* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Download AP World History Catherine Phamduy
Document related concepts
AP World History Chapter 24 Outline Catherine Phamduy 2/27/12 The Shift to Land Empires in Asia- colonization n Asia was not encouraged because wars were expensive. But people migrated to Asia, experiencing local power struggles, and communication was slow. Prototype: the Dutch Advance on Java The Dutch settled in Batavia in 1619, paying tribute to the Matarams, rulers of most of Java. Dutch intervened in wars and took the victorious sidegained land for assistance + conquered Java by mid 18th century. Pivot of World Empire: The Rise of British Rule in India British agents used sepoys (Indian troops) to interfere with warfare and gain land eventually le to the British control of India. The British Raj was the political establishment in India- due to British/French rivalry. British won most wars vs France The Battle of Plassey in 1757 was a British victory (Siraj ud-daula vs Robert Clive) The British won because of financial security and the use of many spies and secret allies conquer of Bengal Empire Consolidation of British Rule As the Mughal Empire broke down, British advanced inward with the 3 presidencies (Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta) and created alliances with princely states. More and more Indian turned into sepoys, letting British take control of Indian ports, which was important for overseas trade and investments/raw materials. Early Colonial Society in India and Java Colonists established themselves atop of all other subjects, yet preserved the social hierarchy. They controlled the important decisions. Many colonists faced malaria, dysentery, and typhoid when coming to Batavia (esp @ canals), had to move to suburbs and created bungalows. Europeans adopted tropical fashion, eating and working habits and some politics Intermarriages with Asian women cut across racial boundaries. Social Reform in the Colonies Corruptors who made wealth quickly in the colonies (nabobs) prompted the British govt into a series of reforms. Lord Charles Cornwallis was appointed to police the court systems and eliminate many Indians from their offices in govt. Evangelical reforms in Britain also occurred in British colonies and Unitarian thinkers believed that to civilize the Indian would be to educate them. The practice of sati was outlawed with the support of Ram Mohun Roy- showed that Western customs more superior to Indian traditions. Ideas from IR were transported to India and its people became educated. Science was promoted + systems more organized Rev for Indep Industrial Rivalries and Partition of the World (1870-1914)- Britain, having once held world power for its industrial might, now faced competitors (France, Belgium, US, Germany) in economic and political power. Colonial expansion emphasized growing power and communication improved. Unequal Combat: Colonial Warfare and Apex of European Imperialism Artillery weapons were enhanced as explosives became more deadly, guns more accurate, and communication/transportation enhanced to supply armies. Battles for colonies now resulted with industrialized weapons vs preindustrial technology. w/ disadvantages, indigenous peoples still fought with force or guerilla tactics. The battle of Isandhlwana in 1879 showed that African martial arts natives could fight vs British forces and win. Yet even victories came w/ heavy sacrifices- most battles that were won came with heavy casualties on native side than European side Most conflicts were led w/ religious ideas to offset the formidable power of Europeans. Patterns of Dominance: Continuity and Change- 1 colonization consists of tropical dependency (minority of Europeans rule majority of natives, ex Java). 2nd is settlement colonies- consists of White Dominions that have colonists who make up majority of population b/c natives were decimated, yet make up make % of British population. Sometimes the 2 types combineclash of society and culture. Colonial Regimes and Social Hierarchy in Tropical Dependencies Upon colonizing, Europeans worked to keep ethnic distinction, separating people into tribes. Minority of Europeans oversaw administrative duties while majority of local leaders (indigenous) oversaw small tasks. Edu was left largely to Protestant/Catholic church missionaries (besides Java and India). Yet edu was limited, limiting power of middle class in Africa compared to other colonies. Changing Social Relations Between Colonizer and Colonized Social distinctions became more clear- liaison marriages disapproved, religion condemnation, and men oppression and law. The idea of white racial supremacy (whites were better than all skin colors in intellect + science) kept the Europeans from natives. Homesickness also created a sense to be away from natives to live in a fake home-country style Shifts in methods of Economic Extraction Natives could still work alongside Europeans with smaller tasks To produce more efficiently, workers did not receive pay if they did not meet the expected demands of products. Europeans technology made transportation and communication faster, mining industries Africa produced raw materialsEurope created the industrialized productsEuropean consumers Settler Colonies in the South Africa and Pacific In Canada, US, Chile, and Argentinaconquest and diseases killed many natives, and the remaining were cast down socially. (Old colonization) Substantial conflict between the natives (immunity) and Europeans -1:1 ratio of natives and European migrants. (New colonization)indep from mother country South Africa Dutch colony @ Cape of Good Hope moved north (moderate climate, livestock/crops, immunity) and enslaved the Khoikhoimixed “coloreds” Britain took over Cape of GHmajor diff of Boers +British settlers (Boers like slavery, British do not) Boers were forced to move east, meeting powerful societies (Bantus and Xhosa). Pre-industrialized people (Boers) vs industrialized world. British also followed and established outpost of NatalBritish vs Bantus 1850’s- Boers separated into two Boer Republics (Orange Free State + Transvaal). When gold was discovered in the BR’s, British (Cecil Rhodes) rushed in to get goldBoer War (1899-1902) w/ British victory, yet Boers still retained control over the Africans. Pacific Tragedies Pacific natives suffered mass exterminations and shocking culture and social change. New Zealand and Hawaii had suffered from European influence (They were largest Pacific societies + sophisticated) yet strived to retain culture. New Zealand- The Maori was given guns, alcohol, and diseases. Yet, their trade with merchant and Christianity.. However, British farmers moved in + took fertile lands, leaving Maori to fight back for land = little success. Thru use of political rights, Maori won favor of officials, and preserve some traditions. Hawaii- affected politically by British, economically/culturally by US. Captain James Cook (1777) sailed to Hawaii, yet it was prince Kamehamha who took controlEuropean influence. Conversion and edu spread. Chinese. Japanese migrated to Hawaii as disease weakened native population. US took over Hawaii in 1898.