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Judaism Many Branches of One Tree Movements in Ancient Times • Oldest records of formal differences: – The time of Chanukah • Land of Israel controlled by Greece • Hellenizing Jews opposed by traditionalists • War broke out • The Jewish people united against the Greeks • War ended • Jewish people divided into 4: –Essenes –Sadducees –Pharisees –Zealots The Essenes –Mystical group –Strict discipline –Lived in isolation –Dead Sea Scrolls The Sadducees –Developed from Hellenism –Priests and the wealthiest –Strict, narrow and unchanging interpretation of the written Torah –Did not believe in oral Torah –The Temple and its sacrificial services –Adopted Greek culture The Pharisees –God gave the Jews both a written Torah and an oral Torah –Written and Oral Torah equally binding –Open to reinterpretation by the rabbis –Devoted to study of the Torah and education for all Zealots –Judea conquered by Rome –Tensions with Rome began –The Zealots=nationalistic movement –Not a religious group –Favored war against Rome Pharisees' ideas are the only one that survived the destruction of the Temple • After the destruction of the Temple, Judaism was Judaism • Basically the same as Orthodox Judaism today • Some differences in practices and customs between the Ashkenazim and Sephardim Karaites and Rabbinical Judaism • 9th century, Karaites (literally, People of the Scripture) separated from Rabbinic Judaism • Believed in strict interpretation of the literal text • No rabbinic interpretation • Said rabbinic law not part of an oral tradition and not from God Karaites and Rabbinical Judaism • Difference most obvious in regard to Shabbat: – Karaites kept their houses dark on Shabbat (no fires) – Rabbinic interpretation allowed Jews to leave burning a flame lit before Shabbat – Karaites use a different calendar • Karaites were once as much as 40% of Jews • Today, Karaites are a very small minority Sephardim • Jews whose ancestors lived in Spain and Portugal starting in the Middle Ages • Fled first to North Africa and other parts of the Ottoman Empire • Settled in France, Holland, England, Italy, and the Balkan states • Differ from the Ashkenazi Jews: – Language: Ladino – Preservation of Babylonian traditions • Many now live in Israel Ashkenazim • Descendants of Historically Yiddish-speaking European Jews who settled in central and northern Europe • Originally from the Rhineland valley • Name derived from the Hebrew word Ashkenaz ("Germany") • After the Crusades (late 11th century) many migrated east to Poland, Lithuania, and Russia • Ashkenazim and Sephardim differ in: – Cultural traditions – Pronunciation of Hebrew – Synagogue chanting • Today they constitute more than 80% of the world's Jews Chasidim • • • • • Chasidism started in the 1700s The first of the modern movements Developed in Eastern Europe Founded by Israel ben Eliezer (the Baal Shem Tov) Before Chasidism, Judaism emphasized education as the way to get closer to God • Chasidism emphasized alternative routes to God : – personal experiences – Mysticism • Considered a radical movement at the time • There was strong opposition from those who held to the pre-existing view of Judaism. Mitnagdim • Those who opposed Chasidism • Means opponents • Strong disputes between the Chasidim and the Mitnagdim • Today, the Chasidim and the Mitnagdim are relatively unified • Both are Torah observant forms of Judaism Chasidim • Today all branches of Judaism have been strongly influenced by Chasidic teachings • Chasidic sects are organized around a spiritual leader called a Rebbe or a tzaddik • A Chasid consults his Rebbe about all major life decisions • Chasidism is a strong movement • The Lubavitcher Chasidim are very vocal with a high media presence • There are still many active Chasidic sects Movements in the United States Today • Approximately 5 million of the world's 13 million Jews live in the United States. • There are basically four major movements in the U.S. today: – – – – Reform Conservative Reconstructionist Orthodox • Orthodox and sometimes Conservative are described as "traditional" movements. • Reform, Reconstructionist, and sometimes Conservative are described as "liberal" or "modern" movements Orthodox Judaism • Orthodoxy is actually made up of several different groups. It includes: – Modern Orthodox: largely integrated into modern society and also observance of halakhah (Jewish Law) – Chasidim, who often live separately and dress distinctively – Yeshivish Orthodox, who are neither Chasidic nor modern. • The Orthodox movements are similar in belief Orthodox Judaism – As a movement believe that God gave Moses the whole Torah at Mount Sinai – The "whole Torah" includes: • The Written Torah (the first five books of the Bible) • The Oral Torah (an oral tradition interpreting and explaining the Written Torah) – They Believe • The Torah is true • The Torah has come down to us intact and unchanged • The Torah contains 613 mitzvot binding upon Jews but not upon non-Jews Orthodox Judaism • 1990 National Jewish Population Survey (NJPS) – 7% of the Jews in America identify as Orthodox • 2000 NJPS – 13% of the Jews in America identify as Orthodox • 2013 Pew Research Study: – 10% Jews in America identify as Orthodox Reform Judaism • Began in the 1800’s in Germany • Founders of the movement sought to “Reform” Judaism • Wanted a Judaism more compatible with modern life • In the early years, Reform Judaism sought to get rid of traditions such as: – – – – – Kashrut Kippot and Tallit Praying in Hebrew (prayed in German) Shabbat on Saturday (changed it to Sunday) Bar Mitzvah (replaced by Confirmation) • Today, many of these traditions have been embraced once again Reform Judaism • As a movement does not believe the Torah was the word of God • The movement accepts the critical theory of Biblical authorship: – the Bible was written by separate sources – It was redacted together • Reform Judaism does not believe the observance of ritual commandments is required • They retain much of the values and ethics of Judaism • Some choose to follow ritual practices Reform Judaism • Many non-observant Jews identify themselves as Reform because Reform is the “most liberal” • There are approximately 850 Reform synagogues in the United States and Canada • 1990 NJPS – 42% of the Jews in America identify as Reform • 2000 NJPS – 39% of the Jews in America identify as Reform • 2013 Pew Research Study: – 34% Jews in America identify as Reform Conservative Judaism • Grew out of the tension between Orthodox and Reform • Formally organized as the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism in by Dr. Solomon Schechter in 1913 Conservative Judaism • The movement believes the truths found in the Tanach and other Jewish writings come from God • They were transmitted by humans and contain a human component • Accepts the binding nature of halakhah • Believes that the Law should change and adapt, absorbing aspects of the predominant culture while remaining true to Judaism's values • Lots of variation among Conservative synagogues. – Some are indistinguishable from Reform, but with more Hebrew – Some practically Orthodox, except that men and women sit together – This flexibility deeply rooted in Conservative Judaism Conservative Judaism • Approximately 325 Conservative synagogues in the U.S. and Canada • 1990 NJPS: – 38% Jews in America identify as Conservative • 2000 NJPS – 33% Jews in America identify as Conservative • 2013 Pew Research Study: – 26% Jews in America identify as Conservative Reconstructionist Judaism • An outgrowth of Conservative Judaism • Founded by Mordecai Kaplan – Conservative rabbi – Taught at JTS (Conservative Rabbinical School) • Doesn't fit neatly into the traditional/liberal, observant/nonobservant continuum Reconstructionist Judaism • Movement believes that Judaism is an "evolving religious civilization" • Do not believe in a personified deity that is active in history • Do not believe that God chose the Jewish people • Greater emphasis on Jewish observance than Reform Judaism – Reconstructionists observe the halakhah: • If they choose to • Not because it is a binding Law from God • Because it is a valuable cultural remnant Reconstructionist Judaism • Reconstructionism small movement • Lots of Reconstructionists serve as rabbis to Jewish college student organizations and JCCs • Just over 100 Reconstructionist synagogues in the U.S. and Canada • 1990 NJPS – 1% of Jews in America identify as Reconstructionist • 2000 NJPS – 3% of Jews in America identify as Reconstructionist • 2013 Pew Research Study: – 2% Jews in America identify as Reconstructionist Other (Smaller) Movements • Jewish Renewal: – Seeking a renewed encounter between God and the Jewish people – Understanding Jewish history as a series of encounters with God – Nurtures the rebbe-spark (that is, the creative energy and leadership that comes from direct contact with the Divine) in everyone – Does not fear the rebbe-sparks emergence in different ways and degrees at different moments in different people – Nurtures communities that dance and wrestle with God and are: • • • • Intimate Participatory Egalitarian Create shared openness to spiritual experience – Seek to assist the spiritual growth and healing of individuals, communities, whole societies, and the planet • Humanistic Judaism – Embraces a human-centered philosophy – Combines the celebration of Jewish culture and identity with an adherence to humanistic values and ideas – Offers a nontheistic alternative in contemporary Jewish life Physical Differences • • • • • • • Mechitzah Tallit / Tallit Katan Kipah Tefillin Placement of the Bima Leaders / Rabbis Musical Instruments Structure of the Service • One significant differences between services is Musaf (additional) service. • Musaf represents the additional sacrifice offered at the Temple • Musaf expresses the hope that the Temple in Jerusalem and its rites of ritual sacrificed will be renewed • Reform and Reconstructionist synagogue do not recite Musaf • Conservative synagogues recites Musaf, but has redefined it: – It reminds us of the Temple – It is not a call for God to return to sacrifice Reform Siddur • Poetic translations and new meditations • Gender sensitive: – Matriarchs along with patriarch • Reworks traditional Hebrew passages to match to Reform Judaism • Does not accept literal conception of: – The revelation of Torah – The physical resurrection of the dead – The reinstitution of sacrifices • Home observances (Kiddush and the parents' blessing for their children) come first • Starts with Shabbat prayers, then weekday prayers Conservative Siddur • Uses traditional Hebrew with a few key passages adapted for ideological reasons • References to resurrection are the same Hebrew text, but are reinterpreted in English • Two parallel openings of the Amidah prayer: – One with the traditional reference to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob – Another including the matriarchs • Expands holidays on which one says the Al Hanisim prayer of thanks for miracles to include: – Hanukkah – Purim – Yom Ha'atzmaut Reconstructionist Siddur • Called Kol Haneshamah (every creature" or "all that breathes) • Innovative approach to liturgy: – Traditionalist in form – Radical in ideology • Full Hebrew text given for prayers • Follows the traditional "matbeah shel tefilah" (order of prayer) • Modern English translation • Gender neutral • Alternative versions reflect different interpretations • Varied names for God • "Kavanot” (deeper meanings) following many prayers • Songs, poems and readings Differences in Prayers • • • • • • • • ברכות השחר אמהות מתים \ הכל משיב הרוח \ מוריד הטל בחר בנו \ קרבתנו מוסף עלינו שמות לה"