, provided most of what we know about the
height of Abbasid rule, and reflected the captivating spell of Sufism.
d. began the search for an historical philosophy, reflected the captivating spell of Sufism, and
provided most of what we know about the height of Abbasid rule.
e. none of the above
____ 47. Islamic painting
a. is entirely Arabic in origin and technique.
b. after 700 was notable for its flattering visual depictions of Muhammad.
c. was dramatically changed by the adoptian of full brush Chinese techniques in the
thirteenth century.
d. is, actually, an incorrect team, as the Hadith declared visual artistry to be immoral.
e. both b and c
____ 48. The Dome of the Rock is located in
a. Baghdad.
b. Mecca.
c. Jerusalem.
d. Medina.
e. Cairo.
Chapter 7: The World of Islam
____ 49. In the Islamic mosque, the decorated niche in the kibla that faced Mecca and symbolized God was termed the
a. mithras.
b. ajonhi
c. mihrab.
d. muezzin.
e. mimbar.
____ 50. The fairy-tale castle perched high above the city of Granada was the
a. Louvre.
b. Córdoba Mosque.
c. palace of Ukhaidir.
d. Alhambra.
e. none of the above
____ 51. Which of the following is not a true statement about Islamic art?
a. The arabesque patterns found on woven Islamic carpets are quite sparse, and leave many
areas without any decoration at all.
b. The likeness of Muhammad is never seen in any Islamic art forms.
c. Non-religious Islamic art did contain many figures of both people and animals.
d. The Islamic prohibition of deity re-incarnation through art is found in the Hadith.
e. all of the above
____ 52. The first direct Middle Eastern contact with East Asian art came with the establishment of the thirteenth
century Mongol Dynasty at
a. Tabriz.
b. Ardebil.
c. Shemakha.
d. Tiflis.
e. Samarkand.
____ 53. It can be said that the Arab Empire
a. was unusually tolerant, for the time, of Christian and Jewish believers.
b. created positive and negative results throughout the regions it conquered.
c. brought a legal code and a written language to peoples that had never had them.
d. improved the lives of millions by rejuvenating world trade.
e. all of the above
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