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Week 9.1: Augustus and the Transformation of the Roman World
Understand in general terms…
The situation after Caesar’s assassination: how the tyrannicides lost control of Rome, how
Octavian displaced Antony as leader of the Caesarians but then joined forces with
Lepidus as a member of the “Second” Triumvirate.
How Octavian and Anthony became preeminent in the West and East respectively.
The framework of Augustus’ “First Settlement” and it’s refinement in the “Second
Settlement” (which offices he filled, which he relinquished; what options for autocracy
he avoid; his relations with Senate and Equites and the Army)
The problem of succession and Augustus’ attempts to find a solution.
The effect of Augustus’ rule on the Empire and the City of Rome.
Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (39–65 CE)
Key Figures & Events
Caesar’s Will & Deification
Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BCE)
Marcus Antonius (83–30) = Mark Antony
Defeat at Mutina
Marriage to Octavia (and divorce)
Victory at Philippi
Marriage (?) to Cleopatra
Defeat in Parthia and at Actium
Cleopatra VII Philopator (69–30 BCE)
Alexander Helios (sun) & Cleopatra Selene
Gaius Octavius (63 BCE–14 CE) = Gaius Julius Caesar (Octavianus) =
Augustus (after 27 BCE)
Calendar Reforms
Land Confiscations in Italy
Struggles against Antony’s wife and brother &
Sextus & Lepidus
Propoganda (?) vs. Antony and Cleopatra;
Antony’s Will and the Vestals
First (27) and Second (23) Settlements
Pontifex Maximus (12 BCE)
Pater Patriae (2 BCE)
Vigiles (first police force)
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (63–12 BCE)
Julia the Elder (39 BCE–14 CE)
Livia Drusilla Augusta (58 BCE–29 CE)
Siege of Mutina (44–43 BCE) & the death of
the consuls
Second Triumvirate: origin, purpose,
Battle of Philippi (42 BCE)
Battle of Actium (31 BCE) & Siege of
Alexandria (30 BCE)
Battle of the Teutoberg Forest (9 CE)
Augustus’ “First Settlement” and the
“Republic Restored” (27 BCE)
Augustus’ “Second Settlement” (23 BCE)
Foes of Octavian
Marcus Junius Brutus (85–42 BCE)
Gaius Cassius Longinus (before 85–42 BCE)
Sextus Pompey
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (90–13 BCE)
Marcus Antonius & Cleopatra
Key Terms
princeps / primus inter pares
tribunicia potestas (and maius imperius)
Pater Patriae