Survey

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

General topology wikipedia , lookup

Grothendieck topology wikipedia , lookup

Transcript
regular open set∗
CWoo†
2013-03-21 18:47:04
Let X be a topological space. A subset A of X is called a regular open set
if A is equal to the interior of the closure of itself:
A = int(A).
Clearly, every regular open set is open, and every clopen set is regular open.
Examples. Let R be the real line with the usual topology (generated by
open intervals).
• (a, b) is regular open whenever −∞ < a ≤ b < ∞.
• (a, b) ∪ (b, c) is not regular open for −∞ < a ≤ b ≤ c < ∞ and a 6= c. The
interior of the closure of (a, b) ∪ (b, c) is (a, c).
If we examine the structure of int(A) a little more closely, we see that if we
define
A⊥ := X − A,
then
A⊥⊥ = int(A).
So an alternative definition of a regular open set is an open set A such that
A⊥⊥ = A.
Remarks.
• For any A ⊆ X, A⊥ is always open.
• ∅⊥ = X and X ⊥ = ∅.
• A ∩ A⊥ = ∅ and A ∪ A⊥ is dense in X.
• A⊥ ∪ B ⊥ ⊆ (A ∩ B)⊥ and A⊥ ∩ B ⊥ = (A ∪ B)⊥ .
• It can be shown that if A is open, then A⊥ is regular open. As a result,
following from the first property, int(A), being A⊥⊥ , is regular open for
any subset A of X.
∗ hRegularOpenSeti
created: h2013-03-21i by: hCWooi version: h36788i Privacy setting:
h1i hDefinitioni h06E99i
† This text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License 3.0.
You can reuse this document or portions thereof only if you do so under terms that are
1
• In addition, if both A and B are regular open, then A ∩ B is regular open.
• It is not true, however, that the union of two regular open sets is regular
open, as illustrated by the second example above.
• It can also be shown that the set of all regular open sets of a topological
space X forms a Boolean algebra under the following set of operations:
1. 1 = X and 0 = ∅,
2. a ∧ b = a ∩ b,
3. a ∨ b = (a ∪ b)⊥⊥ , and
4. a0 = a⊥ .
This is an example of a Boolean algebra coming from a collection of subsets of a set that is not formed by the standard set operations union ∪,
intersection ∩, and complementation 0 .
The definition of a regular open set can be dualized. A closed set A in a
topological space is called a regular closed set if A = int(A).
References
 P. Halmos (1970). Lectures on Boolean Algebras, Springer.
 S. Willard (1970). General Topology, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
2