... Church beliefs cast
into doubt, Copernicus
& Galileo challenged
... English Romanticism, and Indian spirituality/Hinduism.
● Knowledge is not based on experience or dogma but comes from within.
● The inner essence of the individual is the root of all meaningful knowledge.
● Organized religion and institutions corrupt mankind. (Similar to Rousseau’s
caustic critique ...
Belief, Truth, Knowledge notes
... • You cannot know something unless you truly believe it.
• Belief alone isn’t ___________________ for knowledge - you can’t believe something
that is false either.
Philosophical Battles Empiricism Rationalism
... Locke says experience can provide us with data to show what is morally right and
wrong, but does it seem that way to you?
3. Verifying Empiricism: Locke (an empiricist) says that our experiences tell us
about the nature of reality, but how can we ever check our experience with what
reality really is ...
Belief, Truth, & Knowledge
... Back to: Belief, Knowledge and Truth
• We believe that humans have the ability to form
their conscience according to moral principles of
right and wrong, which will then lead them to
Philosophical axioms of
... • The (simplistic) model developed in class is designed to contrast
the mainstream Western tradition with the presentation of most
Chinese approaches in this course. It entails 5 “axioms” that
grow out of the Greek commitment to philosophy as a quest for
knowledge based on Reason.
What is “Reason?”
Greek Philosophy - HCC Learning Web
... • Protagoras – Sophist who taught reasoning
to wealthy families
- “Man is the measure of all things.”
- people see themselves as the standard of
beauty, or judge other things in relation to
- “sophists” = skilled debaters can defeat
rational arguments – PLATO DISAGREED,
SAYING THERE IS ...
Rationalism - George Belic Philosophy
... Empiricism: all knowledge about the world derives from sense perceptions only
Realism (Locke): problem with objects as things-in-themselves and primary qualities
... Sophists: They were people who used
rhetoric to answer questions of nature and
reality. They especially questioned ideas of
good and evil.
1 Empiricism, Rationalism, and Plato`s Innatism Intro to Philosophy
... the fact that we have this concept of ideal equalness is witness to our knowledge of the form
“Equalness,” against which we compare all apparent equalities in sense experience. And since we
know it, it must exist, though not in the imperfect, changing, and impermanent world of sense
objects, but in ...
Some basic terminology
... some point, we may want to gives reasons, justifications, for these beliefs. Empiricists say that
justification of a belief must always end in some kind of appeal to sense experience. (For
example, “I know that P is true because I saw Q.”) Rationalists deny this, and say that, at least
sometimes (ma ...
... the arguments that philosophers
consider,examine whether it is reasonable to
suppose there is such a being.
SoccioPP_ch01 - Philosophy 1510 All Sections
... The history of Western philosophy contains
mostly men, leading to the charge that it is a
study of “dead white males”.
However, not only were there women in the
history of philosophy whose work went
unacknowledged, but many more women
are joining the ranks of professional
What is Philosophy?
... Am I a puppet of destiny or do I have my
own free will?
Does the world presuppose a creator?
How do I know if my opinions are
objective or just subjective?
TRANSCENDENTALISM “Transcend” to a higher spiritual
... become a transparent eye-ball; I am nothing; I see all; the
currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part
or particle of God. . . . Nothing divine dies. All good is eternally
reproductive. The beauty of nature reforms itself in the mind,
and not for barren contemplation, but for ne ...
Quiz1 - Ryerson University
... The philosopher Antoine Arnauld argued that:
Minds are just another kind of material substance.
We can know things only on the basis of sensory experience.
Descartes’ attempt to validate clear and distinct ideas was circular.
None of the above.
... because people usually think a person can know the good
and still fail to do it. That is, people usually think that arete
is more than a matter of knowing; it is, people think, also a
matter of willing. Christians, for example, think of sin as a
matter of knowing what one should do and not doing it. ...
Lesson Plan: Descarte`s Rationalism
... paper and compare their ideas. Then ask the question ‘How can we know what is in
the bag without opening it up?’
Introduce rationalism: a school of thought that claims that truth and knowledge
are based on reason. Sense observations are not reliable because they change with
people’s perceptions. Wha ...
... to rationalism. Influenced by romanticism,
Platonism, and Kantian philosophy, it taught that
divinity pervades all nature and humanity, and its
members held progressive views on feminism and
... they state them, and accompanied by what they
offer as refutations. He must be able to hear them
from persons who actually believe them...he must
know them in their most plausible and persuasive
form.” (J.S. Mill, On Liberty)
In epistemology, rationalism is the view that ""regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge"" or ""any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification"". More formally, rationalism is defined as a methodology or a theory ""in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive"". Rationalists believe reality has an intrinsically logical structure. Because of this, rationalists argue that certain truths exist and that the intellect can directly grasp these truths. That is to say, rationalists assert that certain rational principles exist in logic, mathematics, ethics, and metaphysics that are so fundamentally true that denying them causes one to fall into contradiction. Rationalists have such a high confidence in reason that empirical proof and physical evidence are unnecessary to ascertain truth – in other words, ""there are significant ways in which our concepts and knowledge are gained independently of sense experience"". Because of this belief, empiricism is one of rationalism's greatest rivals.Different degrees of emphasis on this method or theory lead to a range of rationalist standpoints, from the moderate position ""that reason has precedence over other ways of acquiring knowledge"" to the more extreme position that reason is ""the unique path to knowledge"". Given a pre-modern understanding of reason, rationalism is identical to philosophy, the Socratic life of inquiry, or the zetetic (skeptical) clear interpretation of authority (open to the underlying or essential cause of things as they appear to our sense of certainty). In recent decades, Leo Strauss sought to revive ""Classical Political Rationalism"" as a discipline that understands the task of reasoning, not as foundational, but as maieutic. Rationalism should not be confused with rationality, nor with rationalization.In politics, Rationalism, since the Enlightenment, historically emphasized a ""politics of reason"" centered upon rational choice, utilitarianism, secularism, and irreligion – the latter aspect's antitheism later ameliorated by utilitarian adoption of pluralistic rationalist methods practicable regardless of religious or irreligious ideology.In this regard, the philosopher John Cottingham noted how rationalism, a methodology, became socially conflated with atheism, a worldview: In the past, particularly in the 17th and 18th centuries, the term 'rationalist' was often used to refer to free thinkers of an anti-clerical and anti-religious outlook, and for a time the word acquired a distinctly pejorative force (thus in 1670 Sanderson spoke disparagingly of 'a mere rationalist, that is to say in plain English an atheist of the late edition...'). The use of the label 'rationalist' to characterize a world outlook which has no place for the supernatural is becoming less popular today; terms like 'humanist' or 'materialist' seem largely to have taken its place. But the old usage still survives.