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HISTORICALANALYSIS—Comparison:France,Spain,Englandascolonizers
Fromthe2015RevisedFramework:
Historicalthinkinginvolvestheabilitytoidentify,compare,andevaluatemultipleperspectivesonagivenhistoricaleventinordertodrawconclusions
aboutthatevent.Italsoinvolvestheabilitytodescribe,compare,andevaluatemultiplehistoricaldevelopmentswithinonesociety,oneormore
developmentsacrossorbetweendifferentsocieties,andinvariouschronologicalandgeographicalcontexts.
Fromthe2015RevisedRubricfortheLongEssay:
DescribessimilaritiesANDdifferencesamonghistoricalindividuals,events,developments,orprocessesandexplainsthereasonsforsimilaritiesAND
differencesamonghistoricalindividuals,events,developments,orprocesses.--OR,DEPENDINGONTHEPROMPT--Evaluatestherelative
significanceofhistoricalindividuals,events,developments,orprocesses.(2of6possiblepoints)
HistoricalThemeandThematicLearningObjectivesforActivityFocus:
AmericaintheWorld-ThisthemefocusesontheinteractionsbetweennationsthataffectedNorthAmericanhistoryinthecolonialperiod,andon
theinfluenceoftheUnitedStatesonworldaffairs.
CorrespondingObjectives:
WOR-1.0:Explainhowculturalinteraction,cooperation,competition,andconflictbetweenempires,nations,andpeopleshaveinfluencedpolitical,
economic,andsocialdevelopmentsinNorthAmerica.
WOR-2.0:AnalyzethereasonsforandresultsofU.S.diplomatic,economic,andmilitaryinitiativesinNorthAmericaandoverseas.
BriefSummary/Review:
THEHISTORYOFCOLONIALNORTHAMERICAcentersprimarilyonthestruggleofEngland,France,andSpaintogaincontrolofthecontinent.Settlers
crossedtheAtlanticfordifferentreasons,andtheirgovernmentstookdifferentapproachestotheircolonizingefforts.Thesedifferencescreatedboth
advantagesanddisadvantagesthatprofoundlyaffectedtheNewWorld’sfate.FranceandSpain,forinstance,weregovernedbyautocraticsovereignswhose
rulewasabsolute;theircolonistswenttoAmericaasservantsoftheCrown.TheEnglishcolonists,ontheotherhand,enjoyedfarmorefreedomandwereable
togovernthemselvesaslongastheyfollowedEnglishlawandwereloyaltotheking.Inaddition,unlikeFranceandSpain,Englandencouragedimmigrationfrom
othernations,thusboostingitscolonialpopulation.By1763theEnglishhadestablisheddominanceinNorthAmerica,havingdefeatedFranceandSpaininthe
FrenchandIndianWar.However,thoseregionsthathadbeencolonizedbytheFrenchorSpanishwouldretainnationalcharacteristicsthatlingertothisday.
OnaNorthAmericancontinentcontrolledbyAmericanIndians,contactamongthepeoplesofEurope,theAmericas,andWestAfricacreatedanewworld.
EuropeanoverseasexpansionresultedintheColumbianExchange,aseriesofinteractionsandadaptationsamongsocietiesacrosstheAtlantic.Thearrivalof
EuropeansintheWesternHemisphereinthe15thand16thcenturiestriggeredextensivedemographicandsocialchangesonbothsidesoftheAtlantic.Spanish
andPortugueseexplorationandconquestoftheAmericasledtowidespreaddeadlyepidemics,theemergenceofraciallymixedpopulations,andacaste
systemdefinedbyanintermixtureamongSpanishsettlers,Africans,andNativeAmericans.SpanishandPortuguesetradersreachedWestAfricaand
partneredwithsomeAfricangroupstoexploitlocalresourcesandrecruitslavelaborfortheAmericas.Theintroductionofnewcropsandlivestockbythe
Spanishhadfar-reachingeffectsonnativesettlementpatterns,aswellasoneconomic,social,andpoliticaldevelopmentintheWesternHemisphere.Inthe
economiesoftheSpanishcolonies,Indianlabor,usedintheencomiendasystemtosupportplantation-basedagricultureandextractpreciousmetalsandother
resources,wasgraduallyreplacedbyAfricanslavery.
EuropeanexpansionintotheWesternHemispherecausedintensesocial/religious,political,andeconomiccompetitioninEuropeandthepromotionof
empirebuilding.Europeanexplorationandconquestwerefueledbyadesirefornewsourcesofwealth,increasedpowerandstatus,andconvertsto
Christianity.NewcropsfromtheAmericasstimulatedEuropeanpopulationgrowth,whilenewsourcesofmineralwealthfacilitatedtheEuropeanshiftfrom
feudalismtocapitalism.Improvementsintechnologyandmoreorganizedmethodsforconductinginternationaltradehelpeddrivechangestoeconomiesin
EuropeandtheAmericas.
English
Mostcoloniesestablishedbyroyalcharter.
EarliestsettlementswereinVirginiaand
Massachusettsbutsoonspreadallalongthe
Atlanticcoast,fromMainetoGeorgia,andinto
thecontinent’sinteriorasfarastheMississippi
River
Colonistswererecruitedfromamongmiddleclassfarmers,artisans,andtradesmen.
Indenturedservants,specialistsincertainareas
(i.e.,sawmillworkers,lumbermen),and
convictedcriminalswerealsobroughtover.
Immigrantsfromothercountrieswere
welcomed.
DistancefromEnglandandafrugalParliament
allowedcoloniststosetuplocalgovernments
andrepresentativeassembliesandtotax
themselves,aslongastheydidnottakeuparms
againsttheCrown
Largelynon-Catholics.Althoughsometolerance
waspracticedinmostcolonies,thePuritansin
Massachusettsestablishedanautocraticand
restrictivereligiousleadership.Pennsylvania
mandatedcompletetolerance.
Rapidgrowthduetoliberalimmigrationpolicies.
By1627Virginiahadapproximately1,000
settlers.By1754totalpopulationintheEnglish
colonieshadgrownto1.5million;thisincluded
largeproportionsofGermanandFrench.
French
Spanish
Firstcoloniesweretradingpostsin
Crown-sponsoredconquestsgainedrichesforSpainand
Newfoundland;othersfollowedinwakeof
expandeditsempire.Mostofthesouthernand
explorationoftheSt.Lawrencevalley,partsof
southwesternregionsclaimed,aswellassectionsofthe
Canada,andtheMississippiRiver.Settlements
Californiacoast.SettlementsincludeSt.Augustine,
includeQuebec(1608)andMontreal(1642).
Florida(1565);SantaFe,NewMexico(1610);and
Louisianasettledinthelate1600s.
numerouscitiesinTexasandCalifornia.
Initiallyfurtraders,merchants,andmissionaries. Conquistadores,soldiers,andmissionarieswerethe
In1665some1100Frenchsoldiersarrivedand
primarySpanishcolonizers;farmersandtraderscame
weregivenland.NeitherProtestantsnor
later.
peasantfarmerswereallowedtoemigrate.
ColonieswerefullysubjecttotheFrenchking.
Therewerenopoliticalrightsorrepresentative
government,andpublicmeetingscouldnotbe
heldwithoutpermission.
EventhoughProtestantshadplayedaroleinthe
foundingofNewFrance,fromaround1659on
theywereexcludedfromthecolony.Colonial
lifewaslargelycontrolledbytheFrenchCatholic
clergy.
Slowgrowth;by1672nomorethan5,000
colonistshadsettledthroughoutNewFrance.In
CanadatheFrenchpopulationtotaledjustunder
40,000by1734.InLouisiana,by1763there
wereapproximately10,000settlers,including
5,000slavesandAcadians.
Originallyfriendly;earlycolonistsreliedonNative Despiteconversioneffortsofmissionaries,
Americansfortradeandforhelpwithsurvival.
FrenchrespectforNativeAmericansallowed
Eventuallygreedforlandledtomajorconflicts
manytoforgealliances,especiallyintheirwars
withIndians.
againsttheBritish.
Coloniesweregovernedbycrownappointedviceroysor
governors.Settlershadtoobeytheking’slawsandcould
makenoneoftheirown.
SettlerswererestrictedtoCatholics;Protestantswere
persecutedanddrivenout.
Slowgrowthduetogreateremphasisonmilitary
conquest,poorrelationswithNativeAmericans,and
numerousearlyfailurestoestablishpermanent
settlements.LargestSpanishpopulationswereinFlorida,
Texas,California,andMexico.
SpanishmissionariessawNativeAmericansasheathens
tobeconvertedtoChristianity;soldiersviewedthemas
fitonlyforkillingorsubjugation.
ComparingColonizers—1492-1607
Directions:Usingyourpriorknowledge,newknowledgegained
fromthereadingassignment,andtheadditionalfacts
providedintheColonizationandSettlementchart,complete
theVenndiagrambyfillinginasmanycharacteristicsand
factsforeachcolonizers.Bemindfulofyourparameters,
1492-1607.AfterfillingouttheVenn,answerthequestions
below:
Aretheremoresimilaritiesordifferences?
Towhatextentaretheysimilarordifferent?
Why?(List&explainthreereasonstosupportyouranswer)
1.
2.
3.
Whatistheopposingview?
Identifyareason(pieceofevidence)thatsupportsthe
opposingview.