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Presentation Plus! The American Republic to 1877
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio 45202
Send all inquiries to:
GLENCOE DIVISION
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
8787 Orion Place
Columbus, Ohio 43240
Chapter Introduction
Section 1 Depression and a Second
World War
Section 2 Turning Points
Section 3 Modern America
Section 4 The War on Terrorism
Chapter Summary
Chapter Assessment
Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
Click the Speaker button
to replay the audio.
Chapter Objectives
Section 1: Depression and a Second
World War
• Explain how President Roosevelt responded
to the Great Depression. 
• Understand the actions that led to the outbreak
of World War II.
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Chapter Objectives
Section 2: Turning Points
• Examine the ways the United States attempted
to stop the spread of communism. 
• Review the actions African Americans took to
secure their rights.
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Chapter Objectives
Section 3: Modern America
• Analyze the ways in which the Watergate
scandal affected the nation. 
• Summarize how the Cold War ended.
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Chapter Objectives
Section 4: The War on Terrorism
• Describe how Americans responded to
terrorism. 
• Discuss the actions the government took to
fight terrorism.
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Why It Matters
During the twentieth century, Americans
suffered through wars and economic and
political unrest. The end of the Cold War
brought about communism’s fall in many
parts of the world and the triumph of
democracy. A new world was at hand–or so
it seemed. Long-hidden national and ethnic
rivalries flared into violence in various parts
of the world. The threats to peace included
acts of terrorism.
The Impact Today
In the twenty-first century, the world faces
great challenges. Acts of terrorism present
a threat to freedom and security. Although
most nations condemn such acts, terrorism
is likely to remain a global concern.
Guide to Reading
Main Idea
The United States maintained its free enterprise
system during the Great Depression and won
victory in a global conflict at great cost. 
Key Terms
• dictator 
• Holocaust 
• genocide 
• island hopping
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Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy
Organizing Information Re-create the diagram
on page 556 of your textbook to identify three
causes of World War II. 
Read to Learn
• how President Roosevelt responded to the
Great Depression. 
• what actions led to the outbreak of World War II.
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Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme
Global Connections The United States joined
with allied nations to fight a world war to protect
rights and freedoms.
Unemployed man seeking work
Click the Speaker button
to replay the audio.
The Great Depression
• The New York stock market collapsed
in October 1929. 
• When stock prices dropped, people
panicked and sold stocks. 
• Many people lost their savings and jobs
and could not repay their loans. 
• This weakened banks, and thousands of
banks closed between 1930 and 1933. 
• Depositors lost their money.
(pages 556–558)
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The Great Depression (cont.)
• There had been warning signs of the
crumbling economy in the 1920s: 
- Farm income declined. 
- Industries declined, including textiles, lumber,
mining, railroad, automobile, and construction. 
- Wages were cut and workers were laid off. 
- Fewer consumer goods were sold.
(pages 556–558)
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The Great Depression (cont.)
• Banks did not have funds for loans needed
by foreign countries during the late 1920s,
so foreign economies were weakened. 
• International trade decreased. 
• Unemployment was high. Twenty-five
percent of American workers lost their
jobs in 1932. 
• People were poor and hungry. 
• Soup kitchens had long lines, and there
were many homeless people. 
• Many people blamed President Hoover.
(pages 556–558)
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The Great Depression (cont.)
• Franklin Delano Roosevelt was elected
president in 1932. 
• He promised Americans a “new deal.” 
• His proposals to fight the Depression
became known as the New Deal. 
- The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) created
about 3 million jobs planting trees and building
levees to prevent floods. 
- The Public Works Administration (PWA)
provided jobs building roads, hospitals, and
schools.
(pages 556–558)
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The Great Depression (cont.)
- The Agricultural Adjustment Administration
(AAA) raised farm prices and controlled
production. 
- The Social Security Act created a tax paid by
employers and workers. 
- The money collected was used to pay pensions
to retired people. 
- Unemployment insurance was funded by
another tax. 
- People who lost their jobs received payments. 
- Another recession hit in 1937. 
- Congress and many Americans blamed the
New Deal.
(pages 556–558)
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The Great Depression (cont.)
- The New Deal increased the power of the
president, the size of the federal government,
and the belief in government responsibility for
the welfare of citizens. 
- Roosevelt served four terms as president.
(pages 556–558)
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The Great Depression (cont.)
What was the Great Depression?
The Great Depression was a period when
businesses declined severely, prices
dropped, and many people lost their jobs.
(pages 556–558)
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World War II
• Dictators seized control of their nations
by force after World War I and during the
Depression. 
• Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist
Worker’s Party (Nazi Party) controlled
Germany. 
• Benito Mussolini controlled Italy. 
• Military leaders controlled Japan. 
• Germany, Italy, and Japan signed a pact
and became allies called the Axis Powers in
1940. 
(pages 558–563)
• World War II began.
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World War II (cont.)
- Germany invaded Poland in September 1939. 
- The Germans took control of Poland. 
- Britain and France declared war on Germany. 
- Germany invaded France in the spring of 1940
and France surrendered. 
- In June 1941, Germany launched an attack on
the Soviet Union.
(pages 558–563)
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World War II (cont.)
• The United States remained neutral, but
supplied weapons to Britain and the Soviet
Union under the terms of the Lend-Lease
Act. 
- Japanese troops seized Indochina, a French
colony. 
- This threatened nearby British colonies. 
- The United States applied economic pressure
to stop Japan. 
- The Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.
(pages 558–563)
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World War II (cont.)
- Congress declared war on Japan in response
to the Pearl Harbor attack. 
- Germany and Italy then declared war on the
United States. 
- The Allied Powers (the United States, Great
Britain, France, and the Soviet Union) fought
the Axis Powers.
(pages 558–563)
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World War II (cont.)
• The war changed American life at home. 
• Those who did not go to war had to do all
the work. 
- Industry expanded, wages increased, and
unemployment fell. 
- Women served in the military and in the
workforce. 
- African Americans served in the military and in
the workforce. 
- Most minorities made gains, but Japanese
Americans were discriminated against. 
- West Coast Asian Americans were forced to
relocate to internment camps.
(pages 558–563)
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World War II (cont.)
• The Axis Powers were winning until late
1942. 
• British and United States troops drove
Germans out of North Africa. 
• The Axis powers were defeated again in
Eastern Europe in early 1943. 
• Soviet troops freed Leningrad, a Russian
city. 
• The German Army surrendered at
Stalingrad.
(pages 558–563)
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World War II (cont.)
• The Allies broke through German lines at
Anzio, Italy, after four months and freed
Rome in June 1944. 
• The Allies launched an air war against
Germany. 
• Cities were destroyed and civilians were
killed. 
• Germany kept fighting.
(pages 558–563)
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World War II (cont.)
• General Eisenhower, commander of the
Allied forces, directed an invasion of
France from the West. 
• The Soviets pushed toward Germany from
the East. 
• Fierce fighting took place on the beaches of
Normandy when thousands of Allied troops
came ashore on June 6, 1944–D-Day. 
• The Allies moved on from Normandy and,
with the French, freed Paris at the end of
August.
(pages 558–563)
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World War II (cont.)
• The Soviets pushed Germany out of
Eastern Europe. 
• The British and Americans defeated
Germany in the Battle of the Bulge, and
serious German resistance ended. 
• In 1945 Soviet troops reached Berlin. 
• British and United States forces moved
across western Germany. 
• Hitler committed suicide and Germany
surrendered.
(pages 558–563)
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World War II (cont.)
• The Allies liberated Germany and parts
of Europe. 
• They found evidence of the murder of
millions of Jews by the Nazis
in death camps. 
• The genocide became known as the
Holocaust.
(pages 558–563)
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World War II (cont.)
• Japanese forces had a series of victories
in the Pacific. 
• Then the Allies began to make progress. 
- Japanese troops landed in the Philippines.

- Filipino and American troops commanded by
Douglas MacArthur fought the Japanese on
the Bataan Peninsula west of Manila. 
- Allied forces surrendered and were forced to
march more than 60 miles to a prison camp. 
- Many sick and starving prisoners died.
(pages 558–563)
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World War II (cont.)
- In May 1942, Japanese and United States
ships fought the Battle of the Coral Sea
northeast of Australia. 
- The Americans destroyed much of the
Japanese fleet and prevented Japan from
reaching Australia. 
- In June the United States Navy destroyed
hundreds of Japanese aircraft and four aircraft
carriers in the Battle of Midway, northwest of
Hawaii.
(pages 558–563)
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World War II (cont.)
- The United States adopted a strategy called
island hopping. 
- It seized control of an island and used it as
a base to attack the next island. 
- Americans used air and naval power to win
control of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands
after fierce fighting. 
- American forces took control of Guam and
launched bombing strikes on Japan in June
1944. 
- American ships destroyed most of the
Japanese fleet at the Battle of Leyte Gulf
in the Philippines in October.
(pages 558–563)
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World War II (cont.)
- American forces seized the island of Iwo Jima
in March 1945 and the island of Okinawa in
June. 
- President Truman called for Japan’s surrender.
When it refused, Truman ordered the use of the
atomic bomb. 
- The bombs were created in secrecy at the
suggestion of Albert Einstein. 
- In August 1945, the first atomic bomb dropped
destroyed the city of Hiroshima. 
- The second destroyed the city of Nagasaki. 
- Japan surrendered on August 15–V-J Day
(“Victory over Japan”), ending World War II.
(pages 558–563)
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World War II (cont.)
• People from all over the world searched
for ways to preserve peace and prevent
another costly, destructive war like World
War II. 
• Approximately 50 million soldiers and
civilians died. 
• Billions of dollars worth of property was
destroyed. 
• It took years for some countries to recover
from the war.
(pages 558–563)
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World War II (cont.)
What events caused the outbreak of World
War II?
Several dictators seized control of their
countries by force. Germany, Italy, and
Japan, led by dictators, formed an alliance.
Germany invaded Poland. Britain and
France declared war on Germany. The
United States became involved after Japan
attacked Pearl Harbor.
(pages 558–563)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on
the left.
__
B 1. the deliberate destruction of
a racial, political, or cultural
group
__
C 2. the name given to the mass
slaughter of Jews and other
groups by the Nazis during
World War II
__
A 3. a leader who rules with total
authority, often in a cruel or
brutal manner
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A. dictator
B. genocide
C. Holocaust
Checking for Understanding
Reviewing Facts Who was president of the
United States when World War II began?
Who was president when it ended?
Franklin Roosevelt was president at the
beginning of World War II and Harry Truman
was president when World War II ended.
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Reviewing Themes
Global Connections What did the LendLease Act, supported by Roosevelt,
provide?
It allowed the U.S. to sell, lease, or lend
weapons to nations whose security was
vital to America’s defense.
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Critical Thinking
Determining Cause and Effect How
did the role of government in American
democracy change as a result of the
Depression and the New Deal?
There was more government intervention
including work relief and assistance
programs, social security benefits, and
regulation of banking and businesses.
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Analyzing Visuals
Geography Skills Examine the maps on
page 560 and 562 of your textbook. What are
the topics of the maps? Did Japanese control
in 1942 include the Philippine Islands? The
Hawaiian Islands? Was Finland under Axis
control at one time or another? Was France?
How can you tell?
The map topics are World War II in Europe
and Africa, and World War II in the Pacific.
Japanese control in 1942 included the
Philippine Islands, but not the Hawaiian
Islands. By looking at the key which shows
the greatest extent of Axis control, you see
that Finland and France were under Axis
control at one time.
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Language Arts Write newspaper headlines
about three important events covered in
Section 1.
Guide to Reading
Main Idea
During the second half of the twentieth century,
Americans struggled with communism abroad
and civil rights at home. 
Key Terms
• stalemate 
• civil disobedience 
• affluence 
• feminist
• segregation 
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Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy
Sequencing Information Create a time line like
the one on page 564 of your textbook and identify
key events in the postwar world. 
Read to Learn
• how the United States attempted to stop the
spread of communism. 
• what actions African Americans took to secure
their rights.
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Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme
Civic Rights and Responsibilities American
minorities and women intensified their efforts to
secure their full rights as citizens.
Big Three at Yalta
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to replay the audio.
The Cold War Era
• The Truman Policy of 1947 illustrated
President Truman’s commitment to help
countries fight communism. 
• A cold war began between the United
States and the Soviet Union. 
• Stalin prohibited free elections in Eastern
Europe and set up Communist
governments. 
• West Germany was created by uniting the
zones controlled by the United States,
Great Britain, and France. 
• The Soviets sealed off Berlin.
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(pages 564–566)
The Cold War Era (cont.)
• The North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO) was formed by the United States,
Canada, and the countries of Western
Europe in 1949. 
• They agreed to defend one another from
attack.
(pages 564–566)
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The Cold War Era (cont.)
• The Korean War between North and
South Korea began in 1950. 
• China helped the Communists of North
Korea. 
• American and United Nations forces
defended South Korea. 
• The war ended in July 1953 with Korea
still divided.
(pages 564–566)
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The Cold War Era (cont.)
• Dwight D. Eisenhower was elected
president in 1952. 
• He believed that the government should
protect the basic welfare of all citizens. 
• He provided more money for public
housing and expanded Social Security.
(pages 564–566)
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The Cold War Era (cont.)
• The Federal Highway Act of 1956
authorized the building of a network of
highways. 
• The roads were needed for military forces
in case of attack. 
• The highway system united the regions of
the nation.
(pages 564–566)
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The Cold War Era (cont.)
• The American economy and the birthrate
grew quickly after World War II. 
• The rapid increase in the number of
babies born was called a baby boom.

• Americans became more affluent and built
homes in the suburbs.
(pages 564–566)
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The Cold War Era (cont.)
Why was there a cold war between the
United States and the Soviet Union?
Stalin prohibited free elections in Eastern
Europe. The Soviets set up Communist
governments. The United States was
committed to fighting the spread of
communism.
(pages 564–566)
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The Civil Rights Era
• The modern civil rights movement began
in the 1950s. 
- The case of Brown v. Board of Education was
brought to the Supreme Court by Thurgood
Marshall. 
- The Court ruled that segregation was
unconstitutional. 
- In 1955 African American Rosa Parks refused to
give up her seat to whites on a bus in
Montgomery, Alabama. 
- Her arrest led to a bus boycott. 
- In 1956 the courts ruled that all segregation
(pages 566–568)
laws were unconstitutional.
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The Civil Rights Era (cont.)
- Martin Luther King, Jr., one of the leaders of
the civil rights movement, encouraged civil
disobedience and nonviolent protests.
(pages 566–568)
The Civil Rights Era (cont.)
• John F. Kennedy, a Democrat, defeated
Richard Nixon in the election of 1960. 
• He was assassinated in Dallas, Texas,
on November 22, 1963. 
• Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson
became president. 
- Congress refused to pass Kennedy’s proposals
for improving education and helping poor
people get jobs. 
- Johnson’s programs, called the “Great Society”
included Medicare and Medicaid. 
- They helped pay for medical care and hospital
bills for senior citizens and poor people.(pages 566–568)
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The Civil Rights Era (cont.)
• The civil rights movement continued to
grow during Kennedy’s and Johnson’s
administrations. 
- The sit-in movement began when four African
American students refused to leave a lunch
counter in Greensboro, North Carolina, in
February 1960. 
- Martin Luther King, Jr., led a march in
Birmingham, Alabama, in 1963. 
- Marchers were attacked by police. 
- Kennedy sent a civil rights bill to Congress
outlawing segregation.
(pages 566–568)
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The Civil Rights Era (cont.)
- Many civil rights organizations organized a
march to support Kennedy’s proposal. 
- King made a speech about his dream that one
day the nation will live up to the words, “all men
are created equal.” 
- Kennedy’s civil rights bill did not pass. 
- The Civil Rights Act of 1964, supported by
President Johnson, was passed by Congress. 
- It banned segregation and outlawed
discrimination in hiring. 
- Marchers demanding the right to vote were
attacked by police in Selma, Alabama, in 1965. 
- Johnson proposed the Voting Rights Act of
(pages 566–568)
1965.
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The Civil Rights Era (cont.)
• Changes in civil rights were made slowly. 
- Malcolm X, a leader in the Nation of Islam
(Black Muslims), supported separation of blacks
and whites. 
- He later changed his mind and called for an
“honest white-black brotherhood.” 
- There were many violent riots in cities during
the mid-1960s. 
- Cities were burned, property was destroyed,
and people died. 
- Martin Luther King, Jr., was assassinated in
April 1968. 
- His assassination led to riots in more than
(pages 566–568)
100 cities.
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The Civil Rights Era (cont.)
• Women, Hispanics, and Native Americans
joined the struggle for equal rights. 
- The National Organization for Women (NOW)
was created by feminists in 1966. 
- Members campaigned for the Equal Rights
Amendment (ERA) to the Constitution. 
- It did not pass. 
- Congress outlawed discrimination in the
workplace in 1972.
(pages 566–568)
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The Civil Rights Era (cont.)
- The growing Hispanic population wanted equal
rights. 
- Migrant workers, led by César Chávez, formed
the United Farm Workers (UFW) union. 
- Other groups formed to end discrimination
through the political process and by electing
Hispanics to government positions. 
- Groups included La Raza Unida and the
League of United Latin American Citizens. 
- Hispanics won the right to serve on juries and
send their children to integrated schools.
(pages 566–568)
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The Civil Rights Era (cont.)
• Native Americans demanded political
power in the 1960s. 
- The Indian Civil Rights Act was passed in
1966. 
- It protected the constitutional rights of Native
Americans. 
- It also allowed Native Americans to make laws
on their reservations.
(pages 566–568)
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The Civil Rights Era (cont.)
- Members of the American Indian Movement
(AIM) seized control of Wounded Knee, South
Dakota, the place where federal troops
massacred the Sioux in 1890. 
- It was part of a Sioux reservation where people
lived in desperate poverty. 
- The siege focused attention on the plight of
Native Americans.
(pages 566–568)
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The Civil Rights Era (cont.)
• People with disabilities worked to be
treated equally in the 1960s and 1970s. 
• A number of laws were passed. 
• They improved access to public facilities,
created job opportunities, and provided
equal educational opportunities.
(pages 566–568)
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The Civil Rights Era (cont.)
Why do you think so many groups of
Americans were denied their civil rights
and had to work so hard to achieve them?
Possible answer: Some Americans felt they
were superior to or better than minority
groups. They felt threatened by minority
groups.
(pages 566–568)
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The Vietnam Era
• President Kennedy continued to fight
communism. 
- Fidel Castro, a Cuban dictator who came to
power in 1959, formed an alliance with the
Soviet Union. 
- Fifteen hundred Cuban immigrants trained by
the Central Intelligence Agency were sent to
Cuba to overthrow the government. 
- This mission, called the Bay of Pigs, failed.
(pages 568–570)
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The Vietnam Era (cont.)
- Soviet Leader Nikita Khrushchev built the
Berlin Wall to divide East and West Berlin. 
- He did this because Kennedy refused his orders
to get the West out of Berlin. 
- Kennedy blockaded Cuba in October 1962,
after the Soviets refused to remove their
nuclear missiles from Cuba. 
- The world waited to see if a nuclear war would
break out. 
- Soviet ships headed for the American blockade
turned back. 
- The Soviets agreed to remove their missiles
during negotiations.
(pages 568–570)
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The Vietnam Era (cont.)
• In the late 1950s, the United States sent
supplies and advisers to help South
Vietnam fight Communist Vietcong forces
in South Vietnam. 
• North Vietnam supplied the Vietcong with
supplies and weapons. 
• The Vietcong grew stronger.
(pages 568–570)
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The Vietnam Era (cont.)
• North Vietnam allegedly attacked United
States ships in the Gulf of Tonkin in August
1964. 
• Congress approved the use of force to
defend America from attacks. 
• United States troops defended their bases
and then tried to find and destroy the
Vietcong.
(pages 568–570)
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The Vietnam Era (cont.)
• In 1965 Johnson ordered bombing of North
Vietnam and then sent combat troops. 
• Johnson sent more troops, and Congress
approved a land war. 
• The war grew.
(pages 568–570)
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The Vietnam Era (cont.)
• Many Americans opposed the war and the
draft. 
• Johnson was criticized. He did not run for
reelection. 
• Republican Richard Nixon, former vice
president under Eisenhower, defeated
Hubert Humphrey in the 1968 election by
a small margin.
(pages 568–570)
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The Vietnam Era (cont.)
- Nixon promised to restore order and achieve
“peace with honor” in Vietnam. 
- His policy of “Vietnamization” called for training
and equipping South Vietnamese forces. 
- Then United States forces would be pulled out
of Vietnam. 
- Nixon secretly ordered the bombing of
Cambodia. 
- The Vietcong and the North Vietnamese used
Cambodia as a base to attack South Vietnam.
(pages 568–570)
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The Vietnam Era (cont.)
- Nixon announced the invasion of Cambodia in
the spring of 1970. 
- Demonstrations and violence on college
campuses resulted. Some students were killed.
(pages 568–570)
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The Vietnam Era (cont.)
• A peace agreement was reached between
North and South Vietnam in 1973. 
• American troops pulled out of Vietnam. 
• North Vietnam invaded South Vietnam
again in 1975. South Vietnam was
defeated. 
• Vietnam became one united Communist
country. 
• More than 1 million soldiers and civilians
were killed in the war. 
• Many United States soldiers had the status
(pages 568–570)
of Missing in Action (MIA).
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The Vietnam Era (cont.)
Why do you think so many Americans
opposed the Vietnam War?
Possible answer: The military went beyond
what they were authorized to do when they
first went after the Vietcong and later
bombed Cambodia.
(pages 568–570)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on
the left.
__
D 1. refusal to obey
laws that are considered
unjust as a nonviolent way
to press for changes
A. stalemate
__
B 2. the state of having much
wealth
D. civil
disobedience
__
E 3. a person who advocates
or is active in promoting
women’s rights
E. feminist
__
C 4. the separation or isolation
of a race, class, or group
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B. affluence
C. segregation
Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on
the left.
__
A 5. a situation during a conflict
when action stops because
both sides are equally
powerful and neither will
give in
A. stalemate
B. affluence
C. segregation
D. civil
disobedience
E. feminist
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Checking for Understanding
Reviewing Facts What role did Rosa Parks
play in the struggle for civil rights?
Her refusal to give up her bus seat started
the Montgomery bus boycott. In 1956 the
Supreme Court ruled that all segregated
buses were unconstitutional.
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Reviewing Themes
Civic Rights and Responsibilities
Describe the various actions taken by
African Americans to secure civil rights
at this time.
African Americans participated in boycotts
and marches.
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Critical Thinking
Drawing Inferences Do you think
President Nixon succeeded in attaining
“peace with honor”? Explain.
Analyzing Visuals
Geography Skills Study the map of the
Vietnam War on page 569 of your textbook.
Where did most of the United States bases
lie? Why do you think those sites were
chosen?
Most of the U.S. bases were along the coast
of South Vietnam. These sites provided
easier access for transporting troops and
supplies.
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Citizenship Create a time line of the civil
rights movement. Research and clip pictures
from magazines and newspapers of historic
and present-day civil rights events and
issues. Add captions.
Guide to Reading
Main Idea
The end of the Cold War brought new challenges
to the United States–both at home and abroad. 
Key Terms
• embargo 
• Internet 
• human rights 
• ozone 
• federal debt 
• global warming 
• perjury 
• terrorism
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Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy
Organizing Information Re-create the chart on
page 572 of your textbook. For each event, identify
the president who was involved. Then summarize
the significance of each event. 
Read to Learn
• how the Watergate scandal affected the nation. 
• how the Cold War was ended.
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Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme
Government and Democracy Presidential
scandals tested the American political system, but
the constitutional system of checks and balances
provided safeguards against the abuse of power.
Nixon button
Click the Speaker button
to replay the audio.
Crisis of Confidence
• Richard Nixon took office in 1969. 
• He hoped to help build a more stable
world. 
- President Nixon reopened United States
relations with China. 
- Trade with China reopened in 1971, and
President Nixon visited China in 1972. 
- United States relations with the Soviets also
improved. 
- The United States and the Soviets agreed to
an arms control treaty, limiting the number of
nuclear missiles each could have.
(pages 572–574)
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Crisis of Confidence (cont.)
- During the 1970s, the United States supported
Israel, which upset many Arab nations. 
- These nations staged an oil embargo, banning
oil shipments to the United States. 
- Secretary of State Henry Kissinger negotiated
an agreement between Israeli and Arab leaders.

- The agreement ended the oil crisis. 
- President Nixon gave federal taxes back to the
states. 
- He created the Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA).
(pages 572–574)
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Crisis of Confidence (cont.)
• President Nixon was reelected in 1972. 
• But during the election campaign,
President Nixon’s staff had spies break
into the Democratic Party offices in the
Watergate apartment complex in
Washington. 
• When this break-in became public,
President Nixon denied his staff’s
involvement and also denied ordering
a cover-up.
(pages 572–574)
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Crisis of Confidence (cont.)
- The House of Representatives began
impeachment proceedings against President
Nixon. 
- They formally accused the president of abusing
his power. 
- President Nixon resigned from office in August
1974. 
- Vice President Gerald Ford then became
president. 
- He lost the 1976 election to Democratic
candidate Jimmy Carter.
(pages 572–574)
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Crisis of Confidence (cont.)
• President Carter tried to fix the economy,
deal with foreign policy issues, and fight for
human rights around the world. 
- President Carter arranged negotiations that led
to the first peace treaty between Israel and an
Arab nation. 
- President Carter withdrew economic and
military aid from nations that violated human
rights, such as Argentina, South Africa, and
Iran. 
- Iranian students responded by taking over the
American embassy in Tehran and holding 52
Americans hostage.
(pages 572–574)
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Crisis of Confidence (cont.)
- President Carter lost the 1980 election to
Ronald Reagan. 
- Iran released the hostages.
(pages 572–574)
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Crisis of Confidence (cont.)
Why do you think the oil embargo caused
an oil crisis and economic problems in the
United States?
Possible answer: The United States relies
on oil from the Middle East to make
gasoline and other products necessary for
industry. Oil is used to produce some forms
of energy.
(pages 572–574)
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New Challenges
• President Reagan reduced the role of the
government. 
- President Reagan cut taxes, eliminated many
regulations, and cut federal programs. 
- The economy began to grow after a brief
recession in 1982. 
- The stock market climbed rapidly. 
- President Reagan increased military spending
to build up United States forces.
(pages 574–577)
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New Challenges (cont.)
- The federal debt increased because
President Reagan needed to borrow money to
cover the difference between the amount of
money the government received and the
money it spent. 
- President Reagan was reelected in 1984. 
- Mikhail Gorbachev became the leader of the
Soviet Union. 
- Its economy was ready to collapse, and so the
Soviets could not afford to keep up with the
United States on military spending. 
- Gorbachev decided to reform the communist
system.
(pages 574–577)
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New Challenges (cont.)
• George Bush, Reagan’s vice president,
defeated Michael Dukakis in the 1988
election. 
- President Bush continued negotiations with
the Soviet Union. 
- Demonstrators demanded more democracy
in Eastern Europe in 1989. 
- Most of the communist governments
collapsed. 
- The Berlin Wall was torn down. 
- East Germany and West Germany were
reunited.
(pages 574–577)
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New Challenges (cont.)
- The Communist Party was outlawed in the
Soviet Union by the end of 1991. 
- The Soviet Union was divided into 15 separate
republics. 
- In 1990 Iraq invaded Kuwait. European and
Arab nations joined the United States to free
Kuwait. 
- The attack on Iraq that freed Kuwait was called
Operation Desert Storm. 
- Much of Iraq’s army was destroyed.
(pages 574–577)
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New Challenges (cont.)
• Democratic presidential candidate Bill
Clinton, governor of Arkansas, defeated
Bush in the 1992 election. 
• A third-party candidate, billionaire Ross
Perot, split the vote three ways. 
- President Clinton cut government spending to
reduce the deficit. 
- Congress passed the Family Medical Leave Act
with President Clinton’s persuasion. 
- After the midterm elections, Congress was
controlled by Republicans. Democratic
President Clinton vetoed many of Congress’s
(pages 574–577)
proposals.
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New Challenges (cont.)
- President Clinton was reelected in 1996. 
- Congress and the president began to work
together. 
- President Clinton focused on education and
health care during his second term. 
- He also balanced the budget and ran a
surplus. 
- President Clinton helped negotiate an
agreement between Israel and Palestine in
1993. 
- Palestine was allowed its own government in
Israeli territory.
(pages 574–577)
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New Challenges (cont.)
- Evidence suggested that President Clinton may
have lied under oath, or committed perjury and
obstructed justice, to hide a personal
relationship with a White House intern. 
- The House of Representatives voted to
impeach him. 
- He was tried and acquitted by the Senate.
(pages 574–577)
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New Challenges (cont.)
• Democratic candidate Al Gore, the vice
president, and Republican candidate
George W. Bush, governor of Texas and
son of former President Bush, faced each
other in the 2000 election. 
• The vote was extremely close. 
• Both candidates needed the electoral
votes from Florida to win the election. 
• The results in Florida were disputed. 
• No one knew immediately who won the
election.
(pages 574–577)
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New Challenges (cont.)
• A ballot recount was approved. 
• George W. Bush and Al Gore filed
lawsuits regarding the process. 
• The final decision was made by the
United States Supreme Court. 
• It was decided that George W. Bush won
the election.
(pages 574–577)
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New Challenges (cont.)
• President Bush named his cabinet
members. 
• His wife, First Lady Laura Bush, promoted
reading programs and education. 
- Retired Army General Colin Powell was
appointed secretary of state. 
- Donald Rumsfeld was appointed secretary of
defense. 
- Gale Norton became Secretary of Interior. 
- Christine Todd Whitman was named as the
head of the Environmental Protection Agency.
(pages 574–577)
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New Challenges (cont.)
- Elaine Chao, the first Asian American female
appointed to a cabinet post, became secretary
of labor. 
- Condoleezza Rice became the first African
American female national security adviser. 
- President Bush’s proposed tax cut was the
largest since 1981. 
- Congressional supporters of the tax cut
believed that the money belonged to the
people. 
- Opponents believed that the money should be
spent on Social Security or for paying off the
national debt.
(pages 574–577)
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New Challenges (cont.)
• Secretary of State Colin Powell’s plan for
foreign policy was called the Powell
Doctrine. 
• The Powell Doctrine states that troops will
only be used to protect a vital interest. 
• Furthermore, there must be a clear and
realistic goal.
(pages 574–577)
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New Challenges (cont.)
How do you think the end of the Cold War
affected foreign affairs?
The United States and the Soviet Union
agreed to limit nuclear weapons. The arms
race slowed. The Soviet Union was no
longer the threat it once was. Improved
relations between the United States and
Soviet Union reduced the fear of future
military conflict.
(pages 574–577)
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Looking to the Future
• Stimulating global economic growth
through a world trading system became
a main goal for President Bush. 
• He believed this would help every
country's economy and help encourage
worldwide freedom. 
- The World Trade Organization (WTO) has
administered trade practices among many
nations since 1995.
(pages 577–578)
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Looking to the Future (cont.)
- Growth of technology industries increased
economic growth. 
- The products of these industries include
telecommunications such as cable and satellite
television, cellular phones, fax machines, and
personal computers. 
- The Internet, a worldwide linking of computer
networks, became a main method of
communication.
(pages 577–578)
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Looking to the Future (cont.)
• The American population began to change
as it entered the twenty-first century. 
- People were living longer, so elderly people
became a larger portion of the population. 
- This means there was a growing demand for
government payments such as Social Security
and Medicare. 
- Immigration also changed American society. 
- The number of Hispanic Americans and Asian
Americans greatly increased. 
- It was predicted that Hispanic Americans will
become the largest minority in the United States
(pages 577–578)
in the early 2000s.
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Looking to the Future (cont.)
• New environmental challenges faced the
world. 
- The earth’s atmosphere lost ozone, a gas that
protects life from cancer-causing sun rays. 
- Scientists warned that a steady increase in
average world temperatures, called global
warming, may cause problems. 
- This warming might change weather patterns,
the environment, and crop production.
(pages 577–578)
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Looking to the Future (cont.)
• Promoting peace continued to be a major
global issue. 
• The use of violence by groups against
civilians to try to achieve a political goal,
or terrorism, increased in the late 1900s
and early 2000s. 
• Dangers included chemical and biological
weapons.
(pages 577–578)
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Looking to the Future (cont.)
- The United States experienced domestic
terrorism in the form of the Oklahoma City
bombing of a federal building and mail
bombings. 
- Domestic terrorists attack people in their own
country. 
- International terrorism struck the World Trade
Center in New York, the Pentagon, and a field in
Pennsylvania on September 11, 2001. 
- International terrorists travel from other
countries to carry out their violent plans.
(pages 577–578)
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Looking to the Future (cont.)
How might global warming affect world
trade?
Global warming might cause weather
patterns and crop production to change.
This could decrease the amount of food
that countries could trade with other
countries.
(pages 577–578)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on
the left.
__
B 1. rights regarded as belonging to
all persons, such as freedom
from unlawful imprisonment,
torture, and execution
A. embargo
__
E 2. the use of violence by groups
against civilians to achieve a
political goal
D. perjury
__
A 3. an order prohibiting trade with
another country
__
C 4. the amount of money owed by
the government
__
D 5. lying when one has sworn an
oath to tell the truth
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B. human rights
C. federal debt
E. terrorism
Checking for Understanding
Reviewing Facts When did Iranian
students take Americans hostage?
Iranian students took Americans hostage in
November 1979.
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Reviewing Themes
Government and Democracy What is
impeachment? Was President Nixon
impeached? Was President Clinton?
Impeachment means to formally accuse.
President Nixon resigned before he
could be impeached. President Clinton
was impeached, but later the Senate
held a trial and acquitted him.
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Critical Thinking
Drawing Conclusions Do you think
President Reagan’s actions proved he
was committed to reducing the role of
government in the lives of Americans?
Explain.
Reagan cut taxes, eliminated many
regulations, and cut back many
government programs.
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Analyzing Visuals
Picturing History Select one of the news
photographs that appears on pages 574–
575 of your textbook. Write one paragraph
about the photo. Identify the people and
describe what is happening.
Geography Illustrate a world map showing the
cities and regions discussed in the section.
Guide to Reading
Main Idea
After suffering the worst terrorist attack in its
history, the United States launched an effort to
fight international terrorism. 
Key Terms
• counter-terrorism
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Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy
Organizing Information As you read about
America’s war on terrorism, complete a diagram
like the one on page 579 of your textbook to explain
how Americans responded to the events of
September 11, 2001. 
Read to Learn
• how Americans responded to terrorism. 
• what actions the government took to fight
terrorism.
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Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme
Global Connections The United States called for
a worldwide coalition to fight against terrorism.
Rescue workers carry out an injured
man at the World Trade Center.
Click the Speaker button
to replay the audio.
The Terrorist Threat
• Terrorism is a major concern for all
countries in the twenty-first century. 
• Terrorism is the use of violence by groups
against civilians to achieve a political goal.

• Some recent attacks can be linked to
Afghanistan.
(pages 580–581)
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The Terrorist Threat (cont.)
- The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in 1979. 
- The Soviet Union supported the pro-Communist
government. 
- Muslims from other Arab nations helped
Afghanistan fight the Communists. 
- A Saudi Arabian Muslim named Osama bin
Laden used his family’s wealth to help the
Afghanistan resistance.
(pages 580–581)
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The Terrorist Threat (cont.)
- Bin Laden started a group called al-Qaeda in
1988. 
- The group’s name means “the Base.” 
- The group recruited Muslims to fight the Soviets
and bought weapons for resistance fighters in
Afghanistan. 
- The Afghan fighters also received technical
assistance and training from the United States,
Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and other countries.
(pages 580–581)
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The Terrorist Threat (cont.)
- After Soviet troops pulled out of Afghanistan,
bin Laden became a hero to many Muslim
fundamentalists. 
- Bin Laden first operated from Sudan and then
from Afghanistan. 
- A militant Muslim fundamentalist group, called
the Taliban, began to control Afghanistan. 
- Bin Laden led al-Qaeda to drive Americans and
other non-Muslims out of the Middle East. 
- He believed that western ideas conflicted with
those of the Muslim culture.
(pages 580–581)
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The Terrorist Threat (cont.)
- Truck bombs in Tanzania and Kenya were set
off at the American embassies, killing more
than 200 people, including 12 Americans, and
injuring about 4,500 others.
(pages 580–581)
The Terrorist Threat (cont.)
- Terrorists connected to bin Laden were
arrested trying to sneak explosives into the
United States in late 1999. 
- They allegedly planned to bomb Seattle,
Washington. 
- In 2000, terrorists connected to al-Qaeda
crashed a boat with explosives into a United
States warship, the USS Cole, while it was
refueling in Yemen.
(pages 580–581)
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The Terrorist Threat (cont.)
Why are Americans targeted by militant
Muslim fundamentalists?
They do not like Western influences
changing their traditional Islamic societies.
(pages 580–581)
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A New War Begins
• Terrorists shocked the United States on
September 11, 2001.
(pages 581–585)
A New War Begins (cont.)
- Many Americans joined together to help
people directly affected by the violence. 
- For example, people donated blood; held
candlelight vigils and prayer services; raised
money; and collected food, blankets, and
supplies for victims and rescue workers. 
- Firefighters and medical workers came from
all over the country to help. 
- President George W. Bush cautioned
Americans not to direct their anger against
Muslim Americans. 
- He reminded them that Islam is a peaceful
religion.
(pages 581–585)
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A New War Begins (cont.)
• Biological and chemical terrorism was a
growing concern after the September 11
attacks. 
- Letters containing deadly anthrax spores were
mailed to several political leaders and the news
media. 
- Law enforcement investigated the mailings in
an effort to identify the person or people who
were responsible. 
- No suspects have been identified. 
- Officials do not think al-Qaeda sent the anthrax.
(pages 581–585)
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A New War Begins (cont.)
• President Bush and his advisers started
planning a response. 
- Armed forces were placed on high alert. 
- The skies were patrolled by fighter planes to
protect cities. 
- Airport security was increased. 
- A huge investigation began. 
- A new cabinet position was created. Homeland
Security, headed by Pennsylvania governor,
Tom Ridge, would coordinate efforts against
terrorism, called counter-terrorism activities.
(pages 581–585)
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A New War Begins (cont.)
- The new department would control the Coast
Guard, the Border Patrol, the Immigration and
Naturalization Service, the Customs Service,
the Federal Emergency Management Agency
and many other agencies.
(pages 581–585)
A New War Begins (cont.)
• In late 2001, Congress passed and the
president signed into law new measures to
combat terrorism. 
- The USA Patriot Act of 2001 expanded the
power of federal agents to investigate
suspected terrorists. 
- Agents could tap telephones, track Internet
usage, and conduct searches of homes and
offices without prior notice to owners. 
- To make sure civil liberties of law-abiding
citizens were not compromised, many of the
Act's powers will expire in late 2005, unless
an extension is needed.
(pages 581–585)
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A New War Begins (cont.)
• The United States started building a
coalition of support with other countries. 
- NATO members, including India, Pakistan,
Turkey, and Israel, agreed to support the United
States in the war against terrorism. 
- Other world leaders expressed sympathy and
outrage over the attacks. 
- Colin Powell started building the support of
other nations for a united response.
(pages 581–585)
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A New War Begins (cont.)
- Some leaders of Muslim nations, such as
Saudi Arabia and Egypt, offered less support
because they feared widespread protests from
their people.
(pages 581–585)
A New War Begins (cont.)
• American troops, aircraft, and warships
were sent to the Middle East. 
- The war against terrorism first focused on
Afghanistan, where bin Laden was believed to
be hiding. 
- The Taliban controlled the Afghan government
and people. 
- The United States joined the Taliban's
opposition, the Northern Alliance, to battle
the Taliban.
(pages 581–585)
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A New War Begins (cont.)
- President Bush demanded that the Taliban
turn bin Laden and his supporters over to the
United States to be tried. 
- The president stated that the United States
would begin by defeating al-Qaeda and then
continue until every terrorist group was
disbanded. 
- President Bush also made it clear that any
country supporting or harboring terrorists would
be considered an enemy of the United States. 
- He added that the war against terrorism would
not end quickly.
(pages 581–585)
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A New War Begins (cont.)
Why do you think the war against terrorism
might take a long time?
Terrorists are being protected by groups
such as the Taliban. Terrorists are hard to
find because they are so secretive.
Terrorism is an international problem.
Terrorists live all over the world, so a war
won against one country will not eliminate
the problem.
(pages 581–585)
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Checking for Understanding
Using Key Terms Fill in the blank with the appropriate term.
Counter-terrorism involves military or political
1. __________________
activities intended to combat terrorism.
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Checking for Understanding
Reviewing Facts What happened to the
USS Cole while it was refueling in Yemen?
Terrorists backed by al-Qaeda crashed a
boat loaded with explosives into the USS
Cole.
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Reviewing Themes
Global Connections Do you think the
dangers of terrorism require global
cooperation? Explain and support your
point of view with reasons.
Critical Thinking
Drawing Conclusions Why do you think
President Bush specifically chose to visit the
Islamic Center in Washington, D.C.?
Answers may vary.
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Analyzing Visuals
Geography Skills Examine the map on
terrorism on page 581 of your textbook.
How many Americans were taken hostage
in Iran? What events on the map took
place in the 1990s?
Fifty-three Americans were taken hostage in
Iran. Four bombings occurred in the 1990s.
Click the mouse button or press the
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Expository Writing How will world events affect
your future? Write an essay entitled “The World’s
Future and My Own” identifying important issues
and explaining how events could affect your life.
Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on
the left.
__
A. Holocaust
B 1. a situation during a conflict
when action stops because
B. stalemate
both sides are equally powerful
C. segregation
and neither will give in
D. civil
__
G 2. the use of violence by groups
disobedience
against civilians to achieve a
political goal
E. embargo
__
D 3. refusal to obey laws that are
F. federal debt
considered unjust as a
G. terrorism
nonviolent way to press for
changes
H. counterterrorism
__
H 4. military or political activities
intended to combat terrorism
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on
the left.
__
A 5. the name given to the mass
slaughter of Jews and other
groups by the Nazis during
World War II
A. Holocaust
__
E 6. an order prohibiting trade
with another country
D. civil
disobedience
__
C 7. the separation or isolation of
a race, class, or group
E. embargo
__
F 8. the amount of money owed
by the government
B. stalemate
C. segregation
F. federal debt
G. terrorism
H. counterterrorism
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Reviewing Key Facts
What was the purpose of the Social Security
Act?
The purpose of the Social Security Act was
to provide security for retired people.
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Reviewing Key Facts
Why did President Kennedy call for a
blockade of Cuba in 1962?
The blockade of Cuba in 1962 was to force
the removal of Soviet missiles from the
island.
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Reviewing Key Facts
Who won the presidential election of 1976?
Jimmy Carter won the 1976 presidential
election.
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Reviewing Key Facts
What is significant about September 11,
2001?
Hijackers seized control of American
airplanes and deliberately crashed them
into the World Trade Center towers and the
Pentagon. The war on terrorism began.
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Reviewing Key Facts
What is the Department of Homeland
Security?
The Department of Homeland Security is a
new cabinet-level post to coordinate
counter-terrorism efforts.
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Critical Thinking
Explaining What does the term “Cold War”
mean and how did it apply to the post World
War II era?
It describes the rivalry between the United
States and the Soviet Union. The Soviets
tried to expand; the United States tried to
contain expansion.
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Critical Thinking
Analyze What are the two major challenges
Americans face today? Explain why you
made your choices.
Possible answers: Equal rights and terrorism
are two major challenges Americans face
today.
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Geography and History Activity
Study the map below. Then read the statements that follow.
Identify whether each statement is true or not true and
explain your answer.
Geography and History Activity
A total of 438
electoral votes
were cast.
This statement is
not true.
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Geography and History Activity
Gore received more
popular votes than
Bush.
This statement is
true.
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Geography and History Activity
Gore received
strong support from
the southeastern
states.
This statement is
not true.
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Standardized Test Practice
The cold war between the United States and the former
Soviet Union was a rivalry between what two forms of
government?
A
communism and socialism
B
communism and dictatorships
C
communism and democracy
D
democracy and monarchy
Test-Taking Tip When you are studying for an exam,
use a dictionary to look up important terms. Communism,
dictatorship, socialism, democracy, and monarchy are
words describing different types of government. Which
choices contain words that describe the U.S. government?
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In 1989 Virginia elected the nation’s first
African American governor since
Reconstruction. Who was he?
L. Douglas Wilder was the nation’s first
African American governor since
Reconstruction.
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Explore online information about the topics
introduced in this chapter.
Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go
to The American Republic to 1877 Web site. At this site, you
will find interactive activities, current events information, and
Web sites correlated with the chapters and units in the
textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the browser
program to return to this presentation. If you experience
difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your
Web browser and go to http://tarvol1.glencoe.com
Bulls and Bears
WASPs
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Bulls and Bears When the stock market rises, it is
called a bull market. If prices drop, it is called a bear
market. These terms may come from the way the
two animals attack. A bull throws its victims up in the
air, and a bear knocks it victims down.
WASPs Although women were not allowed to
serve in combat, they were pilots. Members of the
Women’s Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs) flew
warplanes to the places where they were needed,
freeing men for combat duty. The obstacles women
faced were enormous. Resentful males often
refused to fly with them, and in one case a male
pilot may have sabotaged a plane, killing a female
pilot. WASPs flew more than 60 million miles in all
types of planes, and 38 WASPs died while on duty.
Saddam Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein liked to be
called by his first name. When pronounced
correctly, with the emphasis on the second syllable,
Saddam means “leader,” “learned one,” or “he who
confronts.” President Bush insisted on pronouncing
the name with the emphasis on the first syllable,
however. When spoken this way, Saddam means
“a boy who fixes or cleans shoes,” a grave insult in
many Arab countries.
National Recovery Administration
Great Depression
Lend-Lease
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One New Deal agency, the National Recovery
Administration, encouraged businesses to set a
minimum wage and abolish child labor. The owner
of Philadelphia’s professional football team showed
his patriotic spirit in 1933 by naming his club the
Eagles, after the symbol of the National Recovery
Administration.
The Great Depression put once affluent individuals
in unemployment lines alongside factory workers
and actors. Breadlines over a block long became a
symbol of the times. Many people placed
newspapers under their clothes to stay warm in the
winter or stuffed cardboard into their shoes to hide
the holes.
After Germany turned its attention from Britain to an
invasion of the Soviet Union, Roosevelt extended
aid to the Russians under Lend-Lease. No terms
were ever established after World War II, however,
for the return of the billions of dollars worth of goods
transferred to the Soviet Union under Lend-Lease.
But in 1993, Russia agreed to pay the World War II
Lend-Lease debt of the former Soviet Union and
started making payments in 1994.
Korean Conflict
Edward Teller
Denouncing Vietnam
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Because Congress never declared war, the United
States involvement in the Korean struggle has never
been officially called a “war,” but rather a “conflict.”
Edward Teller, the chief developer of the hydrogen
bomb, advocated more testing of such weapons. He
said, “It won’t be until the bombs get so big that they
can annihilate everything that people will really
become terrified and begin to take a reasonable line
in politics.”
Some college students showed their unhappiness
over the Vietnam War by staging teach-ins, or allnight sessions in which students, faculty, and guest
speakers denounced the war. Other students
occupied college administration buildings, held
school officials captive, and then used the media
attention to state their cases.
Rescue Dogs
Counter Terrorism Allies
Volunteer Ironworkers
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Rescue dogs, trained to search through disaster
ruins, may receive years of training prior to working
on recovery missions. The dogs must be trained to
remain calm and focused in the face of loud noises;
to move in a specific way when rubble shifts
beneath them; and to negotiate confined spaces.
Following the terrorist attacks on New York City and
Washington, D.C., America’s NATO allies promised
to join forces to help organize an international
coalition to counter terrorism. Support and pledges
of cooperation were also offered from Pakistan and
Saudi Arabia, two countries which recognized the
Taliban government in Afghanistan.
Many ironworkers from Local 40, whose members
built the World Trade Center’s Twin Towers in the
early 1970s, returned to the site to volunteer their
time. Working up to 12 hours at a time, the
ironworkers cut steel with torches and pulled away
remnants and debris with cranes, allowing rescue
workers to search deeper into the rubble.
Before undergoing a cancer-related surgery during
which he would be under an anesthetic, President
Ronald Reagan transferred the powers of the
presidential office to Vice President George Bush.
This marked the first transfer of power of this kind.
(Following the attempt made on Reagan’s life on
March 30, 1981, Bush assumed some presidential
responsibilities, but no formal transfer of power was
made.) On the morning of July 14, 1985, George
Bush became acting president. Later that same day,
following his surgery, Reagan again assumed the
powers of his office.
Professional Sports In 1947 Jackie Robinson
became the first African American to play majorleague baseball. Other professional sports
integrated at different times. Professional football,
for example, had its first African American player
(Charles W. Follis) in 1904, and African American
prize fighters and jockeys had been successful
before that. It was not until 1950 that an African
American, Charles “Chuck” Cooper, was signed to
play on a National Basketball Association team.
Economics Because of a surplus of apples, the
International Shippers Association set up a system
for unemployed people to sell apples. A person
could get credit for $1.75 to buy 100 to 120 apples.
The person would then sell each apple for 5 cents,
making a small profit.
Civics Increased Native American activism led to
several important court decisions. In one, the
Pueblo people of Taos, New Mexico, regained
Blue Lake, a place sacred to their religious life. In
1975 a federal court declared that the
Passamaquoddy and Penobscot nations had a
valid claim to more than half the state of Maine–
and to $25 billion in damages and unpaid rents.
Civics After Gerald Ford assumed the presidency,
he pardoned Richard Nixon. Immediately, the stock
market plunged and Ford’s popularity rating
dropped from 71 percent to 50 percent.
Anthrax If swallowed, rubbed into scraped skin,
or inhaled as a fine, aerosolized mist, anthrax
organisms can cause infection in the
gastrointestinal system, the skin, or the lungs.
Disease can be prevented after exposure to the
anthrax spores by early treatment with the
appropriate antibiotics. Anthrax is not contagious
and does not spread from person to person.
Civilian Conservation Corps
Jeannette Rankin
Charles Drew
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Civilian Conservation Corps From its start in
1933 until World War II, about 3 million young men
worked in the CCC. It provided clothes, shelter, and
employment. A CCC worker made $30 a month, $25
of which was sent back home to his family. Other
workers became part of the Tennessee Valley
Authority, one of the nation’s largest and cheapest
suppliers of power. Through the work of the TVA,
electricity was brought to many rural areas.
Jeannette Rankin Jeannette Rankin, the first
woman elected to Congress, was the only member
of the House to cast a dissenting vote against
American entry into both World War I and World War
II. A statue of Rankin now stands in the Capitol in
Washington, D.C., bearing the motto: “I cannot vote
for war.”
Charles Drew Charles Drew, an African American,
was the first medical director of the American Red
Cross Blood Bank. He received the NAACP’s
Spingarn Medal for his research in both American
and British blood plasma projects. Through his
research a dry plasma method of storage was
developed, allowing for extended use of plasma on
the battlefields of World War II and the saving of
many lives.
Earth Day
The Fall of the Berlin Wall
Madeleine Albright
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Earth Day By the early 1970s, 70 percent of
Americans ranked the environment as the nation’s
most pressing domestic problem. This concern was
apparent in Americans’ support for the first Earth
Day held on April 22,1970. An estimated 20 million
Americans participated in this ecological rally to
improve the environment. More than 14,000
schools, colleges, and community groups held
workshops and other events across the country.
The Fall of the Berlin Wall On November 9, 1989,
after more than 28 years, the Berlin Wall was torn down
and ceased to act as an impenetrable barrier between
communist East Germany and democratic West
Germany. This event paved the way for the reunification
of Germany and the dismantling of the Soviet Union,
both of which occurred within the following two years.
Though George Bush was president at the time the wall
came down, Ronald Reagan is often credited with
shaping events that led to the fall of the wall, such as
signing the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty
with Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987.
Madeleine Albright President Clinton named
Madeleine K. Albright secretary of state. She was
the first woman to serve in that post and the
highest-ranking woman ever to serve in the federal
government. Previously, Albright served as United
Nations ambassador for the United States.
Fighting Terrorism
Homeland Security
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Fighting Terrorism The Joint Terrorism Task Force
(JTTF) was established in 1979 to address the
problems concerning terrorist investigations. The
JTTF is comprised of members from numerous
agencies, including the FBI, the U.S. Marshals
Service, the Immigration and Naturalization Service,
the New York State Police, and the U.S. Secret
Service. The integration of the many agencies, each
bringing its own unique skills and investigative
specialties to the task force, makes this unit
formidable in combating terrorism.
Homeland Security On September 20, 2001,
President Bush announced the creation of the
Office of Homeland Security. The new Cabinetlevel post grew out of a review begun in May by
Vice President Cheney to assess the federal
government’s ability to respond to an attack
using a weapon of mass destruction. The review
concluded that there was a need for a
comprehensive, integrated federal response to be
coordinated from the highest level of government.
Problem Solving
Why Learn This Skill?
Imagine you got a poor grade on a math test. You
wonder why, since you always take notes and
study for the tests. To improve your grades, you
need to identify your specific problem and then
take actions to solve it.
This feature can be found on page 571 of your textbook.
Click the Speaker button to replay the audio.
Problem Solving
Learning the Skill
There are six key steps you should follow that will help you
through the process of problem solving. 
• Identify the problem. In the example on the previous slide,
you know that you are not doing well on math tests. 
• Gather information. You know that you always take notes
and study. You work on math problems every day for an
hour. You also know that you sometimes forget details
about math formulas.
This feature can be found on page 571 of your textbook. Click the
mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
Problem Solving
Learning the Skill
There are six key steps you should follow that will help you
through the process of problem solving. 
• List and consider possible solutions. Instead of working on
the math problems by yourself, you might try working with
a friend or a group. 
• Consider the advantages and disadvantages of each
solution. 
• Now that you have considered the possible options, you
need to choose the best solution to your problem then
carry it out.
This feature can be found on page 571 of your textbook. Click the
mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
Problem Solving
Learning the Skill
There are six key steps you should follow that will help you
through the process of problem solving. 
• Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution. This will help
you determine if you have solved the problem. If you earn
better grades on the next few math tests, you will know.
This feature can be found on page 571 of your textbook. Click the
mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
Problem Solving
Practicing the Skill
Reread the material in Section 2 about the Vietnam War. Use
that information and the steps in Learning the Skill to answer
the following questions.
1. What problems did the United States face in the Vietnam
War?
North Vietnam increased its support of the Vietcong,
and the Vietcong and North Vietnamese were using
sanctuaries in Cambodia.
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mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Problem Solving
Practicing the Skill
Reread the material in Section 2 about the Vietnam War. Use
that information and the steps in Learning the Skill to answer
the following questions.
2. What options were available to President Johnson? To
President Nixon? What were the advantages and
disadvantages?
This feature can be found on page 571 of your textbook.
Problem Solving
Practicing the Skill
Reread the material in Section 2 about the Vietnam War. Use
that information and the steps in Learning the Skill to answer
the following questions.
3. Explain the solution President Nixon implemented.
Nixon withdrew American troops but continued to
provide training and equipment to South Vietnam.
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mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Problem Solving
Practicing the Skill
Reread the material in Section 2 about the Vietnam War. Use
that information and the steps in Learning the Skill to answer
the following questions.
4. Evaluate the effectiveness of Nixon’s solution. Was it
successful? How do you determine this?
This feature can be found on page 571 of your textbook.
America Responds
to Terrorism
Objectives
After viewing “America Responds to Terrorism,” you
should: 
• Realize the impact of September 11, 2001, on both everyday
people and those in leadership
positions. 
• Value the role of firefighters, police
officers, and other city workers. 
• Appreciate the contributions and
sacrifices that people can make
in a crisis of enormous proportions.
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the window above to view a preview of The American Republic to 1877 video.
America Responds
to Terrorism
Discussion Question
How did September 11 cause Americans to put
other concerns in a different perspective?
They put aside political differences to support
the president and the military and become more
security conscious.
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America Responds
to Terrorism
Discussion Question
Why did Senator John McCain consider the
passengers of the hijacked flight that crashed in
Pennsylvania to be heroes?
In that flight, passengers overcame the hijackers,
preventing them from reaching Washington, D.C.,
and their probable destination: the U.S. Capitol.
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The oath requires that
all employees pledge
allegiance to the United
States Constitution and
the California
Constitution, and that
they pledge to fulfill
their job responsibilities.
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The speaker is referring
to the American people.
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