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5th period APUSH Fall Final Review
By: Karla Alanis
The Iroquois Confederacy
-Made up of five Native American Nations: The Oneida,Mohawk, Cayunga, Onondaga, and Seneca (later on the
Tuscarora tribe was added in 1720)
-Lived in New York; called themselves Haudenosaunee or people of the longhouse(lived in long houses)
-During the 1700's it was a very powerful North American Indian organization that influenced others. Ex: Some of their
ideas were used in the constitution of the United States.
-These were natives in the North; known for their large mounds that were built from the Great lakes to the Gulf of
Mexico, and from the Mississippi Tiver to the Appalachians.
- These were misterious monuments that served as individual or collective funerary monuments, temples,and platforms
for religious structures.
Pueblo Indians (Aeoma Pueblo)
-In New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado
-Known for poverty and houses made of adobe(red mud).
-Religious government that was controled by men.
-Matrilocal(when married,join females family) and matrilineal(tracing ancestors by mothers)
-They lived in Georgia, Alabama,North California and Florida.
- They built their homes around sophisticated places and pyramids.
- They were agricultures and they also had and raised livestock.
- Numerous and very powerful towards Northern attacks
Amerindian culture in North America
-The Native Americans had lots of diversity; though all of them subsisted off of farming, and hunting.
-They had many healing techniques that helped them through life
- many sacrifices to gods and bural bounds(Mississippi Indians)
-Italian navagator;an explorer from Spain who sailed westward across the Atlantic to find a direct sea route from Europe
to Asia
- He discovered the Americas with the help of Isabella and Ferdinand(king and queen) gave him three boats to sail out to
the exploratation
-Columbus believed he had reached the West Indies when he reached the New World.
-The European reasons for explorations were:
1. To find a new passage to the far East for trade (1st point)
2. To find gold,silver, precious gems, and valuables.
3. To claim new lands for their countries.
4. To convert people to Christianity.
St. Augustine, 1565
-The nations oldest city in Florida;first Spanish settlement
-Founded by Spain- Pedro Menendez, who quickly started to build a fort to protect his people and their valubles
Samuel de Champlain ("Father of New France")
-French explorer and navigator
-He founded the Canadian city- Quebec and also discovered the lake in upstate New York.
-He was the geographer of Canada
-befriended with the Algonquin and the Huron against the Iroquois
-Trated furs with France
Impact of European Culture on North America
-Introduced them to guns, sugarcane and horses.
-Brought diseases like smallpox,measles,and the common cold, etc.
-Europeans started to cut off trees;something americans didnt like because the animals living there where the ones they
-Mestizo: a person of mixed European and Indian ancestry
Impact of Native Americans on European culture
-Introduced them to tomatoes, corn, potatoes, and tobacco
-To more effective agriculture and medicnes
Spanish relations with Native Americans
-The spaniards treated the Native Americans as animals and as slaves
-The natives were used in encomiendas which was a Spanish labor in which people were held to unpaid labor sevice by
- The first governor of New Mexico was known for mistreating Pueblos who refused to pay his tax or to embrace the
Mission System,Franciscans
-The citizens from Florida thought of many missions to convert indians to catholisism and for them to be laborers.
Pope's Rebellion, Santa Fe
-A revolt in 1680 by the Pueblo Indians against Spaniards who were making them work in mines to dig for gold and
-They also revolted because they didnt want to follow christianity, they wanted to stick to their own religion.
California-Father Junipero Serra
-He was sent to Baja California to enforce the missions the Spaniards had established.
-He was a Spaniard himself; he wanted Natives to change into their religion
French relations with Native Americans
-French introduced them to alcohol
-French were interested in Native American cultures, customs, and habits.
-They were friendly, since all they wanted was the beaver fur, which the coureur de bois and voyageurs wanted and
hunted for. (the only ones liked by natives)
-North American Indian tribe that lived on their own reserve(the land they owned).
-Allienced with the French
-In the 17th century they were driven out of their territory by their enemies, the iroquois
-French Catholic missionaries whose intentions were to save the indians
-traveled across North America attempting to convert Indians to Catholics.
-Killed by natives because they didnt want to convert into Catholics.
British relations with the Native Americans
-They had no respect for the Native Americans, because of economic and cultural reasons
-Treated them like animals, like they werent important
-Many of the hostilities were because of the land aquirement
-The pilgrims were a group of people who wanted to seperate from the church of England and from persecusion.
-They are separatists(they wanted their own religion) and believed that the church of England could not be reformed.
-They set sail from Plymouth, England, on the mayflower; heading over to Virginia. The ship was then blown off course
because of a storm so they ended up in Mass. where they signed the Mayflower Compact, the agreement that provided
a government and set laws for the Pilgrims in the new Plymouth Rock.
-Lived in Massachusetts; Algonquian tribe.
-Loved nature; thought that it was spiritual
-They befriended the Pilgrims in Plymouth, the ones who brought them food on Thanksgiving day
Pequot War, 1636
-First serious problem between the indians and the settlers
-This war resulted with complete annihilation of the piquot tribe.
-The result of this war was that it opened settlers/colonists way to enter into the southern New England
New England Confederation
-The result of the Pequot War
-A group formed in 1643, between Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven.
-Created to provide a unite defense against the Duch, French, and Native Americans; met in Boston
-It also acted as the court in desputes between colonies.
"Praying Towns"
-Christian communities build by the Massachusetts Bay Colony
- John Eliot and other Puritans thought it necessary to isolate to change Native ways
King Philip's War, 1675
-Between the colonists and the confederation of Indians led by King Philip
-It engaged when the Massachusetts government tried to give more power to the jurusdiction over the Indians.
-Colonist ended up winning, opening up the path for Indian land expansions
The Iroquois Confederacy
-Made up of five Native American Nations: The Oneida,Mohawk, Cayunga, Onondaga, and Seneca (later on the
Tuscarora tribe was added in 1720)
-Lived in New York; called themselves Haudenosaunee or people of the longhouse(lived in long houses)
-During the 1700's it was a very powerful North American Indian organization that influenced others. Ex: Some of their
ideas were used in the constitution of the United States.
-Haven for Quakers
-Religious tolreation
-No tax supported churches
-Against slavery
-Founded by William Penn
-Christian Religion
-Refused to pay taxes to the Church of England
-Dont make alliances or oaths (Bible says not to swear to anything)
-Pacifist (refused military service)
-Often persecuted because they would not follow norms
-Represents Maryland and Virginia
-Founded in Virgina in 1607 by John Smith who helped them through the "starving time".
-Had the Virginia Stock Company which makes lots of profits for Virginia, and recieves a charter in the New World.
-tobacco was the cash crop (taught to the colonists by John Rolfe)
Anglo-Powhatan Wars
-Things started when Lord de la Warr sent troops to Paspahegh, close to jamestown, and killed over 50 men;also
because of raided Indian food supplies.
-1st Anglo Powhatan war ended in 1614 by a peace statement sealed with the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe.
-The 2nd Anglo Powhatan War was in 1644, where it banished Indians from their ancesteral lands.
-Established in 1670
-Trated food for sugar,
-1712 was the separation of the Carolinas
-North carolina is poor; South Carolina is wealty
-Used desposible laborers
-Rice was the number one export of the Carolinas.
Founding of the 13 Original Colonies(Know order)
Virginia 1607
Massachusetts 1620
New Hampshire 1623
Maryland 1634
Connecticut 1636
Rhode Island 1636
Delaware 1638
North Carolina 1653
South Carolina 1663
New Jersey 1664
New York 1664
Pennsylvania 1682
Georgia 1732
Southern Colonies (Plantation Colonies)
By Keeli Armitage
common characteristics of southern colonies- Agricultural, grew tobacco, rice, and indigo on plantations. Slavery
was popular. Religion very important.
Chesapeake: Virginia, Maryland- 1610 Lord De La Warr arrived from VA Company. Waged war against
Powhatans using “Irish Tactics”, raiding houses, burning buildings, and torching fields. In 1614 a declaration of
peace was issued, ending the first Anglo-Powhatan war. The ending was sealed by the marriage of Pocahantas to
John Rolfe. In 1622 NAs killed 347 settlers, including John Rolfe. The second Anglo-Powhatan war started in
1644, ending with a peace treaty in 1646. This occurred in the Chesapeake.
joint-stock company- a company that held stocks and often sent people to foreign places to acquire land and
resources, increasing the revenue of the company.
Virginia Company: purpose, failures, successes- 1606 London received charter from King James I for a settlement
in the new world. The Virginia Company charter guaranteed overseas settler the same rights as an Englishman.
1607, people came over, harsh conditions and bad relations with Indians plagued the settlers. In 1610, only 60
had survived the “starving time (winter of 1609-10)”. After Lord de la Warr arrived, settling was again on track.
After John Rolfe perfected growing in tobacco in 1612, the colony was able to flourish.
Virginia Charter, significance- The VA Charter was significant because it guaranteed overseas settlers the same
rights as Englishmen at home.
Jamestown (1607)/ Virginia
Maryland (1634)
Captain John Smith- leader of Jamestown, implemented the rule that “Those who shall not work, shall
not eat.”
Powhatans, Pocahantas- The Powhatans were the original inhabitants of the Chesapeake by VA. After
fighting two wars against settlers, they were believed to be extinct by about 1685. Pocahantas was a
Powhatan woman that married John Rolfe and helped seal the end of the first Anglo-Powhatan war.
John Rolfe, tobacco- Called the father of tobacco and the economic savior of Jamestown, he married
Pocahantas in 1614.
Africans arrive in 1619- The first Africans were introduced by the Dutch in 1619 and later, in 1650, there
were at least 300 black slaves, about 14% of the population.
House of Burgesses, 1619- The House of Burgesses established by the VA company. Was the first
assembly of elected representatives of English colonists in North America.
Charter Revoked in 1624, James I- The charter was revoked in 1624 because King James I wanted VA as a
royal colony. He wanted VA as a royal colony because he was wary and suspicious of the activities
happening there and he wanted to keep VA under his control.
Bacon’s Rebellion, 1676; Governor Berkeley- Was an uprising of poor farmers in 1676 due to resentment
of the royal Governor Berkeley. Governor Berkeley had been sent to the colony by King James I and
most people despised his authority. Bacon’s Rebellion was lead by Nathaniel Bacon and it drove many
NAs out of VA, but failed in driving Berkeley out.
Lord Baltimore (Calvert)- Wanted to make a refuge for fellow Catholics.
Act of Toleration (1649)- Granted religious freedom to all Christians. Excluded Jews, Unitarians, and
other dissenters.
Headright system, indentured servants- A headright is a legal grant of land to settlers. The land was
given to anyone willing to pay for passage of an indentured servant from England to the new land.
Indentured servants were, generally, white people that had no land or money and so they were worked,
essentially, as slaves for a set period of time. After that period of time they might set up their own farm,
go into a trade, or continue working for the same person for wages now.
Restoration Colonies, Charles II- Charles II granted his supporters land. The land was the area of the
Carolinas and he promised to grant religious freedom and tolerance. He offered land free for asking to
whomever would go. The leaders planned to establish Carolina as a model of social and political
Carolinas 1670 (Split in 1712)
Charleston (Charles Town)- Established by English settlers under William Sayle in 1670. The capital of the
Carolina colony, it was the center for expansion and the southernmost point of English settlement
during the late 17th century. Met with resistance from Native Americans. Was the main dropping point
for Africans captured and transported to the US for sale as slaves.
Impact of British West Indies, Barbados
Middle Passage- part of triangular trade, Charleston was where most slaves went to be sold. Triangular
trade started in Africa, moved the slaves to South America, then to North America.
Slave Codes- establish in most states, codes of conduct for slaves. Most included forbidding slaves to
read, leave property, or do most things without the owner’s permission.
rice&indigo- the two main crops harvested in the Carolinas, provided much of the economy.
Stono Rebellion, 1739- Occurred in South Carolina. Largest slave revolt. A large group of slaves amassed,
marched over 10 miles, and killed approximately 25 whites.
differences between North and South Carolina
Georgia (1733)
reasons; successes- established to be a barrier between Spanish FL and the US, comprised of many
criminals and debtors. Effectively barred Spanish from the US.
James Oglethorpe- Founded the colony in 1732. Was a member of Parliament. Thought Georgia would
be an effective way to rid England of its “worthy poor”.
Southern class structure- Plantation owners and their families high up, then merchants and salesmen,
then indentured servants, then slaves.
Anglican Church- was the church of England, priests sent over to GA to preach to Native Americans and
the inhabitants of Georgia.
Early New England- Plymouth and MBC
By: Valerie Beltran
Protestant Reformation
Reformation: In the 16th century, the western Europeans wanted to reform some doctrines and practices in the Roman
Catholic community and that led to them making a whole new religion and were the Protestants. There was a textbook
that was published in 1536 around the same time King George VIII seized the land of roman Catholics and it was
Protestant theology and it was published in Latin.
When it came to politics, Martin Luther was the one to challenge the church’s authority and John Calvin was the one
that thought that the church should be in charge.
In the end, the results to Martin Luther and John Calvin’s actions, the Lutheran church was created.
Predestination was when John Calvin said that god was the one to choose who was going to hell or heaven.
The elect were the ones that were chosen to go to heaven
Visible saints were the “good people” and others thought should be members of the church.
Church of England was the protestant church that King Henry VIII sided with after leaving the Roman Catholic Church.
Plymouth Colony was the second permanent colony from England that was founded in 1620 by the pilgrims. The pilgrims
thought that there was not going to be any hope reforming the English Church so they chose to completely separate
themselves from the church.
Pilgrims were first settlers in Plymouth, Mass. They were the first permanent English colony in America. They were
members of the English separatist’s church were very similar to the puritans. These 102 members sailed on the
Mayflower to North America and later became the dominant colony in North America. The separatist were the people
who did not follow with their religion and chose not to be a part of that religion.
John Robinson was the pastor for the “pilgrim fathers” before they set sail on the Mayflower. He became an early leader
for the English separatists and a minister of the pilgrims and was known as one of the founders for the congregational
Separatists’ were those who chose to stay out of their church and not follow that religion.
Mayflower compact was a document signed by 41 different men that were on the mayflower right before they hit land
in Plymouth. The document was stating that no one could leave and go make their own colonies and they had to obey
by the laws that they as pilgrims were going to enforce for everyone that signed the compact.
William Bradford established a practice Yorktown, Pennsylvania after retiring from the war. Bradford chose George
Washington to become general in 1794.
Massachusetts Bay Colony was settled by 1000 puritan refugees sent by Governor John Winthrop from England in
Massachusetts in 1630. In 1629 the Massachusetts bay colony was allowed to trade with New England because they
were under a charter that King Charles I settled. But later on the royal government gets changed to a new charter and
that merged the Plymouth and Maine colony into the Massachusetts bay colony in 1691.
Puritans were the ones that King Henry VIII went to when he left the Roman Catholic Church and found a new religion,
the Protestants. Because he left the Roman Catholics for the Protestants, that gave people a reason to fight about
religion for centuries.
The great migration took place in the 1630’s when the puritans were coming from New England to practice their religion
because they had the freedom of religion in America.
John Winthrop was the first governor of Massachusetts bay colony and was selected by new England. Winthrop says
“city on a hill” because he was certain that Massachusetts bay colony was a true godly society because of their practices
and religion over all. John Winthrop believed that America was a godly country and that they were “models” for the
other countries.
The protestant work ethics came from the Calvinists. The Calvinists were hard workers and wanted to prove to the
Americans that they were worthy and could do a good job.
John Cotton was a puritan who sailed from England after getting in trouble for nonconformism and became a teacher at
the first church of boston and then was inspired by the leader of Massachusetts bay colony so he decided to write a
children’s book that was supporting everyone who was a puritan.
Harvard was founded in 1636 by the puritans and was named after prime minister John Harvard. The Harvard college is
located in Massachusetts.
The salem witch trials happened in salem, Massachusetts bay colony. The indian slaves were going around telling these
young girls about these fake tales of witchcraft and they ended up accusing three girls for being possessed by the devil
and becoming witches. The three girls were hung.
The quakers were known to be society of friends. They believed that God heard them and they were just friendly,
peaceful people.
Anne Hutchison was kicked out and banished from the Massachusetts bay colony because she was preaching to woman
about the religion and that wasn’t allowed. She was charged with heresy and then settled in rhode island but after her
husband dies , she goes to new York to join a dutch territory but was killed there by an indian tribe.
Other New England Colonies, New England Politics and Middle Colonies
By: Jazmin Contreras
Other New England Colonies
Connecticut Colony (1636)
The Connecticut colony was founded in 1636 by reverend Thomas Hooker and consisted heavily on the
Puritan religion, which believed in pre-destination. Pre-destination was the belief that before someone was born,
God had already chosen whether that person would go to heaven or hell, and that “good works” could not help
those who weren’t part of the elect, which was the group of people who God had chosen to go to heaven.
Connecticut was also a satellite colony. This meant that Connecticut was one part of Massachusetts but
had broken off. Another colony like this was New Hampshire.
Rhode Island (1644)
In 1636, Roger Williams a popular Salem minister was banished from his home because people believed
he had “new and dangerous” ideas. This caused Roger Williams to flee to Rhode Island, where he established
COMPLETE freedom of religion.
Although Maryland had little religious freedom, which was only for religions that believed in the
divinity of God and that Jesus was the son of God, which meant that Maryland didn’t tolerate Jews or Atheists,
Rhode Island was the first of the colonies that had COMPLETE religious freedom.
Religion in the Colonies, The Colonial Economy, Colonial Society
By: Alexa Cortez
Religion in the Colonies
Congregational Church-Puritanism
The Congregational Church was founded by separatists who felt that the Church of England retained too many Roman
Catholic beliefs and practices. The Pilgrims were members of the Congregational Church. Puritanism started in the
sixteenth century as a movement to reform the Church of England.
Anglican Church
The name "Anglican" means "of England", but the Anglican church exists worldwide, first by English colonization and
then by English-speaking missionaries. It was founded by King Henry VIII. It began in the sixth century in England.The
Anglican Church evolved as part of the Roman church, but the Celtic influence was folded back into the Roman portion
of the church in many ways.
MD,PA,RI-Founder,Established, Churches
Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn, a Quaker. Pennsylvania provide protection for Quakers. Maryland was
formed as a colony where Catholics would be free from persecution. Rhode Island was formed to provide a haven for all
persecuted religions, including all Christian denominations and Jews.
Maryland Act of Toleration 1649
This act was ordered by Lord Baltimore after a Protestant was made governor of Maryland at the demand of the
colony's large Protestant population. The act guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians. It is also known as the Act of
Religious Toleration.
Great Awakening
The Great Awakening was a spiritual renewal that swept the American Colonies, particularly New England, during the
first half of the 18th Century. It emphasized the importance of church doctrine and instead put a greater importance on
the individual and their spiritual experience. The New Lights were new religious movements formed during the Great
Awakening and broke away from the congregational church in New England. The Old Lights were the established
congregational church. Jonathan Edwards was a key American revivalist during the Great Awakening who preached for
close to ten years in New England. He emphasized a personal approach to religion. George Whitefield was a British
minister who moved to colonial America. He traveled and preached all around North American and Europe between
1740 and 1770. His revivals led to many conversions and the Great Awakening spread from North America to the
European continent.
That tradition has emphasized the Lordship and sacrifice of Jesus Christ, believers baptism, the competency of all
believers to be in direct relationship with God and to interpret Scripture, the influence of the Holy Spirit on individual
lives and ministries.
Anglican Church becomes Episcopal Church
The Episcopal Church is the official U.S. name for the Anglican church. After the 1776 war of independence from
England, the US got its first bishop, but he was consecrated in Scotland for various reasons. The Scottish church was at
that time generally known as Episcopalian, and any word that reminded people of England was unpopular in the U.S. So
the church was called "Episcopal" after the Scottish usage.
The Colonial Economy
Regional Differences: New England, Middle, and Southern Colonies
The northern, middle, and southern colonies had different climatic, religious factors that influenced these changes. Due
to different climatic and regional factors, agriculture was quick to differ. The southern colonies mainly grew tobacco,
rice, and indigo, while the middle colonies were successful growing grains, wheat, barley, eats, rye, and buckwheat. The
middle colonies quickly earned the nickname, "the bread colonies." This all the while the northern colonies only were
able to sustain small and diversified farms and crops.
Mercantilism was founded on the belief that the world’s wealth was limited. Each nation’s goal was to export more than
it imported in a favorable balance of trade. Mercantilists believed economic activity should be regulated by the
Navigation Acts
British regulations designed to protect British shipping from competition. The acts said that British colonies could only
import goods if they were shipped on British-owned vessels and at least 3/4 of the crew of the ship were British.
Triangular Trade
The backbone of New England’s economy during the colonial period. Ships from New England sailed first to Africa,
exchanging New England rum for slaves. The slaves were shipped from Africa to the Caribbean (this was known as the
Middle Passage, when many slaves died on the ships). In the Caribbean, the slaves were traded for sugar and molasses.
Then the ships returned to New England, where the molasses were used to make rum.
Molasses Act 1773
British legislation taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the colonies imported from countries other than Britain and
her colonies. The act angered the New England colonies, which imported a lot of molasses from the Caribbean as part of
the Triangular Trade. The British had difficulty enforcing the tax because merchants ignored it.
Colonial Society
“Old Immigration” 1600-1776
These settlers generally came from western and northern Europe, mainly England and English territories. Other settlers
were slaves that were immigrating to work on plantations in the south. The greatest motivator was for the seeking of
new land. Most people in Europe felt too much control of the land by the church and were seeking freedom in the new
found land. Others were seeking religious freedom. Lastly people of Europe felt too much control of the government and
left their homeland for freedom of their government and for a voice in a new one. Seemingly the main trend of the "old
immigration" is the freedom that America had to offer.
Royal,Charter, Proprietary Colonies
A royal colony is a colony, like New York, administered by a royal governor and council appointed by the British crown,
and having a representative assembly elected by the people. A charter colony is a colony, like Virginia, Massachusetts,
Connecticut, or Rhode Island, chartered to an individual, trading company, etc., by the British crown. A proprietary
colony is any of certain colonies, as Maryland and Pennsylvania, that were granted to an individual or group by the
British crown and that were granted full rights of self-government.
Colonial Political Structure
Council-upper house: Councils existed in all colonies. They comprised the upper house of the legislature and, with the
governor, formed a supreme court of appeals in civil cases. The council was also an executive and administrative body
for the governor and approved and implemented executive acts.
Assemblies-lower house: The Assemblies had a variety of titles, such as: House os Delegates, House of Burgesses, or
Assembly of Freedom. They had several features in common. Members were elected by the propertied citizens of the
towns or counties annually, which usually meant for a single, brief session, although the council or governor could and
sometimes did call for a special session.
Primogeniture, entail, women lack property
These were the two British legal doctrines governing the inheritance of property. Primogeniture required that a man’s
real property pass in its entirety to his oldest son. Entail required that property could only be left to direct descendants
(usually sons), and not to persons outside of the family.
A document drawn up by Parliament’s House of Commons listing grievances against King Charles I and extending
Parliament’s powers while limiting the king’s. It gave Parliament authority over taxation, declared that free citizens could
not be arrested without cause, declared that soldiers could not be quartered in private homes without compensation,
and said that martial law cannot be declared during peacetime.
Benjamin Franklin: Poor Richard’s Almanack
It was written by Benjamin Franklin in 1732. It was filled with witty, insightful, and funny bits of observation and
common sense advice. It was the most popular almanac in the colonies. The response to the almanac was tremendous,
and it sold as many as 10,000 issues a year.
Phillis Wheatley
She was the first African American poet and first African-American women whose writings were published. Phillis
became a Boston sensation after she wrote a poem on the death of the evangelical preacher George Whitefield in 1770.
Age of Enlightenment
A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and
the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on
imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of
Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.
Classical Liberalism
Liberalism is the philosophy committed to the ideal of limited government, constitutionalism, rule of law, due process,
and liberty of individuals including freedom of religion,speech,press,assembly, and free market. It advocated a specific
kind of society, government and public policy as a response to the Industrial Revolution and urbanization.
Important Thinkers
John Locke: He was a major English political philosopher of the Enlightenment. Locke’s ideas became the indirect theory
of American political activity for leaders such as Benjamin Franklin, and they influenced Thomas Jefferson in writing the
Declaration of Independence.
Baron de Montesquieu: According to Montesquieu, there were three types of government: a monarchy (ruled by a king
or queen), a republic (ruled by an elected leader), and a despotism (ruled by a dictator). Montesquieu believed that a
government that was elected by the people was the best form of government.
The religion of the Enlightenment in the 1700s. Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that
afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his
Events that Fostered the democratic ideal in the English Colonies
By: Rene de La Calleja
House of Burgesses
The House started due to the fact that colonists drew upon their claims to traditional English rights and insisted
on raising their own representative assemblies.
It began in Jamestown, Virginia in 1619
The House of Burgesses was the first assembly of elected representatives of English colonies in North America
The Council was made up of 12 colonists who were appointed by the king, and served the position for life.
The members of the House of Burgesses were elected by landowners in the colony. Two members elected from
each county, one from Jamestown, Williamsburg, Norfolk, and the College of William and Mary
The Burgesses wrote and passes laws for their colonies, established laws, and set the price of tobacco in Virginia.
The Burgesses met in sessions during April and October, lasting for days or several weeks
In 1624, Virginia became a royal Colony, and England took much more control of things in Virginia, restricting
the powers of the House of Burgesses.
Mayflower Compact
 The Pilgrims, a branch of the Puritans, arrived off the coast of Massachusetts in November, determined to live
sacred lives according to biblical commands, and in so doing to build a “city upon a hill”.
 The Mayflower Compact was a document signed by 41 male Pilgrims on November 21, 1620.
 The people who signed it would agree to form a temporary government and be bound by laws. The compact
then became the basis of government in the Plymouth Colony.
 The compact drew upon strong traditions, the notion of a social contract and a belief in covenants, which they
believed existed between man and man.
 This compact set an invaluable precedent for later written constitutions.
New England Town Meeting
 These meeting were a place for townspeople to express themselves openly, and helped further direct
democracy as self-government in the the colonies.
 Each community held town hall meetings made up of qualified male residents that managed local affairs, usually
electing a moderator to officiate over meetings
 Participation was restricted to male property holders who were also church members
 The meetings were a form of pure democracy, though the church itself was not democratically organized.
 The meetings were a testimony to the idea of self-government, and recognized no higher authority than the
 Once Edmund Andros became governor, he forbade the people to assemble in town meetings, except once a
year, for the choice of town officers.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
 The basic law of the Connecticut colony from 1639 to 1662, adopted by representatives from the towns of
Hartford, Wethersfield, and Windsor, meeting at Hartford.
 Thomas Hooker, John Haynes, and Roger Ludlow were most influential in framing this document.
 Established a regime democratically controlled by “substantial” citizens, which was in effect a modern
 Essential features of the Fundamental Orders were later borrowed by Connecticut for its colonial charter and
then for its state constitution.
 The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut provide that all men share in electing their civil officers, and uses paper
ballots. It also states the powers of the government, and some limits in how it is exercised.
New England Confederation
As a result of the Pequot War, New England settlements were open to a plan that would strengthen colonial
defenses against Indian attacks.
Leaders in Hartford proposed forming an alliance of like-minded settlement, excluding Maine and Rhode Island.
As a result, delegates from Connecticut, New Haven, Massachusetts, and Plymouth Colony met in Boston in
1643 to form the New England Confederation.
It was to be composed of 2 delegates from each of the 4 colonies, 6 out of 8 votes were needed to adopt a
measure, and the meeting would be one a year (emergency conferences could be called at any time).
The Confederation was meant to seek solutions to boundary issues between them, the Indians, the Dutch in
New Netherland, and the French in Canada.
The Confederation's influence declined sharply after the Anglo-Dutch conflict between Connecticut and the
Dutch, but it rose during King Philip's War.
Maryland Act of Toleration
 Cecelius Calvert founded Maryland in 1634, following his fathers (George Calvert) dream in providing an area for
both Catholics and Protestants.
 With the rise of Protestants, the colony's legislature passed the Act of Toleration to ensure the liberty of
Maryland's Catholics.
 The Toleration Act, passed on April 24, 1649, granted religious freedom to people who believed in the Trinity
and that Jesus was the son of God. The law also made it a crime to shout insults at other believers, and could get
the death penalty to anyone who denied the Trinity or rejected Christ's sonship
 This act became a big step toward religious freedom, which became an important need in the United States.
Bacon's Rebellion
 During the 1670s, Virginian Governor Sir William Berkeley became unpopular from many issues: restrictions on
the right to vote, higher taxes, low tobacco prices and lack of protection from Indian attacks.
 After a series of Indian attacks, due to colonists spilling on to Indian land, many plantation owners suffered. One
of these plantation owners, Nathaniel Bacon, requested action against the Indians, but was turned down.
 Bacon decided to recruit a small army force, and in 1676, conducted a quick raid against the enemy, which
angered Berkeley, but turned Bacon into a hero among the colonists.
 Bacon was arrested for his raid, and when released, he raised a small army to torch Jamestown, causing
Berkeley to retreat and return with soldiers of his own.
 Unfortunately, Bacon became ill during the raid, and died, and with no leader, the rebellion collapsed. Berkeley
then ordered his army to hunt down the men.
 While the rebellion was unsuccessful, the end result was the search for more dependable laborers, those that
wouldn’t fight. Slavery seemed to be the answer.
Bill of Rights
 After the ratification of the Constitution, Anti-Federalist's opposed the new strong central government. As a
result, Congress had to find a way to modify the Constitution.
 Congress also had to add protections of individual rights, mostly because Massachusetts, Virginia, and New York
assumed that this would be added.
 James Madison took the leading role on crafting these amendments, and reviewed numerous proposals and
examples from state constitutions, ultimately selecting 19 potential amendments to the Constitution.
 Madison proposed amendments that wouldn't weaken the new central government, and in the end, ten
amendments were ratified in 1791, known as the Bill of Rights.
 Most of the Bill of Rights concern legal protections for those who are accused of crimes.
The Bill of Rights responded to the central Anti-Federalist fears that the government would have too much
power. It also helped secure broad political support for the new national government.
Failure of Dominion of New England
 James II became fearful about the New England colonies' growing independence, the open flouting of the
Navigation Laws, and the military threat posed by the French and their Indian allies.
 In 1686, all of New England was joined in an administrative union known as the Dominion of New England.
 Britain regarded it as a punitive and thoughtful move,and decided to make Edmund Andros the president of the
 Andros followed the orders given to him, resulting in the termination of local assemblies, taxation on the
colonists, and more strict Navigation Laws were placed.
 The Dominion came to a halt when the colonists were told about the removal of Jame II from the throne in the
Glorious Revolution.
 The end result was the change in British officials' attitudes towards the American colonies, but the “salutary
neglect” that followed ended up bringing a lot of profit
Leisler's Rebellion
 After William and Mary came to throne after the Glorious Revolution, many democratic movements were
formed in the colonies, including New York.
 In New York, an armed mob seized Fort James, and promoted Jacob Leisler as the head of the government.
 The militia where now in control of the harbor, and when ships arrived, they would take passengers and
captains into the fort to prevent outside communications.
 William III sent his lieutenant governor, Richard Ingoldesby, and New York's replacement governor, Henry
Sloughter. Ingoldesby surrounded the fort with his men and with members of the old dominion council.
 Leisler surrendered the fort, and was arrested for treason and replaced by Henry Sloughter. Leisler and ten
other were imprisoned in the fort they had been trying to occupy.
“Salutary Neglect”
 Salutary Neglect was introduced by Sir Robert Walpole, who decided to try something different to stimulate the
commerce in the colonies.
 Walpole suggested that the enforcement of external trade relations become lax, and the British be less strict in
enforcing commerce laws with colonies.
 This British policy was unofficial, but was in effect from 1607-1763.
 Salutary Neglect also resulted in more religious freedom to the colonists, which resulted in the development of
the American society.
 The colonies had benefited from the lack of heavy British political or economic rule, so they established their
own legislative assemblies and maintained their own commerce.
 Once the British government became stricter in their enforcement of commerce laws after 1763, protests for
independence emerged, leading to the American Revolution.
Whig Ideology
 In 1828, the Democratic party was opposed by the Whig party, which was a name chosen to recollect 18 th
century British and American opposition to the monarchy.
 The Whigs parties views consisted of:
o A party of modernization
o Looking forward to the future
o Spoke to the hopes of America
The use of federal and state government to promote economic growth, such as transportation and
o Advocated reform movements such as temperance, public schools, and prison reform.
o Entrepreneurs who favored industry and urban growth
o Favored gradual territorial expansion
o Believe in internal growth
Whig ideology of urbanization, industrialization, federal rights, commercial expansion was favored by the North,
Impact of the Enlightenment
 Jonathan Edwards spoke out against peoples suggestions that predestination being wrong, and spoke out with
such conviction, that many people came to listen.
 George Whitefield was a minister who would shout the word of God to thousands of people that came to hear
him speak.
 As a result, much of America became divided. New Light preachers (or Awakening Preachers) set up their own
schools and churches in the colonies. Old light ministers refused to accept the new style of worship. As a result,
a greater religious toleration emerged, and it became clear that no one religion would dominate any region,
 Before Enlightenment. Ministers wouldn't be ordained, but the new faiths were much more democratic in their
 The Great Awakening is said to be the first major event that all colonies could share, which would help break
down the differences between them.
Zenger Case
 By 1735, John Peter Zenger had become the editor of the New York Weekly Journal, and had a reputation for
being sympathetic to the popular side of an issue.
 Zenger was brought to trial on charges of printing false and seditious statements about colonial officials.
 Zenger's lawyer, Andrew Hamilton, had put forward a defensive theory, and argued that “the very liberty of
both exposing and opposing arbitrary power” was at stake.
 The jurors returned a verdict of not guilty, and cheers burst from the spectators.
 The Zenger case was an achievement for freedom of the press and for the health of democracy, and also helped
to establish the doctrine that true statements could not be prosecuted as libel.
Albany Congress
 Before the French and Indian War, North America believed that colonial leaders should prepare for the common
 In the Albany Congress there were 2 main issues
o The Iroquois- the Iroquois had maintained a strong relation with the French and the British, but had
been engaged in trade with the British. The Albany officials would need the Iroquois to be on their side
during the war, so they bribed them with supplies and weapon, which the Iroquois accepted.
o The Albany Plan of Union- Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Hutchinson drafted a proposal for colonial
unity for the war, where new layers of government such as a president. Unfortunately, this plan was not
approved by any colonial assembly.
 The Albany Plan of Union would later be used as an example that would be followed in gatherings such as the
Continental Congress
Paxton Boys
In the 1760s, the village of Paxton was populated by many Scott-Irish immigrants, who had grown weary of the
colonial assembly's inattention to a vulnerability to attack, but were ignored by legislators.
In December 1763, a group of Paxton men raided a small settlement of Conestoga Indians in Lancaster County.
However, those natives had lived in peace with their neighbors and hadn't ever fought against them.
Unfortunately, six Indians were killed in the attack and 14 were taken captive.
Although Governor John Penn issued warrants to arrest the Paxton Boys, frontiersmen refused to bring them in.
The Paxton Boys then moved on to attack a settlement of Moravian Indians who lived near Bethlehem, but they
were protected by British soldiers in Philadelphia.
Before the Paxton Boys attacked Philadelphia with almost 1500 men, Benjamin Franklin and other civic leaders
consulted with the Paxton leaders and averted the disaster.
Regulator Meeting
 Farming interest in North Carolina resented the actions of the local court officials. Their efforts to reform the
assessment of taxed and fees were unsuccessful.
 Regulator groups arose to close down the local courts and minimize tax payments, causing riots between several
 In May 1771, Governor William Tryon led militia forces against the Regulators and defeated them.
 A Regulator movement had also developed in the 1760s in western South Carolina, which were groups of people
interested in establishing law and order. Outlaw gangs had failed to provide funding for peace officers and local
courts, but in 1769, the governor and assembly realized the legitimacy of the Regulators' cause and enacted
legislation for the reforms.
Great Britain vs. France and Road to Independence
By: Caroline Dougher
Final Review
Great Britain vs. France
1. Dispute over the Ohio Valley:
1. The Ohio Valley was wanted by both the English and French because it was great for fur trade, which
was very profitable. This was a major dispute.
2. British settlers were the majority of the area, but French exploration, trade, and their Indian alliances
overruled them.
3. This major dispute was a cause of the French and Indian War. (Seven Years’ War)
2. French vs. British Colonization
1. French: The French colonized in the new world because of one important factor: trade. There was plenty
of fur in Canada and the French knew that fur trade was very profitable and so they came in search of
the fur to trade and make money. They came for an economic advantage.
2. British: The British colonized for two main reasons: to gain power and wealth. They came to the
Americas in search of gold and other natural resources, to control more land, and to be competitive with
the other powerful countries like Spain and France.
3. Iroquois vs. Hurons Significance
1. The Iroquois and Hurons were enemies.
2. Samuel de Champlain was on good terms with the Huron Indians and they allied with him, and he
helped them to defeat their enemy – the Iroquios – at Quebec.
4. Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War)
1. The beginning battle of the Seven Year’s War took place in the Ohio River Valley at Fort Duquesne.
George Washington, who was a Major General in the British Army, was sent to try and get the French to
give up and leave the fort. When they refuse, Fort Necessity is built, which the French laugh at,
surround, and destroy. Washington is forced to surrender, but he returns to Virginia a hero because he
took on their enemy -- the French.
2. The Albany Congress was called in 1754 with representatives from seven of the thirteen British North
American colonies in Albany, New York. It was designed to discuss better relations with Indian tribes.
This was the first time that all the colonies had been together. This was where the Albany Plan of Union
was proposed. Only 7 of the 13 colonies attended this meeting.
3. The Albany Plan of Union was proposed by Benjamin Franklin at the Albany Congress in 1754 in attempt
to unite the colonies for protection from the Native Americans. This plan was rejected by the colonies.
4. William Pitt was the British secretary of state during the French and Indian War. He brought the
British/colonial army under tight British control and started drafting colonists, causing riots to occur.
5. The Battle of Quebec took place in Quebec, Canada, on September 13, 1759, during the French and
Indian War. The British won, which decided the outcome of the struggle between Britain and France for
control of North America. The British were led by General James Wolfe, and the French were led by the
Marquis de Montcalm. Quebec surrendered five days after the battle.
6. The Treaty of Paris, 1763 was the treaty that ended the Revolutionary War, stating that the English get
all of Canada, all land east of the Mississippi River, Florida, and some Caribbean Islands.
Road to Independence:
1. “Salutary Neglect”
1. This idea was England's beneficial policy of not interfering with its American colonies.
2. The navigation laws were weakly enforced during the period of salutary neglect between the colonists
and England.
2. Whig Ideology
1. This political party formed in the mid-1830s in opposition to the Jacksonian Democrats.
2. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were
generally upper class in origin.
3. Writs of Assistance
1. This was a general search warrant issued by the British government that gave customs agents the right
to search any home, building, or ship in the colonies for smuggled goods.
2. The legality of these writs became an important cause of controversy in Massachusetts in 1761 and
3. James Otis was a Boston lawyer who argued that the writs of assistance were unconstitutional under
British law, and therefore should be repealed. He was one of the first colonists to openly suggest that
Parliament's authority over the colonies was not absolute.
4. George Grenville and the End of “Salutary Neglect”
1. Grenville became the Prime Minister of England in 1763.
2. Eager to reduce government spending, he proposed the Sugar and Stamp acts to raise revenue in the
colonies to provide money for the expenses of Britain's expanded empire.
3. Enforcing these new laws ended “salutary neglect”.
5. Pontiac’s Rebellion
1. This was an Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottawa chief named Pontiac. They
opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area.
The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
2. This lead to the creation of the Proclamation of 1763.
Proclamation of 1763
1. The Proclamation prohibited British settlers to move west of the Appalachian Mountains. (the
"Proclamation Line.")
2. American colonists, wanting more land, resented this proclamation and they proved it to be
Currency Act of 1764
1. This was an act passed by Parliament in 1764, which prevented the colonies from issuing legal tender
paper money, which often reduced in value.
2. It was an effort to reduce the inflation caused by Virginia’s decision to get itself out of debt by issuing
more paper money.
Sugar Act of 1764
1. This was part of Prime Minister George Grenville's plan to place tariffs on some colonial imports in order
to raise revenue that was needed to finance England's expanded North American empire.
2. This act placed taxes on sugar, molasses, and other imports.
3. It also called for more strict enforcement of the Navigation Acts.
Quartering Act of 1765
1. This Act required colonists to provide food, supplies, and lodging for British troops stationed in America.
2. The British forced the colonists to accept this because they were protecting the colonists from the
French even though the colonists did not consider the French a threat and did not like having to pay for
the protection from the British.
3. Colonists opposed this act because it said it was mandatory to open up their homes to and feed the
British troops, whether they wanted to or not.
Road to Independence (Con’t)
By: Paola Gutierrez
The Stamp Act, 1765
 The Stamp Act was passed by Parliament. This act put a tax on every piece of paper that the colonists used. This
included legal documents, licenses, newspapers, contracts, etc.
 Colonists were furious, especially merchants and lawyers, who used a lot of paper to do their jobs.
 The term “No taxation without representation” emerged at around this time. Colonists resented the fact that
they were being taxed without having a representative in Parliament. Politician James Otis was renowned for
saying “Taxation without representation is tyranny.”
 George Grenville, Prime Minister of Great Britain, dismissed “Taxation without representation.” He claimed that
since Parliament represents the British empire, to which America is a member of, and therefore is represented
in Parliament. Colonists were unconvinced by what they called “U-turn logic.”
 Internal taxes were general taxes imposed on items and lands within a colony, therefore it is a direct tax.These
are taxes on goods that most people need or use, so they tend to affect more people than external taxes. The
Stamp Act is an example of an internal tax.
External taxes were tariffs/imported and exported items. They affected mainly shipping areas, and notably
affected merchants. The tax was generally carried into the price of the good and was not levied against the
people who then bought the goods.
Stamp Act Congress
 A Stamp Act Congress was planned in New York City in late 1765 to plan an objection to the Stamp Act. 9 out of
13 colonies attended this congress.
 At this congress, a non-importation agreements were signed. These were pledges to boycott British goods. This
is an example of a FORMAL protest.
 Also at this congress, a “Declaration of Rights and Grievances” was written. This document was sent to
Parliament, asking for the repeal of the Stamp Act. This is an example of a FORMAL protest.
 Samuel Adams formed the Sons of Liberty. The Sons of Liberty would tar and feather tax collectors. Later on, the
Daughters of Liberty would be formed, and they boycotted British goods such as cloth. Martha Washington was
a member of this group. The Sons of Liberty became infamous for the Boston Tea Party, which they took a part
in. The Sons of Liberty were an example of an INFORMAL protest.
 Opposition and protests led Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act in 1766.
The Declaratory Act, 1766
 This act accompanied the repeal of the Stamp Act.
 The Declaratory Act declared the Britain still ruled over the colonies, and could “bind” the colonies in all cases
 Colonists did not appreciate this act very much because the act was just another way of saying that they did not
have a say in what taxes were going to be passed.
 This act foreshadowed more conflict to come.
The Townshend Acts, 1767
 This tax was suggested by Charles Townshend, and was passed. This act put a tax on items such as paper, paint,
lead and tea.
 These were “indirect” taxes, as the tax was hidden in the price of the good.
 The colonists disliked this tax, even though it was small, because, once again, “taxation without representation.”
 Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer was a series of twelve letters written by John Dickinson that attacked the
Townshend Acts. In these letters, he claimed that the “cause of one is the cause of all.” He declared that
Parliament had no right to tax the colonies simply for revenue. These letters united the colonists against the
Townshend Acts.
 The Massachusetts Circular Letter was written by Samuel Adams and was adopted by the Massachusetts
colonial assembly. This letter argued that the Townshend Acts were unconstitutional because the colony of
Massachusetts was not properly represented in Parliament. This letter was sent to all of the other colonial
legislatures, and it received positive responses from New Jersey, Connecticut and the Virginia House of
Burgesses. Because of this letter, violence ensued, resulting in a temporary occupation of Boston by British
 The Boston Massacre occurred in Boston on March 5, 1770. Colonists joined together in a square and began to
taunt and threaten at least 10 British soldiers. The British opened fire, killing at least 5 colonists. Among the
dead was Crispus Attucks, a former slave viewed in the colonists’ minds as a martyr who stood up to Britain in
the name of liberty. Paul Revere created an engraving of the incident, depicting it as a massacre. Revere’s
engraving was an example of propaganda that followed the Boston Massacre. Its purpose was to make colonists
angry with Britain.
 In the following trials of the British soldiers, John Adams volunteered to defend a British soldier charged with
murder. The soldiers involved in the massacre were released with nothing more than a “slap on the wrist.” This
infuriated the colonists.
Lord North repeals the Townshend Acts, except for the tea, just to show the colonists that Britain still had the
right to tax.
The Committees of Correspondence
 The Committees of Correspondence were established by Samuel Adams in 1772.
 The Committees of Correspondence were a letter-writing network with the goal of exchanging
news/information and organizing/keeping resistance.
 Although originally began in Boston, the committees would spread to the other colonies.
The Tea Act, 1773
 Britain gave a monopoly to the British East India Co. to sell tea in America. The company was in financial trouble,
with 17 million pounds of unsold tea.
 Although this would have technically lowered the price of tea, colonists believed that Britain was trying to sneak
a tax in under a low price.
 The principle of taxation without representation was especially bothersome to the colonists.
 Samuel Adams and a large group of protesters dressed up as Indians and snuck onto ships loaded with tea,
which they dumped into the Boston harbor, in retaliation of the Tea Act. They ended up dumping 342 chests of
tea overboard. This was known as the Boston Tea Party, and it took place in December of 1773.
 Patriots approved of the Boston Tea Party, while conservatives declared it as one step below anarchy.
The Intolerable Acts & The Quebec Act, 1774
 These acts had two other names - the Coercive Acts and the Repressive Acts.
 These acts were passed to punish the colonies (mainly Boston) for the Boston Tea Party.
 The Boston Port Act shut down Boston harbor, which came as a huge financial blow to the colonies, as Boston
was a major shipping port. The port would be shut down until the destroyed tea was repaid.
 The Massachusetts charter was also revoked in the Massachusetts Government Act (a part of the Intolerable
 Other acts, as part of the Intolerable Acts, limited the colonists’ rights to assemble.
 Crimes committed by British citizens in America were to be tried in Britain by British jurors, not in America by
American jurors.
 The Quebec Act was passed in 1764 as part of the Intolerable Acts. This act benefited French-Canadians who
lived in British America.
 In the Quebec Act, French-Canadians were allowed to remain in the Ohio Valley, which infuriated Americans as
they were not allowed to settle in the Ohio Valley due to the Proclamation Line of 1763. This made them angry,
considering that THEY had won the French and Indian War.
 The French were also granted the freedom to practice Catholicism, which made colonists uneasy, as they saw it
as a threat to Protestantism.
 The French were also permitted to have trials without juries as they were accustomed to having. The colonists
saw this as a removal of trials by jury altogether.
The First Continental Congress, 1774
 This congress met in Philadelphia in late 1774 in response to the Intolerable Acts.
 12 of the 13 colonies met at this congress, a huge improvement from the Albany Congress of 1754 (in which only
7 of the 13 colonies attended)
 The congress did not desire independence.
 They drew up a list of grievances, which was ignored by Parliament.
 They created a Declaration of Rights, which was an appeal to King George III on behalf of the colonists. This, too,
was ignored.
 Plans were made to have another meeting in 1775 if the situation did not improve.
 The Association called for a complete boycott of ALL British goods.
The Association did not seek independence. Their goal was the repealing of the Intolerable Acts and altering
British policies toward the colonies without severing allegiance.
Lexington and Concord, 1775
 Occurred on April 19, 1775.
 This incident is known as the “Shot Heard Round the World.”
 British soldiers had gone to Concord to capture “troublemakers” John Hancock and Sam Adams.
 However, the British soldiers were met by minutemen in Lexington where the first shots were fired.
 The British were stopped on the bridge entering Concord, and they retreated. However, the minutemen
followed them, attacking them “Indian-style” (from behind rocks & trees. They killed half of the soldiers.
 With this, the American Revolution had officially begun.
British vs. Americans: Strengths & Weaknesses
 Strengths of the British:
 Britain had more people than America (7.5 million British to 2 million Americans)
 Britain had an extremely powerful navy
 Britain was very wealthy in hard money. With their wealth, the British hired Hessians, who were German
mercenary soldiers.
 The Hessians added to Britain’s 50,000 troops containing well-trained and well-equipped soldiers.
 Also, there were about 50,000 Loyalists living in America.
 Weaknesses of the British:
 Britain was having international troubles with Ireland that required its troops. France desired to get back at
England for the French and Indian War.
 Many British had no desire to hurt and kill Americans.
 British officers were not the best. As the war would be fought an entire ocean away, supplies would run low.
 Strengths of the Americans:
 The Americans had excellent leadership with General George Washington and Benjamin Franklin as diplomat.
 France gave their support to America. At first, they supported America secretly. Support was given in the form of
money, guns, supplies, and once France declared itself to be on America’s side, France lent troops and their
 Marquis de Lafayette, who was only 19 years old at the time of the American Revolution, was the most famous
of the French officers who came to America to fight on the Americans’ side.
 America was only fighting to hold the land, which was much easier than conquering it, as the British were trying
to do.
 American soldiers believed they had an actual reason to fight - freedom. The British were only fighting on orders
to do so.
 The Americans knew their geography of the land, which was perhaps America’s largest advantage against the
 Weaknesses of the Americans:
 The colonists were not all united - some were Patriots, most were Moderates (they didn’t really care who lost or
won) and others were Loyalists, which were also known as “Tories.”
 America had a lack of money. Their money was printed on paper, which was basically worthless.
 Although America was supported by France, they would have to deal with Britain’s inevitable and powerful
naval blockade.
 Essentially, America had no navy.
The Second Continental Congress, 1775
 The Second Continental Congress took place in Philadelphia in May of 1775.
This congress was not seeking independence, but for the king and Parliament to consent to a redress of
 This congress came up with measures for raising money to establish an army and navy.
 This Congress selected George Washington to lead the Continental Army.
 Although Washington had never risen above the post of colonel, he radiated courage, self-discipline and sense
of self-justice. He was a tall figure who would provide a morale boost for troops.
 Thomas Jefferson drew up a Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms to explain to Parliament
why the Thirteen Colonies had taken up arms in what became the American Revolution.
 This document explains how in the colonists’ eyes it was unconstitutional of Parliament to extend its jurisdiction
into the colonies after the Seven Years War.
 This document also describes its grievances regarding taxation without representation, the Intolerable Acts, and
the fact that Parliament had ignored their petitions to have their grievances redressed.
 This document was later revised by John Dickinson.
 The Olive Branch Petition was first drafted by Thomas Jefferson, by mostly rewritten by John Dickinson.
 This petition hoped to avoid a full-scale war with Britain. It maintained its loyalty to Britain and asked the king to
avoid further conflict.
 This petition explained that the colonies did not want independence from Britain - rather, the colonies wanted
to negotiate trade and tax regulations with Britain. In this petition, several ways of negotiating trade/tax
regulations was suggested.
 John Dickinson hoped that the Petition, along with the incident at Lexington and Concord, would inspire the King
to at least negotiate with the colonies.
 However, John Adams wrote a letter to a friend about his discontent with the Olive Branch Petition. In this
letter, his beliefs that war was inevitable, and that the colonies should have raised an army and captured British
officers by then were made clear.
 John Adams’ letter was confiscated and arrived in Britain at around the same time the Olive Branch Petition.
This letter made Parliament believe that the Olive Branch Petition was insincere.
 The Olive Branch Petition was rejected by King George III, and the Colonies were formally declared in a state of
rebellion by the Proclamation of Rebellion.
 This rejection gave John Adams and others who favored the revolution the opportunity to push for
The Battle of Bunker Hill
 The Battle of Bunker Hill was the first formal battle of the American Revolution and it took place in June of 1775.
 Helped convince British commanders that Boston would have to be evacuated.
 Although American forces were low on ammunition by the end of the battle, they did not run. They continued
fighting, which slowed the British but did not stop them.
 Even though American troops were being attacked by British warships in the harbor, they were able to withdraw
from the Charleston peninsula. British General William Howe and his forces were too spent to pursue them.
 British casualties outnumbered American casualties - 226 to 140.
 Although this battle was an American loss, Bunker Hill showed that Americans could stand up to the British in a
formal battle.
 This battle also prevented the siege of Boston from being raised.
 These were German mercenary soldiers hired by the British to fight on their side against the Americans in the
Revolutionary War.
 These Hessians were bound to the king by money instead of duty, which prompted them to desert in large
After the war, many of them stayed in America and became respectful citizens, although the majority of them
returned home after the war.
 At the Battle of Trenton, more than 1,000 Hessians were captured by American forces.
Thomas Paine, Common Sense, 1776
 In 1776, Thomas Paine wrote a pamphlet called Common Sense.
 This pamphlet inspired both the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution.
 Even after fighting broke out in 1775, many colonists were reluctant to break ties with England.
 Paine’s publication of Common Sense in January of 1776 helped remove that obstacle by convincing the
colonists that further association with the English king was undesirable.
 He declared that it was simply unnatural that tiny Britain should control a large area such as America.
 Like the Declaration of Independence, Common Sense was based on the idea of natural rights (unalienable
 It attacked the pretension of English kings to rule according to divine right and hereditary succession.
King George III
 King George was the monarch of Britain at the time of the American Revolution.
 Referred to as the “Royal Brute of Great Britain” by Thomas Paine.
 Considered a tyrant by the colonists of continental North America.
 Declared the colonies to be in rebellion and sent troops over to crush it. However, he lost, and when the
colonies declared their independence from Britain, he lost all of continental North America.
Richard Henry Lee’s Resolution of June 7, 1776
 Virginia delegate Richard Henry Lee introduced three resolutions at the Second Continental Congress on June 7,
 The first of these resolutions began the legal action to formally separate the American colonies from Britain.
 This resolution was incorporated into the closing lines of the Declaration of Independence.
 The second resolution demonstrated the importance of procuring help from foreign governments.
 The third resolution led to the creation of the Articles of Confederation.
 Lee’s resolutions opened up a fierce debate in the Continental Congress regarding the colonies’ allegiance to
Britain that led to the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.
Declaration of Independence
 The Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776.
 At first, colonists did not desire independence, but rather to stay with Britain.
 However, in response to British actions (such as hiring mercenaries, increasing troops in the colonies, and
passing laws to capture American maritime vessels), the Continental Congress opened up trade with other
nations and began to form an independent navy/independent local governments.
 These things, along with Britain’s attempt to stifle Americans’ calls for self-determination, pushed more and
more colonists towards the ideas of independence.
 Richard Henry Lee first proposed the idea of independence in his resolution in June 1776.
 All 13 colonies accepted the proposal of independence by July 9.
 The document was inspired by the philosophies of John Locke and the ideals of a social contract between
governments and their constituents.
 The declaration's assertion that "all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain
unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness" became a primary
foundation of American nationalism. This is an example of John Locke’s natural rights philosophy, which is the
philosophy that natural rights are part of natural law and independent of any laws that could be legislated by a
Moreover, the assumption that governments that do not recognize such equality can be overthrown by their
subjects inspired the American colonists in their successful bid for freedom.
The Declaration of Independence was remarkable for its account of specific grievances the colonists had with
the British government, including complaints about unfair taxation, dissolving local governmental bodies
without cause, corruption of judges and other officials of the Crown, forced harboring of troops, and trial
without adequate cause or representation.
Revolutionary War
By Jordan Hardin
Patriots vs. Tories – Tories were British North American colonists who were fighting for the British during the American
war for independence. They were called Tories, Kings men, and loyalists. The loyalists thought that if they did separate
from England they would lose business and other forms of economic opportunity. They thought that a strong unified
British empire was good for everyone. They also thought that the colonists were British subjects, therefore they should
obey British laws. The patriots supported the revolution and were also called the Whigs. They rebelled against the British
control in America. The patriots believed that the British taxes were not legal and that the colonists should be directly
represented in Parliament, not “virtual representation”. They wanted freedom and rights so they could start over in this
new nation.
Battle of Trenton – The Battle of Trenton took place on December 25, 1776 during the American Revolutionary War. It
took place in Trenton, New Jersey. On the evening of December 25 the American troops attacked a Hessian picket guard
stationed along Pennington road outside of Trenton. The Germans were quickly captured. Before this battle,
Washington’s men were very feeble and in need of cloths due to the harsh weather conditions. He needed to win a
battle to boost the moral of his troops. He crossed the Delaware River in a snowstorm with 2,500 soldiers and caught
British soldiers sleeping, and killed over one hundred and took one thousand more as prisoners. No Americans were
killed and it was a large boost for the Americans.
Battle of Saratoga – The Battle of Saratoga was the turning point of the Revolutionary War. It took place on October 17,
1777, where 5895 British and Hessians surrendered. British general John Burgoyne lost 86 percent of his troops that had
marched from Canada to New York in the summer of 1777.
Valley Forge, Baron von Steuben – Valley Forge was the site of the military camp of the American Continental Army
between 1777 and 1778 in Pennsylvania. Washington’s army arrived there on December 19, 1777 after many tough
battles with the British. Washington had trouble getting supplies to his troops and as winter came, it became worse.
Baron von Steuben was a Prussian officer in the military and a member of an infantry unit in the Seven Years War. He
was introduced to George Washington through a letter and he volunteered in the army and reported for duty at Valley
Forge. He trained the American soldiers and introduced a progressive training system for the military. The training did
the Americans good.
Articles of Confederation – The states chose a confederation as their first government which was a loose union of states
where a federal and state level exist, yet the state level retains the most sovereignty. The Articles of Confederation in
1777 became the United States’ first government. The thirteen states needed to approve the articles. It provided a
legitimate reason for the Continental Congress to direct the Revolutionary War. It created a week government and
became a concern and was eventually replaced by the U.S. Constitution we have today.
Franco-American Alliance – This was an alliance between Louis XVI’s France and the United States during the
Revolutionary War. It was a military pact in which France would provide arms, money, and fight in the war against
Britain. This alliance was possible after the American army captured the British invasion at Saratoga. It became a
controversial topic when Britain and France went to war and America declared themselves neutral. Many thought that
this corrupted the alliance. It was ended in 1800, formally.
Yorktown, Lord Cornwallis – This was a battle led by George Washington and the French leader, Comte de Rochambeau
against the British Army lead by Lieutenant General Lord Cornwallis. It was the last major land battle of the American
Revolutionary War. French soldiers landed in Rhode Island to help US army and they united north of New York City in
the summer of 1781. They began moving toward Virginia and attacked the British, leaving them no place to escape to.
They captured over 7,000 of Cornwallis’s troops.
Treaty of Paris – The Treaty of Paris in 1783 was signed on September 3, which ended the American Revolution. It gave
America extended boundaries. John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Jay signed it. The main points were: The US was
free, it established boundaries between US and Britain North America, the US would leave British loyalists in America
alone, they were given shared access to the Mississippi River, and territories captured would be returned to American
Social Impact of the War – it started an organized abolitionist movement, but not immediately. Many British traditions
were done away with like the Anglican Church and renamed themselves the Episcopalian Church. Republican ideals
started to show through the constitutions drafted after the war. They felt that their fight for liberty was important and
global. Things such as how land was passed down changed. Before it was passed down by primogeniture and those laws
were ended within fifteen years of the War. Women became more assertive after the Revolution because the men were
gone, known as “republican motherhood”.
African Americans in the War – Freedom was the main reason why African Americans at this time wanted to fight.
Payments were given or promised for those who did join. Some had enlisted as minutemen. The British Lord Dunmore
issued a proclamation promising freedom to any slave who could make it to British lines. Crispus Attucks was believed to
be the first man killed at the Boston Massacre. At the Battle of Bunker Hill, approximately five percent of the Americans
were African American.
Women in the War, Abigail Adams – Abigail Adams wrote to her husband while he was serving in the Continental
Congress in Philadelphia. She asked him to remember the ladies when forming the new government, because they had
no voice. Many women were employed at the military camps and got paid little with a half ration of food. They would
cook, mend, do laundry, take care of children, and nurse the sick. Some women even disguised themselves as men so
they could fight in the war. After the war, they became very assertive after taking care of a household while the men
were gone.
New State Constitutions – new states not only had to decide what form of government to create, but who would draft
their constitutions. States elected conventions and legislatures that were not inside the legal framework. Many of the
constitutions took royal charters out of their constitution to be completely separated from Britain.
Articles of Confederation (“Critical Period”)
Societal Changes After the Revolution: End to primogeniture – The end to primogeniture was moving from an
aristocratic society to more democratic institutions. Before the war, families would pass down their land or wealth to
their eldest son. This made land concentrated with a few individuals. Within fifteen years after the revolution, not a
single state had a primogeniture law. Huge estates that belonged to the loyalists were divided into smaller lands. The
removal of the loyalists was a social leveler.
*Protests Over Cincinnati Society – This society was established by former officers of the Revolutionary war as a sort of
aristocracy in which traditionalism and social status was important. The protests started because Thomas Jefferson and
other civilians thought that this movement threatened the newly formed republic. They also feared it could turn into an
aristocracy so the protesters worked to disband it. This was important because it showed that nothing would stand in
the way of a democratic government. This was crucial as this is the point when most revolutions fail, but the
determination from Jefferson ceased this early threat.
Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom – This was drafted in 1777 and in 1786 it was enacted into the state law. It was
written by Thomas Jefferson in Fredericksburg, Virginia. It supported the Establishment Clause and Free Exercise Clause
which both referred to free religion. This talked about how a man could have religious freedom and not be forced into a
religion. Jefferson didn’t want the church to have government support.
Quaker Abolitionism: Quock Walker – the Quakers played a major role in the abolition movement against slavery. The
Pennsylvania Abolition Society consisted mainly of Quakers and the majority of the founders were Quakers. They
believed that all people were equal in the sight of God and they were against violence. Quock Walker was a slave who
sued for his freedom in June 1781 in a case that declared all men equal. This case helped abolish slaver in
Massachusetts. It happened during the Revolutionary War and after the new Massachusetts constitution had been
passed in 1780. He ended up winning his freedom because of unconstitutionality of slavery in Massachusetts.
Native Americans – In the Articles of Confederation, the Native American affairs in the territories were to be regulated.
They land ordinances of 1785 and 1787 encouraged settlements passed the Mississippi and they were pushed farther
and farther west. The British wanted to keep Native Americans on their side to set up a barrier to the US to prevent
them from going in to Canada. America had issues with foreign relations with British, specifically the northern border.
Republican Motherhood – This was a term used in the 20th century for women’s role in America. It was based off the
idea that women should be raised to uphold republican ideals, so they could pass those ideals on to the next generation.
This had a negative and positive connotation. Women were separated from society to raise their children, but they were
encouraged to have an education. They were expected to sacrifice their own needs for the great good of the country.
Mothers would encourage their sons to pursue liberty and roles in the government.
Sovereignty, Republicanism – Republicanism is a political value system that stresses liberty and inalienable rights, which
makes the people as a whole sovereign. It supports the government to promote the common well, no inherited political
power, citizens to be independent, and to reduce corruption. This is different than democracy because you cannot vote
away your unalienable rights. Sovereignty is the quality of having supreme, independent authority over a geographic
Features of State Constitutions – The state constitutions established rights for the states and the people living in the
states. They had to replace royal authority with popular rule. Every state chose to figure out their government
differently. The governor lost significant power, while the legislative branch became much more important. Some states
even got rid of the governor all together. Some states had a unicameral government where the legislature had only one
body and some states had a bicameral government where the legislature had two bodies. In some states you had to own
a certain amount of land to vote or run for an office.
Maryland, Cession of Western Land Claims – The state cessions were the areas of the US that separate states ceded to
the federal government in late 18th and early 19th centuries. The lands were between the Appalachian Mountains and
the Mississippi River. Maryland never claimed any land west and that land to their west was part of the Commonwealth
of Virginia. They refused to ratify the Articles of Confederation until landowning states surrendered their claims to the
new government. They didn’t want big states to grow and dominate the new nation. So the Continental Congress urged
states to cede their land.
Strengths and Weaknesses of Articles of Confederation – The weaknesses were that Congress did not have direct power
to tax or regulate foreign trade. It could only ask states to give money, not to demand. Congress could not raise an army
on its own and had to get troops from states. All major policy issues like war and foreign treaties required approval of
nine states. There was no effective leadership. All thirteen states had to ratify the Articles. The strengths were that it
developed a fair policy for the development of western lands by ceding their lands west of the Appalachians to the
central government. It could now admit new states and caused a feeling of national unity.
Dey of Algiers – The name of a North African pirates that robbed American ships. When America was a colony of Britain,
the British had paid tribute (money) and America had enjoyed protection. Now, as a new country, America was too
weak to fight and too poor to pay.
Pennsylvania Militia Routs Congress – This was when eighty soldiers marched from Lancaster to Philadelphia to get
justice from the state government and Congress on June 17, 1783. They protested in front of Independence Hall, where
Congress and the state government were, and the protesters succeeded in moving the government away from
Philadelphia. They were unpaid Revolutionary War veterans forcing the government to move to Princeton, New Jersey.
Land Ordinance of 1785 – A major success of the Articles of Confederation. It provided for the surveying and distribution
of land belonging to the United States. This was a way to raise money for the government without having to collect
taxes, which Congress did not have the power to do under the Articles.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787 – This was a major success of the Articles of Confederation. It set up the framework of a
government for the Northwest Territory. The ordinance said that the territory would be divided into 3 to 5 states; it
outlawed slavery in the territory, and set 60,000 people as the minimum population to become a state.
Jay-Gardoqui Treaty – This treaty was between the United States and Spain in 1789, which guaranteed Spain’s right to
have access to the Mississippi River for 30 years. It would also open Spain’s European and West Indian Seaport to
American shipping. This treaty was not ratified under the Articles of Confederation.
Shays’ Rebellion – Shays’ Rebellion happened in 1786 under the Articles of Confederation. Poor landowners who owed
debt, blocked the courts in Massachusetts to prevent the government from arresting or repossessing their property. The
federal government was too weak to help Boston remove the rebels. The significance of this is that the Articles of
Confederation were too weak to run a state or a country effectively.
Annapolis Conference – Twelve delegates from five states called for a constitutional convention. They wanted to fix the
limited trade or commerce between the states under the Articles of Confederation. They met from September 11 to 14,
1786. New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and North Carolina delegates did not show and Connecticut,
Maryland, South Carolina, and Georgia did not take any action. They made a report, which was then sent to Congress
and the states. The report asked support for a bigger meeting to be held in May in Philadelphia. The direct result of the
report was the Philadelphia Convention of 1787. This convention took place from May 14 to September 17, 1787 in
Philadelphia to address the governing in America. They intended to revise the Articles, but they ended up making a
whole new plan for government, the United States Constitution.
1780s Depression – The depression at this time was caused by the war, which disrupted the American economy. The
economy was very bad in 1781, when the war ended. Exports to Britain were restricted and British law prohibited trade
with their remaining colonies in the Caribbean. Two major sources of commerce were gone. The high level of debt taken
on by the states to fund the war added to the economic depression. Most state legislatures passed laws to help small
farmers figure out what to do with their large amount of debt. The laws were relaxed a little when it came to debtor’s
By: Garrett Hogue
Philadelphia Convention- held to “revise the Articles of Confederation, 55 delegates from 12 states.
Virginia Plan-called for congressional representation based on state population.
New Jersey Plan-small state plan called for equal representation of all states, each state got 2 representatives.
Great Compromise-planned so that congress would have 2 houses, the house of representatives, and the senate where
each state got two representatives.
3/5ths Compromise- slaves would count as 3/5ths of a person when divided and represented.
Checks and balances- federal justices were appointed for life.
Electoral college- was formed to help choose the president.
Appointments- government had the right to draft a military and to regulted commerce.
Federalists and Antifederalists- federalists favored for stronger, while the antifederalists were opposed to the
constitution who were mostly poor farmers.
Federalist Papers- written by John Jay, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton but yielded because it couldn’t prosper
from the union.
George Washington- elected as president by electoral college in 1789, he established a diverse cabinet.
Bill of rights- nessecary number of states adopted it in 1791, included lots of basic rights such as speech, religion, press
search warrants to trial, bearing arms, etc.
Judiciary act of 1789- created effective federal courts.
Hamilton’s financial plan- bank of US was necessary and proper, evolved the elastic clause.
Whiskey rebellion- farmers revolted against excise tax. Cried taxation w/o representation. This rebellion showed that the
states had a strong militia to stop a revolt like this one.
Treaty of Greenville- had the Indians cede their tract in the Ohio country because they were crushed by General “mad
Anthony” Wayne at the battle of fallen timbers.
Foreign Affairs
By: Adam Kassir
Jeffersonian Democracy (1800-1824)
-Election of 1800, Jefferson and Burr tie- The election of 1800 was between Thomas Jefferson and John Adams. Both
were running to become the nation’s next president. Thomas Jefferson was actually Adams’ vice-president. The latter
represented the Federalist Party, whereas the former represented Democratic-Republican Party. Jefferson and Burr
actually tied in electoral votes, so the election was decided by the House of Representatives. Jefferson ended up
winning, with Burr ending up as his vice-president. The change in reigning political parties became known as the
‘’Revolution of 1800.”
-“Revolution of 1800”- When the Democratic-Republican Jefferson defeated the reigning Federalist president, Adams,
the first political party overthrow occurred in American history. This happened in the year 1800. This change affected all
reaches of the country. It is significant because it was an entirely peaceful regime-change. Nowhere else in the world
had this happened up until this point. It marked a turning point for the nation in the eyes of the world, and proved the
nation to be capable and even more mature than some of the warring European powers.
-12th Amendment- The 12th Amendment was made to the American Constitution after the complication that arose
between Aaron Burr and Thomas Jefferson during the election of 1800. More specifically, the two candidates received
equal numbers of electoral votes, resulting in a tie for president, even though Burr was supposed to be Jefferson’s vice
president. The decision ended up being sketchy, complicated, and disputable, as the election was thrown to the House
of Representatives. The amendment basically set up a new system for choosing the president and vice president.
-“Government for the people”- Government for the people was the political belief popular throughout the era of
Jeffersonian Democracy. It stressed a more powerful state government system, and greater power to the people. It was
distinctly different than the previous Federal government system of the former president, John Adams. The individual
citizens held more rights when it came to deciding what goes on in the government. Politicians were more
representative of each of them, and based their laws off of the will of the people, rather than that of a select few higherups in society.
-“We are all Federalists, we are all Republicans”- The quote, ‘’we are all Federalists, we are all Republicans,” was spoken
by President Thomas Jefferson during his inaugural address shortly after being elected to the position of president. It
basically means that although he represented the Democratic - Republican Party, and the Federalist Party was being cast
down into the fiery depths, Americans were still one people, and the political labels were not to be taken too seriously;
that it should not divide Americans too much. This was significant because it shows the unity of American people.
-Sec. of Treasury Albert Gallatin- Albert Gallatin was the United States of America’s fourth Secretary of Treasury. He was
Swiss-American, and could be considered an ethnologist, linguist, politician, diplomat, and congressman. He was also the
longest serving Secretary of Treasury. He founded the University of the City of New York in 1831. He served in both the
Senate and House of Representatives. He played a role in cooling tensions during the Whiskey Rebellion. He held a gift
for skillfully managing public finance, and held Sec. of Treasury for 12 years.
-Maintenance of many Federalist policies- After the Federalist Party was seceded by the Democratic-Republic Party,
many questioned whether or not the Federalist laws and policies would all be revoked and removed. This is where
Jefferson proved to be a very compromising and fair figure. Many of the Federalist policies ended up being maintained.
Among these were those regarding the national bank and tariffs. He also retained the power to select his own cabinet
-Reversal of certain Federalist policies- Converse to the previous I.D., the fears regarding the removal of Federalist laws
and policies, some people were indeed correct. Thomas Jefferson and his new regime decided to remove or ‘’reverse’’
some of the more radical Federalist policies, The Alien and Sedition laws chief among these. These were viewed as
unconstitutional and were therefore revoked or let expire. All those imprisoned under the Sedition acts were also
-Judiciary Act of 1801, “midnight judges”- The Judiciary Act of 1801 was a Judiciary Act. This is an act regarding the
Judicial Branch of the government, or the Supreme Court. It was passed in 1801. It was passed by John Adams, during his
lame duck phase. Its purpose was to appoint as many federalist judges to the Court as possible, before the Federalists
lost all power. These judges were known as midnight judges. Most of them never got their judgeships.
-John Marshall- John Marshall was a Chief Justice of the United States. He also served the longest out of any person to
hold that position. He dominated the Court scene for over 3 decades. He always upheld strong federalist beliefs. He was
involved in numerous famous court cases. Among the most well-known of these was the Marbury v. Madison case in
1803, which set up the principle of Judicial Review. Over the course of his career, he greatly strengthened the entire
Judicial Branch of the Government, forever impacting the fate of Americans, and possibly even the future of mankind.
He did this through his clever and calculating rulings in each of his cases. Although not always popular, Marshall did end
up influencing our government greatly.
-Marbury v. Madison, 1803, Judicial Review- Marbury v. Madison was an important and well known Supreme Court case.
It occurred in 1803. It set up the principle of Judicial Review. The case was managed and ruling decided by Chief Justice
John Marshall. The case involved William Marbury, a midnight judge denied of his position, suing President Madison for
the job. Marshall ruled against Marbury, but not without pulling a victory out of the situation. He stated that the
Supreme Court would have the final say, or “review” of future cases, giving them that much more influence.
-Justice Samuel Chase, impeachment- Samuel Chase was an Associate Justice of the United States. That means he served
an important role in the Supreme Court. Early in his life, he was a ‘’firebrand activist” and big states’ rights supporter. As
he grew old and embittered, he leaned more towards and eventually became a staunch Federalist. After the inception of
Judicial Review by Marshall and the Judicial Act of 1801 by Adams, Jefferson grew paranoid at the Judicial Branch’s
demand for power. In response he tried to remove Federalist judges and positions. Chase, rightfully disgusted at the
president’s juvenile paranoia, spoke against it. Keeping to character, Jefferson attempted to have Chase impeached, but
ended up failing at it.
-Tripolitan War, Pasha of Tripoli- The Tripolitan War, also known as the Barbary Coast War, is the first of two wars fought
between the United States and Barbary States. The North Africans were notorious for the pirating schemes: Capturing
merchant ships, enslaving crews, and ransoming sailors and property. Upon becoming president, The Pasha, or political
leader, of Tripoli, demanded a huge payment from the government. After a refusal to pay, the Pasha declared war.
Stephen Decatur, and other competent leaders, led American forces to victory.
-“Mosquito Fleet”- The Mosquito Fleet is the name given to a small fleet of American warships, namely
gunboats, that played a role in the American Navy leading up to and during the War of 1812. Most were part of the New
Orleans Squadron. They were not a naval force in the conventional belief held up until that point. Rather, they were
smaller, and used different methods to achieve victory.
-Haitian Slave Revolt, Toussaint L’Ouverture- The Haitian Slave Revolt, also known as the Haitian Revolution, was one of
two Revolutionary movements in the New World that ended in a nation’s permanent independence, the other being the
American Revolution. Up until that point, the French had the Haitian natives enslaves and engaged in grueling labor that
only helped out the French economy, and offered nothing in return. The revolt was led by Toussaint L’Ouverture, a
former slave. The Revolution occurred at a critical time, dividing the French attention, and rendering them unable to
defeat Britain in their war.
-Louisiana Purchase- Another effect of the Haitian Slave Revolt was that the French emperor, Napoleon Bonaparte,
became fed up with the costly war, and in a hasty judgment, generalized all colonies as troublesome and not
worthwhile. At the same time, he had a large amount of empty land in North America on his hands. He needed money
desperately, and so, in selling the Louisiana Territory to America, he solved two problems at once. This event was known
as the Louisiana Purchase, and was completed at a remarkable price. It also tripled the nation’s amount of land.
-Lewis and Clark Expedition, Sacajawea- Now that America owned all of this new land, it needed to be mapped out and
explored in order to have its full worth appraised. Jefferson ordered Lewis and Clark to go on a great expedition, whose
purpose was to explore this vast new expanse of land. The expedition took years, and stretched all of the way to the
Pacific Ocean. Along the way, the two met an Indian guide named Sacajawea. She agreed to help them out. The voyage
succeeded in mapping out the Louisiana Territory, along with cataloguing a large amount of new species of animals and
-Burr Conspiracy/Essex Junto- Former vice-president Aaron Burr is the man at the center of the Burr Conspiracy. The
conspiracy was a group of treasonous planters, politicians, and army officers led by Burr himself. Its goal was to create
an independent nation at the center of the North American Continent. James Wilkinson, the General of the Army at the
time, was believed to be involved in the plot. The conspiracy never actually succeeded, although ended up losing a lot of
face in the attempt. The Essex Junto was also a treasonous, radical group who supported Hamilton, and aided the British
during the War of 1812. They were also known as “blue lights.”
-Burr-Hamilton Duel- The Burr-Hamilton Duel was a duel between Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton. At the
time, Burr was the vice president, and Hamilton was a former Secretary of the Treasury. The two had a long standing
rivalry that was inflamed to lethal proportions when Hamilton publicly defamed Burr in a journal. Burr challenged the
former to a duel, which was accepted. The exact details of the duel are shady, but Hamilton died as a result.
-Burr Expedition in West, treason trial- During the era of the Burr Conspiracy, Burr was very active. In 1805, he went
“West,” which meant the Appalachian area. While there, he rallied support for his schemes before leasing 40,000 acres
of land from the Spanish government. He built a small army and prepared to defend his land. That war never came, and
he was eventually betrayed by General Wilkinson, who was looking to promote his own interests. Burr’s plans never
came to full realization. Burr, after being revealed by Wilkinson, was tried for treason, but never convicted.
-Events leading to War of 1812- The War of 1812 was a war fought with Britain starting in the year 1812. It actually built
up as many aggravations by Britain before finally culminating in war.
-Order in Council- The Orders in Council were a series of legislative decrees made by the United Kingdom in the
course of the wars with Napoleonic France which instituted its policy of commercial warfare. They basically opposed
neutral trade with France and blockaded the nation. Their purpose was to give France a hard time, but they ended up
greatly straining tensions with America. Because news traveled slowly at the time, word of the blockades often arrived
late. One notable occasion in which this happened was at the end of the war, the word of the war-ending treaty didn’t
reach America until after a large battle had been fought.
-Impressments- Another British action that caused trouble with America was the policy of impressment.
Impressment is basically capture and forced labor. One British ship would approach another, capture it, and force its
crew to work for Britain. These impressed sailors would hardly and sometimes not even be paid, and were often treated
cruelly. Ransoms were often demanded for impressed sailors. It was like the African Pirates all over again! This whole
issue greatly increased tension with America.
-Embargo Act of 1807, reaction- The Embargo Act was Thomas Jefferson’s response to the British and French
abuses of American rights. It called for a total embargo, or boycott of all trade with the outside world. It was issued in
1807. There has hardly been a more hated, self- destructive American Law ever issued. It did almost nothing to harm
France or Britain, the intended targets, and instead ruined the nation’s economy. Thomas Jefferson generated so much
hate in the process that some Americans turned to smuggling and illegal activities, and viewed the American
government to be almost as bad as that or Britain or France. Through the act, Jefferson dashed any hopes of reelection.
-Nonintercourse Act- The Nonintercourse act was President John Madison’s, Jefferson’s successor, attempt to
cool down the Embargo issue. Although not willing to budge on giving full trade back with the world, he realized that the
Act was entirely self-ruinous, and if action wasn’t taken, America was going to have major issues. He lessened the
embargo to only halt trade with Britain and France. This still proved to be too little in regards to alleviating the nation’s
pain, but it was a start.
-President Madison- President James Madison was the president that followed Thomas Jefferson. He too was a Virginian
Democratic-Republican, further continuing the Virginia Dynasty. He authored the Declaration of Independence and
wrote the Bill of Rights. He served as Jefferson’s Sec. State before himself becoming President. At that post, he
supervised the Louisiana Purchase. As a president, he wasn’t too popular, since he issued the Nonintercourse Act, and
led the Country into the War of 1812, which was almost a disaster for the country. Another important thing he did was
co-author the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions.
-Macon’s Bill #2- Macon’s Bill No. 2 was a solution to get either Britain or France on America’s side, and reduce
the harm that the embargo was affecting upon America significantly. It basically said that whichever country decided to
recognize American rights and treat the country more respectfully could resume trade with the America, while the other
country would continue to be ignored in trade. It was drafted by Nathaniel Macon. France decided to capitalize on the
opportunity to promote a plan against Britain’s economy, but ended up ignoring their promise. Britain, angered by the
violation of neutrality, wanted was with America.
-War Hawks- War Hawks were people in America during the period of conflict with Britain before the War of 1812 who
wanted war. They were mainly comprised of younger, hotheaded folk whose fathers had fought in the Revolution, and
were excited by old tales of war. They sought glory against Britain in battle. Henry Clay himself, a Kentuckian politician,
was a notable War Hawk. After the victorious Battle of Tippecanoe, they urged the president on to begin the war in
-Shawnee- The Shawnee Tribe was a very notable tribe of Native Americans. They inhabited the Northwestern expanse
of the country. They felt cornered and oppressed by the White insistence on stealing their land and ancestral homes.
Eventually Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatana (the prophet) strung together a potent confederation of tribes that
stuck to traditional Indian customs, and opposed the White expansion. They gathered their forces in the Tippecanoe
-Battle of Tippecanoe- The American government, concerned with the sudden Shawnee threat, gathered an army of its
own to route the army of Native Americans. The American force was led by General William Henry Harrison, a talented
and competent American General. The two armies met at Tippecanoe. Tecumseh was away, and his less qualified
brother foolishly charges the American position. The more organized and better trained Americans had little trouble
dispatching the poorly coordinated attack, and thus dispersed the Confederation. Overconfident War Hawks used this
battle as a reason to continue on and try to engage the British on Canadian soil.
-General William H. Harrison- General William Henry Harrison was an incredibly popular American general who served in
the early 1800s. He served a notable role during the war of 1812, but was most popular for his victory against a poorly
led Shawnee Confederation force at Tippecanoe. He is one of two generals of the time period who would later become
presidents of the United States, the other man being General Andrew Jackson. He, like Jackson, was marketed for his
rough origins in the backcountry.
War of 1812
-Why Britain over France?- In the decade leading up to the War of 1812, America was having trouble with both Britain
and France, but ended up fighting solely with Britain in the actual war. For what reason would the United States pick
such a formidable enemy, one with the world’s most powerful navy? The main reason is the issue of Macon’s Bill No. 2,
soon after Madison came to power. This bill called on either Britain or France to agree to support America in trade, and
the embargo of the other nation. France took up the offer, angering Britain and making it feel like America was violating
neutrality, thus provoking war.
-Francis Scott Key- Francis Scott Key was a sailor who was impressed upon a British ship during the War of 1812. During
the British assault of Baltimore, he was aboard a nearby ship, and watched the battle helplessly from a window.
Anxiously he waited through the grim night, until the fire stopped. When the sun arose, he saw the American Flag
waving proudly above the fort, and knew that liberty had prevailed. Inspired, he wrote the Star Spangled Banner, which
is now the American National Anthem.
-Battle of New Orleans, Andrew Jackson- The British Battle Plan called for invasions of several key American positions.
Among these locations were the Chesapeake and New Orleans. A massive British army was advancing toward the city of
New Orleans. All that was defending the city were Andrew Jackson, and his poorly trained but patriotic army of sacrificewilling heroes. When the battle finally played out, the results weren’t even close. The British suffered upwards of 700
casualties, whereas the American garrison only lost a fraction of that amount. Ironically, the battle took place 2 weeks
after a peace treaty had been reached.
-Hartford Convention- The Hartford Convention was a convention held at Hartford, Massachusetts. It took place during
the War of 1812, from December 1814 to January 1815. The many policies of Jefferson and Madison were highly
opposed in America, particularly in New England. The Embargo Act had ruined many of their lives economically, and they
harbored much bitterness toward the regime. Eventually, the Hartford Convention was called, summoning delegates
from Mass., Conn., R.I., Vermont, and New Hampshire once the war began to look grim. A few radical proposals were
eventually drafted, but none were ever ratifies, and those who attended the Convention were put in a bad light.
-Treaty of Ghent- The Treaty of Ghent was a treaty held at Ghent, Belgium. It officially brought an end to the War of
1812. Czar Nicholas particularly wanted the war to end, as he wanted his ally Britain at full strength, and disapproved of
it squandering its strength in a needless war. All prisoners, land, and boats were returned to their respective owners. In
the end, nothing much was accomplished by the treaty. Unofficially, however, Americans felt an increased sense of
nation pride, and nationalism became more popular. Britain was also taught a lesson of picking fights with America.
Nationalism and Sectionalism
By: Jessica Martinez
Nationalism and Sectionalism to 1824
 President Monroe- He was the 5th president of the United States, from the year 1758-1831. He was the
author of the Monroe doctrine which was a policy of the United States that stated further efforts by
European countries to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas would be viewed as acts of
aggression requiring U.S intervention. The period of his administration has been called the Era of Good
Feelings. Before his presidency he joined the Virginia House of Delegates for the military.
 Secretary of state John Quincy Adams- Adams served as secretary of state in the Cabinet of President
James Monroe from 1817 until 1825. As secretary of state he negotiated the Adams-Onis Treaty. Many
historians believe that he is one of the best secretaries of state in American history, but not the best
President in American history.
 Domestic Policy- It is also known as public policy, it presents decisions, laws, programs made by the
government which are directly related. The policy each country has set for itself internally, so dealing
with the poor or healthcare and other things that its own citizen’s face would be a part of its domestic
 “Era of Good Feelings- It was a period in the United States political history in which partisan bitterness
abated. It lasted approximately 1816-1824, during the administration of U.S. President James Monroe,
who deliberately downplayed partisanship.
 Nationalism, Economic independence, single party rule- Nationalism is a patriotic feeling, principles or
efforts, it is marked by a feeling of superiority over other countries, and it is advocacy of political
independence for a particular country. Economic independence is the quality of being self-sufficient.
Usually the term is applied to political states or their economic policies. A single party rule is a single
party state, one party system or single party system is a type of party system government in which a
single political party forms the government and no other parties are permitted to run candidates for
 Henry Clay’s American system- Henry Clay was most known for the American system, fighting for an
increase in tariffs to foster industry and a strong national bank.
 Second National Bank of the U.S- It was chartered in 1816; five years after the First bank of the United
States lost its own charter. It was initially headquartered in Carpenter’s Hall, Philadelphia, the same as
the First bank. It was chartered by many of the same congressmen who in 1811 had refused to renew
the charter of the original bank of the United States. The biggest reason of why the Second Bank was
chartered was because of the War of 1812. The U.S had experienced severe inflation and had a difficult
time financing military operations. Like the First National Bank, the Second was chartered for 20 years,
and its charter failed to be renewed.
 Tariff of 1816, Protective Internal Improvements, Bonus Bill Veto- IN 1816, Congress passed the nation’s
first protective tariff. It was designed to protect textile factors, because the British were dumping cloth
in the United States at bargain prices in their attempt to regain markets they had lost during the War of
1812. President Adams proposed a program of federal support for internal improvements in December
of 1825; strict Jeffersonians claimed it to be unconstitutional. Public works are the construction or
engineering projects carried out by the state on behalf of the community took place. The Bonus Bill Veto
occurred in 1817, the development of America was creating a need for well-made transportation
facilities to link the outlying agricultural regions with the traders in the Eastern sea ports. This was
Madison’s last act, which he vetoed the bill on constitutional ground.
 Panic of 1819- this occurred when the Second National Bank of the United States tightened its loan
policy, it caused a depression, that caused distress throughout the country, especially western farmers.
British exports unloaded more textiles, causing a great depression for farmers.
 Land Legislation- James Wilson who was a U.S Supreme Court Justice and professor of law at the
University of Pennsylvania, in 1790 and 1791, he took a survey of the philosophical grounds of American
property law. Non-legally recognized or documented property rights are known as informal property
rights. These informal property rights are non-codified or documented, but are recognized among local
residents to varying degrees.
 John Marshall- He was a United States jurist; he was chief justice of the Supreme Court he established
the principles of the United States constitutional law.
 Federalist- Of, pertaining to, or favoring federalism or federalists. A federalist party was an early political
party that emphasized on a strong central government.
 Marbury vs. Madison- It was a landmark case in the United States law. The Supreme Court case decided
in 1803 that established the concept of judicial review; the power of the Supreme Court to review acts
of the president and congress and determine if they are constitutional.
 Martin Hunter vs. Hunter’s Lessee in 1816- This was a landmark United States Supreme Court case
decided on March 20, 1816. It was the first case to assert ultimate Supreme Court authority over state
courts in matters of federal law.
 McCulloch vs. Maryland in 1819- This was a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United
States. The state of Maryland had attempted to impede operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the
United States by imposing a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in Maryland.
 Cohens vs. Virginia- This was a Supreme Court decision most noted for John Marshall and the Court’s
assertion of its power to review state Supreme Court decisions in criminal law matters when they claim
their Constitutional rights have been violated.
 Gibbons vs. Ogden- This was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the power
to regulate interstate commerce was granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the United States
 Fletcher vs. Peck- This was a landmark United States Supreme Court decision. One of the first cases in
which the Supreme Court ruled a state law unconstitutional; the decision also helped create a growing
precedent for the sanctity of legal contracts, and hinted that Indians did not hold title to their own
 Darthmouth vs. Woodward in 1819- It was a landmark United States Supreme Court case that dealt with
the application of the Contract Clause of the United States Constitution to private corporations.
 Daniel Webster- He was an American orator and politician who practiced prominently as a lawyer before
the U.S. Supreme Court and served as a U.S. congressman. He was a leading American statesman during
the nation’s Antebellum Period. He first rose to regional prominence through his defense of New
England shipping interests.
 Tallmadge Amendment- It was submitted by James Tallmadge Jr. in the United States House of
Representatives on February 13, 1819, during the debate regarding the admission of Missouri as a state.
 Missouri Compromise of 1820- In 1820, after an angry debate in Congress, Missouri entered the Union
as a slave state, and Maine was admitted as a free slave to preserve the balance of slave state and free
state in the Union.
 Foreign Policy- Policies of the federal government directed to matters beyond U.S borders, especially
relations with other countries. Much domestic policy has foreign policy implications.
 Secretary of State John Quincy Adams- He served as secretary of state in the Cabinet of President James
Monroe from 1817 until 1825. As secretary of state he negotiated the Adams-Onis Treaty. Many
historians believe that he is one of the best secretaries of state in American history.
 Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1817- It was Treaty between the United States and Britain enacted in 1817; signed
in April 28-29 in Washington DC, the treaty provided for demilitarization of the Great Lakes and Lake
Champlain, where many British naval arrangements and forts still remained.
 Convention of 1818- The Convention respecting fisheries, boundary, and the restoration of slaves
between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The treaty
fixed the 49th parallel to divide the U.S. and the Canadian boundary.
 Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819- It was the Treaty in 1819 that purchased eastern Florida to establish the
boundary between Mexico and the Louisiana territory. It provided for the cession of Florida to the
United States in return for American settlement of claims of her citizens against Spain.
 Monroe Doctrine- President Monroe’s message to Congress on December 2, 1823, it consisted of 3
principles: U.S. policy was to abstain from European wars unless U.S interests were involved, European
powers could not colonize the American continents and should not attempt to colonize newly
independent Spanish American republics. Ridiculed in Europe, it was used to justify U.S expansion by
presidents John Tyler and James Polk. In 1904, the Roosevelt Corollary was introduced.
Jacksonian Democracy
By: Thomas McInroe
Jacksonian Economics
By: Milka Meza
Jacksonian Economics
1. B.U.S- was short for- A charter for the Second Bank of the United States
2. Henry Clay- Opponent of Jackson during the election of 1824, Clay had promised the election to John Quincy
Adams. He made it so that most votes went to Adams. Adams won but every one was mad because according to
the people Jackson should have won. Adams appointed Clay as Secretary of state. Clay was a supporter of the
Second Bank of the United States. Persuade Nicholas Biddle to recharter the Second bank of the United States.
3. The Bank recharter bill- Was made because the U.S had an economical crisis over the panic of 1819 and were in
debt because of the Louisiana Purchase and the War of 1812.
4. Nicholas Biddle- and American financier who served as the president of the Second of the United States. He
started the “Bank War” when he applied for the banks re-charter for 4 years before it expired. It was supported
by Clay. But Jackson hated Clay, and he finally got challenged by the Bank he veto it.
5. Jackson’s removal of deposits- Because of the “Bank War” and Nicholas Biddle proposition of wanting to keep
the Second Bank of the United States. In 1813 Jackson took out all the money or government money out of the
Bank. Secretary liked the bank so he said no! So Jackson got rid of him, (Louis McLane) by putting him as
Secretary of Treasury, and the other man, (William Duane) got replaced too after 4 months. He got his old
attorney General Roger B. Taney to say yes. The money was sent to 7 state- charter banks Caused the Bank to go
bye bye in 1836 when its charter expired.
6. Roger B. Taney- Was attorney general, then made into Chief Justice. In 1833 he was secretary of Treasury, he
and Jackson said no more money to Second Bank of the U.S, and because of this the Banks died/ended.
Remembered by his opinion during Dred Scott v. Sandford.
7. Pet Banks- 23 Pet Banks,(state banks) in total. They were banks that Jackson picked to put the government’s
money in after the charter of the second Bank of the U.S scare. Theses banks were picked because they were
part of Jackson's spoil system. Most of these Banks failed and lost the money. Contributing to the Panic of 1837.
● Specie Circular
1. Spice Circular 1836- Executive order given by Jackson and carried out by next president Martin Van Buren. In
order to buy land you had to pay the government in gold or silver. Because people started to pay in paper
money when the bank didn't have the money to back it up.
2. Impact of Charles River Bridge case 18373. States’ rights: Are the Bill of Rights that prevent congress from taking away freedom of speech, freedom of the
press, freedom of assembly, freedom of religious worship, and the right to bear arms, preventing unreasonable
search and seizure, cruel and unusual punishment, and self-incrimination, and guaranteeing due process of law
and a speedy public trial with an impartial jury. And the Bill of Rights states that "the enumeration in the
Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people," and
reserves all powers not specifically granted to the Federal government to the citizenry or States.
Maysville Road Veto- During 1830, Jackson vetoed a bill which would allow the Federal government to purchase
stock in the Maysville, Washington, Paris, and Lexington Turnpike Road Company, which had been organized to
construct a road linking Lexington and the Ohio River, the entirety of which would be in the state of Kentucky. Its
advocates regarded it as a part of the national Cumberland county. Congress wanted passed a bill providing
federal funds to complete the project. Jackson vetoed the bill on the grounds that federal funding of projects
like this was unconstitutional. He declared that such bills violated the principle that the government shouldn't be
an economic affair. Jackson also pointed out that funding for these kinds of projects interfered with the paying
off of the national debt
Indian Removal
Indian Removal Act of 1830- Made into law by president Jackson. This act was supported by the South they
wanted the land the Natives were on. In Georgia the Cherokee said that it was their nation so there was dispute
over that. Jackson said that the removal would fix the problem, the Natives would move to the west and get
land there for the land they lived in. But they said that the Indians could chose to leave or to stay. But they were
pressured into giving up their lands. Some tribes did not want to leave but after Jackson's re-election they
decided to maybe move. The removal was force full. Tribes that were affected were the Cherokee, Chickasaw,
Choctaw, Creek, and the Seminole. The first treaty signed was the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. Some left in
peace and some didn’t like the Seminole.
Black Hawk War of 1832- Brief conflict fought between the United States and Natives headed by Black Hawk, a
Saukeleader. Black Hawk's motives were ambiguous, but he was apparently hoping to avoid bloodshed while
resettling on land that had been ceded to the United States in a disputed 1804 treaty. American officials,
convinced that the British Band was hostile, mobilized a frontier army. With few U.S. Army soldiers in the region,
most American troops were part-time, poorly trained militia. Hostilities began on May 14, 1832, when the militia
opened fire on a delegation from the British Band. Black Hawk responded by attacking the militia force, soundly
thrashing them at the Battle of the Still mans. He led his band to a secure location in what is now southern
Wisconse. As American forces pursued Black Hawk's band, Native Americans conducted raids against American
forts and settlements. The Menomiee and Dakota tribes, already at odds with the Sauks and Meskwakis,
supported the Americans. Manded by General Henry Atksion, the US troops tried to track down the British Band.
Militia under Colonel Henry Doge caught up with the British Band on July 21 and defeated them at the Battle of
Wisconsin heights. Black Hawk's band, weakened by hunger, death, and desertion, retreated towards the
Mississippi. On August 2, American soldiers attacked the remnants of the British Band at the Battle of bad Axe,
killing or capturing most of them. Black Hawk and other leaders escaped, but later surrendered and were
imprisoned for a year. The Black Hawk War is now often remembered as the conflict that gave young Abe
Lincolns his small military serves. The war gave impetus to the US policy of Indian removal in which Native
American tribes were pressured to sell their lands and move west of the Mississippi River.
Seminoles (war 1835-1842)- Known as the Second Seminoles war.Jackson's campaign in the First Simonole
(1817-1818) did not succeed in subduing the Floridian natives. The United States government would decide later
that removal of all Indians in Florida to the Indian Territory in the West (present-day Oklahoma) was the best
solution for persistent conflict between the Seminole and encroaching white settlers. By the terms of the Treaty
of Paynes Landing (1832), the Seminole were supposed to migrate west of the Mississippi River within 36
months. By 1834, 3,824 Indians had made the move. The largest faction of Seminole, led by their chiefOseclo
(1804?–1838), refused to go. Osceola vowed to fight "till the last drop of Seminole blood has moistened the dust
of his hunting ground." In response to his resistance, Osceola was briefly imprisoned. A few months following his
release, he commenced attacks on the Americans.On December 28, 1835 Osceola murdered Indian agent Wiley
Thompson. The same day, Major Francis Dade and his U.S. soldiers were ambushed by 300 Seminole warriors
near Fort King (Ocala). These incidents began the Second Seminole War. The natives retreated into the
Everglades, began guerilla tactics against U.S. forces and fought desperately for more than seven years. By 1837,
the Seminole apparently had managed to force a truce. During negotiations, however, Oceola was arrested and
confined first at Saint Augustine, then Fort Moultrie at Charlston South Carolina where he died on January 30,
1838. His followers fought on. By 1842, they were nearly exterminated. Some 4,420 Seminoles surrendered and
were deported to Oklahoma. A few hundred managed to remain in the Everglades under the leadership of Billy
Bowlegs, their principal chief. The Third Seminole War would ensue. The Second Seminole War proved to be the
most expensive of the Indian Wars in which the United States was involved. It cost the lives of thousands of
Seminole and 1,500 U.S. soldiers, as well as more than $30 million.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia 1832- Decision: Ruled in favor of Georgia by finding that the Supreme Court had no
legal authority to hear the dispute because Indian tribes are "domestic dependent nations," not foreign nations.
Significance: By refusing to hear the case, the Court left the Cherokees at the mercy of the state of Georgia and
its land-hungry citizens. In late 1838 the Cherokee were forcefully marched under winter conditions from their
homes in northwest Georgia to lands set aside in Oklahoma. Four thousand died in military detention camps and
along the infamous "Trail of Tears." The forced removal of Indian tribes from the Southeastern United States
was completed by 1858.
Trail of tears - The Trail of Tears is a name given to the forced relocation and movement of Native America
nations from southeastern parts of the United States following the Indian removal Act of 1830. The removal
included many members of the CHerokee, Muscogee, Seminole, Chickssaw, and Chotaw nations, among others
in the United States, from their homelands to Natives (eastern sections of the present-day state of Oklahoma).
The phrase originated from a description of the removal of the Choctaw Nation in 1831. Many Native Americans
suffered from exposure, disease and starvation en route to their destinations. Many died, including 4,000 of the
15,000 relocated Cherokee
Recognition of Texas
Recognition of Texas 1837
Stephen Austin- His father (Moses Austin) traveled to Mexico Texas and took 300 families to with him to live
there. And would be known as “The Old 300.”He died and his work left undone. With some of his mothers
persuasion he took on his fathers work. His party traveled the 300 miles (480 km) in three weeks to San Antonio
with the intent of reauthorizing his father's grant, arriving on August 12. While in transit, they learned that
Mexico had declared its independence from Spain, and Texas had become a Mexican province rather than a
Spanish territory. A San Antonio native, Jose Antonio Navarro, having like visions of the future of Texas
befriended Stephen F. Austin, and a lasting association developed between the two. Navarro, proficient with
Spanish and Mexican law, would assist Austin in obtaining his empresario contracts. In San Antonio, the grant
was reauthorized by Governor Antonio Maria Martinez , who allowed Austin to explore the Gulf Coast between
San Antonio and the Brazos River to find a suitable location for a colony. As guides for the party, Manuel
Beccera, along with three Aranama Indians, went with the expedition. Austin advertised the opportunity in New
Orleans, stating that the land was available along the Brazos and Colorado rivers. A family of a husband, wife
and two children would receive 1,280 acres (520 ha) at twelve and a half cents per acre. Farmers could get 177
acres (0.72 km2) and ranchers 4,428. In December 1821, the first U.S. colonists crossed into the granted territory
by land and sea, on the Brazos River in present-day Brazori County Texas.
Sam Houston-Houston became a key figure in the history of Texas and was elected as the1st and 3rd President
of the Republic of Texas, U.S. Senatorr for Texas after it joined the United states , and finally as governor of the
state. He refused to swear loyalty to the Confederacy when Texas seceded from the Union, and resigned as
governor. To avoid bloodshed, he refused an offer of a Union army to put down the Confederate rebellion.
Instead, he retired to Huntsville, Texas, where he died before the end of the Civil War.
4. Santa Anna-Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (21 February 1794 – 21
June 1876),often known as Santa Anna orLópez de Santa Anna, known as "the Napoleon of the West," was a
Mexican political leader, general, and president who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and
5. Alamo- “Originally named Misión San Antonio de Valero, the Alamo served as home to missionaries and their
Indian converts for nearly seventy years. Construction began on the present site in 1724. In 1793, Spanish
officials secularized San Antonio's five missions and distributed their lands to the remaining Indian residents.
These men and women continued to farm the fields, once the mission's but now their own, and participated in
the growing community of San Antonio.In the early 1800s, the Spanish military stationed a cavalry unit at the
former mission. The soldiers referred to the old mission as the Alamo (the Spanish word for "cottonwood") in
honor of their hometown Alamo de Parras, Coahuila. The post's commander established the first recorded
hospital in Texas in the Long Barrack. The Alamo was home to both Revolutionaries and Royalists during
Mexico's ten-year struggle for independence. The military — Spanish, Rebel, and then Mexican — continued to
occupy the Alamo until the Texas Revolution.San Antonio and the Alamo played a critical role in the Texas
Revolution. In December 1835, Ben Milam led Texian and Tejano volunteers against Mexican troops quartered in
the city. After five days of house-to-house fighting, they forced General Martín Perfecto de Cós and his soldiers
to surrender. The victorious volunteers then occupied the Alamo — already fortified prior to the battle by Cós'
men — and strengthened its defenses.
On February 23, 1836, the arrival of General Antonio López de Santa Anna's army outside San Antonio nearly caught
them by surprise. Undaunted, the Texians and Tejanos prepared to defend the Alamo together. The defenders held out
for 13 days against Santa Anna's army. William B. Travis, the commander of the Alamo sent forth couriers carrying pleas
for help to communities in Texas. On the eighth day of the siege, a band of 32 volunteers from Gonzales arrived, bringing
the number of defenders to nearly two hundred. Legend holds that with the possibility of additional help fading, Colonel
Travis drew a line on the ground and asked any man willing to stay and fight to step over — all except one did. As the
defenders saw it, the Alamo was the key to the defense of Texas, and they were ready to give their lives rather than
surrender their position to General Santa Anna. Among the Alamo's garrison were Jim Bowie, renowned knife fighter,
and David Crockett, famed frontiersman and former congressman from Tennessee.
The final assault came before daybreak on the morning of March 6, 1836, as columns of Mexican soldiers emerged from
the predawn darkness and headed for the Alamo's walls. Cannon and small arms fire from inside the Alamo beat back
several attacks. Regrouping, the Mexicans scaled the walls and rushed into the compound. Once inside, they turned a
captured cannon on the Long Barrack and church, blasting open the barricaded doors. The desperate struggle continued
until the defenders were overwhelmed. By sunrise, the battle had ended and Santa Anna entered the Alamo compound
to survey the scene of his victory.While the facts surrounding the siege of the Alamo continue to be debated, there is no
doubt about what the battle has come to symbolize. People worldwide continue to remember the Alamo as a heroic
struggle against impossible odds — a place where men made the ultimate sacrifice for freedom. For this reason, the
Alamo remains hallowed ground and the Shrine of Texas Liberty.”
6. The Battle of San Jacinto fought in present -day Harris County ,Texas , was the decisive battle of the Texas
Revolution. Led by General Sam Houston, the Texan army engaged and defeated General Antonio Lopez de
Santa Annas Mexican forces in a fight that lasted just eighteen minutes. About 630 of the Mexican soldiers were
killed and 730 captured, while only nine Texans died. Santa Anna, the President of Mexico, was captured the
following day and held as a prisoner of war. Three weeks later, he signed the peace treaty that dictated that the
Mexican army leave the region, paving the way for the Republic of Texas to become an independent country.
These treaties did not specifically recognize Texas as a sovereign nation, but stipulated that Santa Anna was to
lobby for such recognition in Mexico City. Sam Houston became a national celebrity, and the Texans' rallying
cries, “Remember the Alamo!" and "Remember Goliad” became etched into American history and legend.
● Election of 1836
Election of 1836-The United States presidential election of 1836 ushered Martin Van Buren into the White
House. It is predominantly remembered for three reasons:
1. It was the last election until 1988to result in the elevation of an incumbent V-President to the nation's highest
office through means other than the president's death or resignation.
2. It was the only race in which a major political party intentionally ran several presidential candidates. The Whigs
ran four different candidates in different regions of the country, hoping that each would be popular enough to
defeat Democratic standard-bearer Martin Buren in their respective areas. The House of representatives could
then decide between the competing Whig candidates. This strategy failed: Van Buren won a majority of the
electoral vote and became president. His election was the first (and to date only) time in which a V- president
election was thrown into the Senate.
2. Whigs:The Whig Party was a political party of the U.S during the era of Jacksonian demo.. Considered integral to
the second party system. and operating from the early 1830s to the mid-1850s, the party was formed in
opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and his Demo-Party. In particular, the Whigs supported
the supremacy of Congress over the presidency and favored a program of modernization and economic
protectionism. This name was chosen to echo the American Whigs of 1776, who fought for independence and
because "Whig" was then a widely recognized label of choice for people who identified as opposing tyranny
--Origins-- Policies
● Martin Van Buren
1. Martin Van Buren- Martin Van Buren was the 8th president (1837–1841). Before his presidency, he was the 8th
Vice President. (1833–1837) and the tenth Secretary of State, under Andrew Jackson (1829–1831).
2. Panic of 1837-The Panic of 1837 was a finical crisis or market correction in the United States built on a
speculative fever. The end of the 2nd bank of the U.S had produced a period of runaway inflation, but on May
10, 1837 in NYC, every bank began to accept payment only in spiece (Gold or Silver), forcing a dramatic,
defletuary backlash. This was based on the assumption by former president, Andrew Jackson, that the
government was selling land for state bank notes of questionable value.Some causes include the economic
policies of Jackson who created the Specie circular by executive order. and also refused to renew the charter of
2nd Bank of the U.S, resulting in the withdrawal of government funds from that bank. Buren, who became
president in March 1837, five weeks before the Panic engulfed the young republic's economy, was blamed for
the Panic. His refusal to involve the government in the economy was said by some to have contributed to the
damages and duration of the Panic. Jacksonian blamed the banks' irresponsibility, both in funding rampant
speculation and in introducing paper money inflation. This was caused by banks' issuing excessive paper money
with nothing to back it up, leading to inflation
3. Independent Treasury plan (“Divorce Bill”)-In 1846, the Independent Treasury Act was passed. However, the
following year the Whigs repealed the Act. The Whigs wanted to establish a new central bank, but were
prevented by President Tyler who objected on constitutional grounds. The Democrats won the election of 1844,
and re-established the Independent Treasury System The Act of August 1846 provided that the public revenues
be retained in the Treasury building and in sub-Treasuries in various cities. The Treasury was to pay out its own
funds and be completely independent of the banking and financial system of the nation. All payments by and to
the government were to be made in either Specie or Treasury Notes. The separation of the Treasury from the
banking system was never completed, however; the Treasury’s operations continued to influence the money
market, as specie payments to and from the government affected the amount of hard money in circulation.
● Election
1. President (1841), an American military officer, and politician, and the first president to die in office. He was 68
years, 23 days old when elected, the oldest president elected until Regan in 1980, and last President to be born
before the Declaration of Independence. Harrison died on his 32nd day in office of complications from
pneumonia, serving the shortest tenure in United States presidential history. His death sparked a brief
Constitutional crisis, but that crisis ultimately resolved many questions about Presidential success left
unanswered by the Constitution. until passage of the 25th admonishment.
Tyler Becomes President- Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850) was the 12th President (1849–
1850) and an America military leader. Initially uninterested in politics, Taylor nonetheless ran as a Whig in the
1848 presidential election, defeating Lewid class. Taylor was the last President to hold slaves while in office, and
the second and also last Whig to win a presidential election.Election of 1840
Candidates- President Buren fight for re-election against an economic depression and a Whig Party unified for
the first time behind war hero William Harison
characteristics- This election was unique in that electors cast votes for four men who had been or would become
president: current President Van Buren President-elect William Henry Harrison; Vice-President-elect John Tyler,
who would succeed Harrison upon his death; and James K. Polk, who received one electoral vote for V-President
Liberty Party
Liberty Party- The Liberty Party was a minor political party in the U.S in the 1840s (with some offshoots surviving
into the 1850s and 1860s). The party was an early advocate of the abolitionism ate the view that the
Constitution was an anti-slavery document
Rise of second party system: --Democrats v. Whigs
Death of Harrison- William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was the 9th president and first to
die in office.
Manifest Destiny
By: Josi Milan
Manifest Destiny
 Manifest destiny was a time period when U.S thought they should have the right to expand across the continent,
the democratic republicans wanted to use this to justify the Mexican War. Advocates not only found this wise
but readily apparent and inexorable.
Annexation of Texas, 1844
 The south was very anxious to have Texas be a part of the United States. When the decision was made the north
was opposed to this, they knew it would increase the area and political slave power and lead to a war with
 President Tyler knew there was difficulty with the annexation of Texas so he sought a joint resolution that
required a simple majority in each house.
 Election of 1844 was between Democrat James Knox Polk and Whig Henry Clay. Polk was all for the annexation
of Texas and Clay opposed of it. The democrats said that the U.S. had a clear and unquestionable claim to all of
Oregon. Polk then went on to win a narrow victory over Whig candidate Henry Clay because Clay had taken a
stand against expansion although the economic issues were important.
 When Polk went into office he defined his goals and what he wanted to achieve, while in office these were
known as Polk’s four point plan.
1. Reestablish the Independent Treasury System.
2. Reduce the tariffs
3. Acquire some or all of Oregon Country.
4. Acquire California and New Mexico from Mexico.
When Polk became president he said he was going to pass tariffs and one of them happened to be the Walker
Tariff. Polk didn’t want to lower any Tariff especially the ones that protected goods. So he asked Robert J.
Walker to do some research on Tariffs.
When he returned he suggested that Polk reduce tariff rates that Polk had intimated to northeastern Democrats
he would support. Soon there was bill in front of the U.S. Congress, the southerners favored the bill but some
few northerners opposed it so, V.P. George M Dallas was a tie breaker, and the bill was signed, the tariff was
known as the Walker tariff. The tariff moved rates down and dropped the percent of the value of the goods.
The next step in Polk’s presidency was to revive the Independent Treasury act that President Martin Van Buren
signed in 1840. This system was passed to be a long term replacement for the second back of the United States
and a remedy for the ensuing wild speculation resulting from Jackson's policies that contributed to the
depression in the late 1830's.
The Whigs had repealed the act as a step forward towards recreating a better bank similar to the Second Bank of
the United States. The Independent Treasury entrusted the federal government with the management of
government funds and disbursements be made in hard specie, like gold silver or in paper money with gold or
silver to back up. This would hopefully undue speculation in western lands as the U.S. Expanded territory
Oregon Territory
 Spain, Russia, Great Britain, and America claimed the land of the Oregon country. Oregon went from west of the
Rocky Mountains to the Pacific which is now the Northern boundary of California and the Southern tip of Alaska.
 Spain had claims to the territory with the Transcontinental Treaty in 1819, Russia said Alaska extended only to
the present day southern boundary of 54o-40 north latitude and sold the land to San Francisco.
 Spain and Russia had a withdraw left Oregon to the United States and Great Britain both had claim to the land.
 An officer from Great Britain named George Vancouver explored the coastline in 1792 and the Hudson Bay
Company and established fur-trading posts.
 From America a man named Robert Gray in 1792 discovered the majestic river named after his ship while he
was sailing fur merchant. Lewis and Clark journeyed off the Oregon coast, and John Jacob Astor’s Pacific fur
company was built in 1811.
 The United States and Great Britain agreed on a “joint occupation” while Spain and Russia still owned the land,
so they gave all citizens of each nation equal access to the territory.
1) Oregon Fever attracted thousand of Americans that were hit by the depression known as the Panic
of 1837.
2) Oregon Fever was also known as Oregon Trail and ran through Missouri and Platte Rivers, across the
Great Plains and through the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains, blazed by Jedediah Smith, Jim
Bridger, and bother mountain men.
3) Most of the Oregon people who traveled were young farm families from the Middle West.
4) Most of the California gold seekers where young men who were hoping to come back to their
families as wealthy men.
5) Problems where steering up and Daniel Webster and Lord Ashburton tried to solve the problem and
come up with a solution, but when they couldn’t come up with an agreement President John Tyler
suggested that the boundary line be extended from the Rocky Mountains along the forty-ninth
Mexican War
 The conflict between American and Mexico started when America decided they wanted to expand their land “from
sea to shining sea” Mexico on the other hand was not willing to give up their land that easy.
 When President Polk was in office he asked John Slidell to go to Mexico and negotiate four things.
1. He wanted him to negotiate the Rio Grande boundary with Mexico.
2. He needs to arrive at a settlement over the claims issue.
3. He needs to sound out the Mexican government interest in selling California and New
 When Mexico turned the offers down President Polk ordered General Taylor to move his 3,500 man army across the
Nueces River to the Rio Grande to defend the newly annexed state.
 Polk contacted his cabinet and said that the U.S. had ample cause of war because of the rejection of Slidell as
ministers and claim issues. The only person who thought this was a bad idea was Secretary of Navy George
 The word was out that battle was going on, along the Rio Grande. The following Monday President Polk said that
Mexico had invaded their territory and killed Americans.
 The word of the war was very popular and in the northeast some even called it the “Mr. Polk’s War.” Whigs were
not big fans of the war and didn’t support it but Congress voted to support the American troops and marines.
 Abraham Lincoln was a Whig congress man and said that Polk rushed into the war he then demanded to know
where the exact “spot” of the war had started, but his views towards the war were not so popular so he decided not
to run for reelection.
 Some people went on strike and opposed the war like Henry Davis Thoreau refused to pay his Massachusetts poll
tax and was sent to jail.
 Despite everything else the war was an unparallel military success. After the first battle General Taylor defeated
Mexico at the Battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
 The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the U.S. Mexican War on February, 2 1848. It is and still to this day the
oldest treat still enforced between Mexico and America. The United States acquired 500,000 square miles of
 The treaty was brought to Mexico by Nicholas P. Trist; he was the U.S. peace commissioner. After the military
campaign the Mexican government agreed to meet with Trist to discuss peace terms.
 Trist, right before the meeting, received orders from President Polk to go back to Washington D.C. Trist ignored the
orders and stayed to have the meeting with the Mexican government. The negotiation was made around early
January 1848. The Mexican president Manuel de la Pena y Pena agreed to the boundary, an issue which was that
Texas’s southern boundary would be the Rio Grande, the cession of Alta California would include the port of San
Diego, and Mexico would give up its territory between Texas and California with a boundary surveyed.
 Finally on February 2 1848 the Mexican representatives met with Trist in the Villa of Guadalupe Hidalgo and signed
the treaty.
 When the election of 1848 came Polk kept his promise and did not run for re-election. Both Democrats and Whigs
wanted to vote for Zachary Taylor to run for president but the Democrats lost him when he chose to be in the Whig
party. So while the Whigs elected Taylor the Democrats elected Lewis Cass.
 Taylor promised to more wars and shifted his attention to the new issue of whether slavery could be banned from
the new territories. Taylor made this decision based off of desperation he clearly not committed to the Whig
principles but he was popular for leading the war. The democrats had a big chance of winning unless the Whigs
picked Taylor and they did, Taylor was one of the only 2 Whigs to be elected.
 The Wilmot Proviso was a proposal adopted by the congress to forbid slavery to expand in the southwest, especially
in New Mexico. This helped cause the American Civil War.
 In 1846 David Wilmot (democrat congress man) proposed the Wilmot Proviso and was passed by the House on a
sectional vote, but never by the Senate therefore never became a law.
 The Wilmot Proviso was passed in the House but not in the Senate. The Northern Whigs strongly agreed on this but
the Southern did not. In 1848 the antislavery Democrats in the northeast formed a Free Soil Party with the slogan
“Free Trade, Free Labor, Free Soil, Free Speech, and Free Men.” The Wilmot Proviso was never about helping black
slaves it was about stopping their owners from expanding into new western lands and thereby shutting out poor
white farmers.
When Gadsden was elected U.S. minister of Mexico he had his own design to buy from Mexico, enough to build a
railroad to the Gulf of California. The land that Gadsden desired was basically empty.
The U.S. wanted a boundary adjustment and Mexico wanted money and a settlement of Indian claims against the
U.S. so in 1852 Gadsden paid Santa Anna $10 million for a piece of territory south of the Gila River and lying in what
is now the southwestern New Mexico and southern Arizona.
Many did not like that Gadsden purchased this and thought of it as a “conscience money” Gadsden was then
recalled as Minister for mixing in Mexican politics and domestic affairs and did not live to see his Southern Pacific
Railroad built.
Rise of National Economy
By: Brandon Montano
Rise of National Economy
Sectional differences:
West - Many people moved to the west after war of 1812 and the defeat of the Indians at Fallen Timber because the
land was cheap and was good for growing crops. People came all around the nation and the land became settled and
farms began to appear and grow.
South - The south was big in producing cotton and textile mills grew at a fast pace due to the success. With the cotton
gin it helped take the seeds away from the cotton. With the demand of cotton the number of slaves increased.
North - With the North, more Industries and factories began to appear which led to the Industrialization Revolution.
Communication and transportation was a big component and began to become faster and cheaper.
Industrial Revolution: Impact - It brought forth the introduction of factories, development of electricity, mass production
of goods and the start of many new inventions.
Samuel Slater(Father of the Factory System): With the help of samuel, he brought forth the idea of textile mills from
Britain to America.
Boston Associates: They were a linked group of investors. They included Nathan Appleton, Patrick Tracy Jackson, Abbott
Lawrence and Amos Lawrence. They invested in railroads and with it, it helped transport cotton. They also invested in
Lowell, Mass/Lowell Girls: Many women helped play a role in the textile mills as workers which they were located in
Lowell, Massachusetts. Many of them worked for about 12 hours a day, and many workers started at a young age. Many
of them lived in boarding homes that were often crowded.
General Incorporation laws: It allowed corporations to be formed without a charter from the legislature. It also refers to
a law enabling a certain type of corporation, such as a railroad.
Limited Liability: This is a concept where by the persons financial liability is limited to a fixed sum, mostly dealing with
someones investment in a company or partnership with limited liability. If a company with limited liability is sued, then
the plaintiffs will sue the company but not its owners or investors. A slaveholder in a limited Company is not liable for
any of the debts for the company, other than for the value of their investment in that company. This takes the form of
that person's dividends in the company being zero, so company has no profits.
Wage slavery: This is where a persons livelihood depends on wages. The term “wage slavery” has been used to criticize
economic exploitation and social stratification.
Transportation Revolution:
turnpikes - also known as a toll road is a privately or public built road for which the driver pays a fee for use.
Canals - are man made channels for water. There are 2 types
 waterways: used for carrying ships and boats shipping goods and conveying people, which are further
subdivided into 2 kinds, those connected to lakes, rivers or oceans.
 Aqueducts - water supply canals that are used for the conveyance and delivery of water for human
consumption, uses like agriculture and irrigation.
Railroads - The use of the railroad helped with transportation and carrying goods from one place to another
National Road- A major road or highway built in the U.S to be built by the federal government. It crossed the Allegheny
Mountains and southwestern Pennsylvania reaching Wheeling, Virginia on the Ohio River in 1818
Lancaster Turnpike - first used in 1795 is the first long distance paved road built in the United State. It links Lancaster,
Pennsylvania and Philadelphia stretching 62 miles.
Robert Fulton - was an american engineer who invented the steamboat. It refers to boats working on lakes and rivers.
 Clermont 1807 was the first successful steamship. It operated on the hudson river between NY and Albany.
Erie Canal - is a waterway in NY that runs about 363 miles from Albany, NY on the Hudson River to Buffalo, NY at lake
erie. It was the first transportation system between the eastern seaboard and western interior of the U.S. It helped NY
City v=become the chief U.S port.
 Gov. DeWitt Clinton - was an american politician and naturalist who served as U.S senator and the 6th governor
of NY. He was responsible for the construction of the Erie Canal.
Charles River Bridge Co. vs. Warren Bridge Co. - the case regarded the Charles River Bridge and the Warren Supreme
Court. The case dispute was over the constitutional clause regarding obligation of contract. Charles River Bridge had
been granted a charter to build a bridge over the Charles River connection Boston and Cambridge. When the
Commonwealth of Massachusetts asked another company to build the bridge. Charles River Bridge claimed that the
Massachusetts Legislature had broken its contract with them.
Commonwealth vs. Hunt - A legal decision issued by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court about labor unions.
Eli whitney - created the cotton gin which helped separate the seeds from the cotton and with it created a bigger spread
of slavery. He also created the Interchangeable parts that are identical to the original part and are used to replace the
old part.
Elias Howe - was an American inventor and sewing machine pioneer
Isaac Singer - he made important improvements in the design of the sweing machine and was the founder of the Singer
Sewing Machine Company.
 sewing machine - is a textile machines used to stitch fabric and other materials together with thread.
John Deere - was an american blacksmith and the manufacturer who founded Deere & Company. His invention the
Steel plow is used in farming for cultivation of soil
Cyrus McCormick - an american inventor and founder of the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company. His invention,
the mechanical reaper that harvests crops.
Samuel Morse - Invented the telegraph which helped with communication making it faster and easier to communicate
with people. He also co worker of coming up with morse code
Social Reform
By: Alyssa Ngyuen
Second Great Awakening:
Impact: The major impact of the Second Great Awakening was that it spurred the formation of other reform
movements. It inspired others to start other movements such as the temperance movement. The Second Great
Awakening was a Christian revival movement that started around the early 19th century. It was created due to the
formation of the other religions that challenged Christianity like Deism and Unitarianism. The Second Great Awakening
was a very widespread moment and was very emotional, similar to the First Great Awakening. Preachers would even
ride on horseback to preach and spread Christianity. All of the reform movements that the Second Great Awakening
helped spur were the Temperance Movement, Women’s Suffrage, Public Education, Prison Reform, Abolition
movement, and better treatment of the mentally ill.
Reaction to Deism: Deism was the religion caused by the Enlightenment movement, which was the Age of Reason.
Deism was more based off reason and knowledge rather than faith. They didn’t have the division of Christianity and also
they didn’t believe in faith, which was believing in something that can’t be proven. They believed in morals and life
lessons as well. Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine (“The Age of Reason”) promoted Deism.
Unitarianism: Unitarianism was the religion that included only one god. They didn’t believe in the Holy Trinity. Like
Deism, they also rejected the division of Christianity. They believed that you could be saved if you did “good works”,
meaning that through doing good deeds their soul could save. They also believed that people had good hearts. This
religion attracted intellectuals like Ralph Waldo Emerson.
Liberalism: Favoring social progress by reform and changing laws instead of a revolution. During the early 19th century,
instead of having a revolution, there were several reform movements to help build and improve the nation. Such
movements were the Second Great Awakening, the Temperance Movement, the Abolitionist movement, public
education, better treatment of mentally ill, and Women’s suffrage.
Social ills: There had been a larger separation between the social classes and regions of the 19th century due to the 2nd
Great Awakening. Usually the Southerners or Westerners who were poor, rural, and less educated would be Methodist
or Baptist. Usually the Easterners who were wealthy, urban, and well educated would be Episcopalian, Presbyterian,
Congregationalist, or became Unitarian. Also the churches would have mixed opinions over slavery for example the
Methodist and Presbyterian had issues with this.
Charles Grandison Finney: The greatest of the revival preachers, he was an orator. He was able to move great masses.
He preached the old religion, but was also an innovator.
Peter Cartwright: A very well known Methodist “Circuit Rider”, traveled from Tennessee to Illinois to preach and call
upon sinners to repent. He was able to convert thousands to the lord.
“Circuit Riders”: In order to gain more followers, the Methodists and Baptists preachers would ride on horseback and
preach their religion to the West. Peter Cartwright was one of the most famous of the “Circuit Riders”.
Camp meetings, revivalism, perfectionism: Since the Second Great Awakening was a rural movement, that meant that
there were huge masses on the frontier “Camp meetings”. They would camp for several days and thousands “got
religion” at these gatherings.
Influence of 2nd Great Awakening on frontier: The influence of the 2nd Great Awakening on the frontier was that since
the preachers would hold these camp meetings, more people from the West would be able to go to these revivals.
These revivals would “save” people, but also they would boost the church membership, and help stimulate
humanitarian reforms.
“The Burned-over District”: In Western New York, so many sermonizers were preaching “hellfire and damnation” that it
was known as “The Burned-over District”.
Millenialism, Millerites (Adventists): They rose from the Burned over region, interpreted the Bible that Christ would
return to earth on October 22, 1844. They gathered in assemblies to greet their redeemer, but their prediction was a
failure, although this didn’t destroy the movement.
Mormons: Started in America, it was a new religion created by Joseph Smith. Mormons faced many issues with others
due to their practice of polygamy, which is having multiple wives.
Joseph Smith: he claimed receiving golden plates from an angel and when he deciphered them, they were the Book of
Mormon. He was the founder of Mormons.
Brigham Young: Later replaced took Joseph Smith’s role as leader of the Mormons after Smith’s death. He then led the
Mormons to Utah on the “Mormon Trail”. In Utah, he became the territorial governor in 1850.
Utah: Led by Brigham Young, the Mormons went on the “Mormon Trail” to Utah to escape persecution. Even there they
still faced issues due to their practice of polygamy for example applying for statehood. They had enough people because
of the high rate, but their marital customs delayed Utah’s statehood until 1896.
Wilderness Utopias: Utopia- Perfect Society
 Brook Farm- Massachusetts, 1841. It was started by intellectuals; they promoted plain living and high thinking. It
attracted many Transcendentalists. Nathaniel Hawthorne was an actual resident there. It prospered for 5 years
until a major building burned down and the town collapsed in debt.
 New Harmony- Indiana, 1825. There were about 1,000 people, led by Robert Owen. They had the 1st free
Kindergarten public school, free public library, and the 1st well known Utopian Society, they were very known for
education. They slowly sank due to contradiction and confusion.
 Oneida Community- New York, 1848. They were a more radical group. They practiced free love, complex
marriage, and birth control. They also chose who would have offspring’s to create a superior offspring. They
prospered for more than 30 years and later became monogamist.
 Shakers- New York, 1776. They lasted a very long time; there were about 20 religious communities. They
opposed marriage and free love and believed in having no personal relations with others. They were very
simplistic, and since they didn’t reproduce, they eventually died off.
Amana Community- They were a society of Germans and formed a sect called the Inspirationists. In 1855 they
moved to Iowa and built a community life of “brothers all”. It was one of the longest lasting communities.
Abolitionism: During the 1830’s there was a large movement to try to emancipate slaves and abolish slavery, sparked by
the Second Great Awakening.
Temperance: The temperance movement was created due to the massive flow of immigrants. The Irish and Germans
would heavily drink, and women seeing this disliked it. They believed that alcohol broke apart the family and ruin the
Christian family. The women led the temperance movement.
American Temperance Union: This was founded in Boston in 1826. They tried to use several different methods to try and
encourage temperance.
Maine Law 1851, Neal S. Dow: Sponsored by Neal S. Dow, it prohibited the sale and manufacturing of alcohol. Other
states followed and by 1857, about a dozen passed laws prohibiting alcohol, although they didn’t really last.
Women’s Rights:
Seneca Falls, 1848, New York: This was a convention held for women’s rights. It was organized by Elizabeth Cady
Stanton. The Declaration of Sentiments was drafted here. It declared that “all men and women are created equal.” It
also called for female suffrage. Even though neither had happened, it started the women’s rights movement.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony: All of these women supported women’s suffrage. They were
very passionate about fighting for equality to women in society. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott helped
organize the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 and helped draft the “Declaration of Sentiments”.
Sarah & Angelina Grimke, Lucy Stone, Sojourner Truth: Sarah and Angelina Grimke pushed for abolition. They were one
of the first women to become anti-slavery activists. They were also involved with the women’s rights movement. Lucy
Stone advocated the women’s rights movement. She also lectured against slavery in the Anti-Slavery Society. Sojourner
Truth was a freed black woman from New York who fought endlessly for black emancipation and women’s rights. She
had deep religious passion that she condemned the sin of slavery.
“Republican Motherhood” Catherine Beecher: “Republican Motherhood” was the idea that women had a special
responsibility to cultivate the “civic virtues” of republicanism in their children. Catherine Beecher wanted women to take
roles out of the house, for example she urged women to take on teaching jobs.
“Cult of Domesticity”: The “Cult of Domesticity” was that the women’s only role was in the home. They also owned and
ran the homes, but as for jobs, there were hardly any for women.
Godey’s Ladybook: Founded in 1830. It was a very popular magazine for women although it only lasted until 1898.
Impact of Industrial Revolution on gender roles: Due to the industrial revolution, there had been an increase of women’s
roles outside of the home, for example Lowell Mills, Massachusetts. Due to the boom of factories, there was a greater
need for workers. Young women would work in the textile factories. At times the women had to face hard conditions
such as minimum wage, overworking, and unsanitary conditions.
Social Reform (con’t)
By: Itzel Perez
o Noah Webster: Standardizes words by writing the Webster Dictionary. He writes reading and grammar
books for children, many had morals. Most were patriotic stories.He also wrote the Blueback Speller.
 William McGuffey: He wrote the McGuffey’s Reader which contained grammar, moral and
patriotic lessons. Many schoolchildren read it.
o Public Education: Germans supported public education greatly. It would have to be tax supported. The
wealthy didn’t like it at first because they would pay for other children to go to school but later on
realized it would hurt the future government.
Horace Mann: Argued for a better education.He became known as the “Father of Public
Education” he had a normal school and pushed teachers to learn how to teach.
o Catherine Beecher: She pushed women into teaching.
 Other Reformers:
o Dorthea Dix: Fought for the improvement and care of the mentally insane.
 Treatment of the insane:The mentally ill were dealt with terribly. They were mistreated many
o American Peace Society: It’s a group of pacifists that spoke up to try and keep peace between regions
and reforms. It was led by William Ladd, but it stopped when the Civil War erupted.
o Prison reform:Prison was softened because it was too harsh. Debtor prisons were abolished.
 Auburn system:A method in which prisoners would work in groups during the day and be
separated at night.
 Pennsylvania system:System that kept prisoners in solitary confinement.
 Nativism:
o “Old Immigration”:
 Irish:The Irish had arrived during the 1840’s because of a potato famine. Thousands of Irish
came to America during the “Black Forties”.Most were poor and catholic. They worked had for
less and were very determined to get a better life. They settled on the cities of the east
coast.They also drunk a lot and were passionate people.
 German:At the same time as the Irish, the Germans arrived . They had crop failure and were
avoiding the war of 1848. The Germans settled in the Wisconsin area. They gave America the
Conestoga wagon the Kentucky riffle, the Christmas tree and kindergarten.
o Nativism:They are American born that oppose immigration.
 “Know-Nothings”:It’s a secret society that was against immigrants and when in inquiry they
would answer “I know nothing”. They were mainly against Irish immigrants.
 Literature:
o Transcendentalists: They are intellectuals in New England that challenged the way of thinking.They
believed they held inner light.
 Romanticism: Is an artistic movement that was made of creativity, emotion and imagination. It
is a way of making art and literature beautiful.
 Ralph Waldo Emerson: He was the most famous of the transcendentalists. His most famous
writing was Self Reliance which demonstrated individualism. He also wanted Americans to make
their own style of art and literature so that it was no longer British but American.
 Henry David Thoreau:Was a huge friend of Emerson’s but instead of talking about reliance, he
lived it.He spent many years living in the woods.
 Walden:Written by Thoreau and a classic. It was also know as Life in the Woods.
 “On Civil Disobedience”: Thoreau wrote the quote saying that showed that people can
peacefully not follow laws. It became an inspiration to many people including Mahatma
Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr.
Walt Whitman:Was a poet that encouraged people to live to the fullest he was also against slavery.
 Leaves of Grass:Written by Whitman, it contained various poems.
Knickerbocker Group:They made a new type of writing, American writing. It became famous globally.
James Fenimore Cooper: He was a novelist and wrote The Last of the Mohicans.
Washington Irving: He was famous for writing The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. He wrote his novels on many
American settings.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: An amazing poet that wrote Evangeline.
Hudson River School of Art: The school romanticized American landscapes. They usually painted images of the
Western frontier.
landscapes: The landscapes that were drawn during that time period, were of the west and they pushed tons of
people to move west.
Gilbert Stuart:He was an artist that was famous for painting many portraits of George Washington. He painted
portraits of the first seven presidents.
Charles Wilson Peale: Peale was also an artist that had the opportunity to make a portrait of George
Alexis de Toqueville: A french observer that visited America and author of Democracy in America.
Democracy in America: It described the many things he had seen in America. He wrote how there was equality
to everyone except slavery. He noted that Americans cherished their laws and freedom. He also noted that they were
patriotic and nationalistic.
Slavery and the South
By: Autumn Riehle
Slavery and The South
Eli Whitney’s cotton gin, made picking seeds out of cotton easier and it also called for an increase for slaves. More
slaves were needed for picking more cotton.
Mountains whites were not strong supporters of slavery, if even supporters at all. They had no need for slavery in the
mountains and despised the wealthy white plantation owners who usually ran their state.
Frederick Douglass was the leading spokesperson for blacks and against slavery, he was also beaten several times in the
American Colonization Society goal was to move black back to Africa. It failed because most blacks considered
themselves African-Americans.
Theodore Dwight Weld was inspired by Charles Grandison Finney’s preaching and became a leading anti-slavery
William Lloyd Garrison published a radical abolitionist newspaper titled The Liberator. It made its debut on New York’s
Day, 1831, and forcefully shouted against slavery for the next 30 years.
Wendell Phillips helped start The American Antislavery Society to further the cause.
Sojourner Truth was a tireless spokeswoman for abolition and women’s rights. She was a black woman.
The Underground Railroad was a secret route from “station to station” that led many slaves to the North and eventually
Canada. Harriet Tubman was the most well-known “conductor” of the “railroad”.
Personal Liberty Laws stated local officials didn’t have to chase and return fugitive slaves.
The 1850’s
By: Trey Riley
Jasper E. Riley
December 7th, 2011
Election of 1848, Taylor vs. Cass
This election was a three party election, the Democratic Party, the Whig Party, and the Free Soil Party.
Democratic representative was Lewis Cass, Whig Party was represented by Zachary Taylor, and the Free Soil
Party nominated Van Buren.
Taylor ended up winning the Election with 163 electoral votes, 47.3% of the popular vote.
Taylor only served two years in office, and died. Fillmore was his vice president and took over office.
Wilmot Proviso, 1848
Resulting to the Mexican-American War, David Wilmot introduced the Wilmot Proviso to the House of
Southerners highly disliked the Wilmot Proviso because it intended to destroy the institution of slavery.
This would ban slavery in all territory acquired by the US in the Mexican Cession, but it was killed in the Senate.
California Application/Gold Rush
California was filled with gold, people found out about it, and rushed to the state.
The population went from 15,000 people and increased to over 150,000 people, once this was recognized by the
people, they applied for statehood.
It didn’t take long for Senate and House of Representatives to admit California as a state.
William H. Seward.
He was a strong antislavery advocate, and was the most outspoken representatives of the antislavery in the
He saw that slavery was “an irrepressible conflict” between the North and South.
Extending slavery into the territories was not negotiable because slavery was prohibited by “a higher law than
the Constitution.
The Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the Lecompton Constitution, and the decision of Scott
vs. Sandford was disapproved and opposed by Seward.
Compromise of 1850
Henry Clay came up with the Compromise, Calhoun disapproved the Compromise, and Webster approved.
The Compromise consist of 5 bills:
-California was entered as a state.
-New Mexico and Utah was given the right to choose popular sovereignty for the issue of slavery.
-Texas Republic gave land to create New Mexico and got $10 million to pay Mexico for their debt.
-District of Columbia abolished the slave trade.
-The Fugitive Slave Act was passed, it fined people who didn’t punish runaway slaves.
The 1850s (con’t)
By: Jonah Sanchez
Foreign Affairs in the 1790s
 French Revolution-The French Revolution was a time of great turmoil in French history. It began in 1789 and
ended in 1799. During the French Revolution, the previous absolute monarchy and the entire social three estate
system was overthrown. Louis XVI was the first king to come to power at the start of the revolution. He was very
weak and indecisive ruler, which was a terrible for the country at that point in time. His wife was obsessed with
spending money. Despite National lack of food, they ate immense amount of food, and spent money that did
not even belong to them and belonged to the country. They were executed.
 Neutrality Proclamation of 1793- It kept us from having to fight England again and the French considered it a
betrayal on a couple of levels...but we were too weak to afford a conflict with either England or French.
 Citizen Genet- He was the French Ambassador to the United States in1793-1794 who was granted asylum in the
U.S. by president Washington when he was recalled by the Jacobins. He would have become a victim of the
Guillotine if he had not been allowed to remain in the United States. He died at his East Greebush, New York
farm on July 14, 1834.
 Jay’s treaty of 1794- A treaty that between the United States and Great Britain to regulate commerce and
navigation. It corrected problems arising from violations of the treaty of Paris of 1793.
Pinckney’s treaty- resulted in the right to deposit goods in New Orleans without paying duties, opening the
Mississippi River, stationing troops along the bored of Spain, and a promise to stay out of Indian affairs.
 XYZ affair- Worsened relation between France and the United States and led to the Quasi-War of 1798. When
Thomas Jefferson went to France he was bribed $250,000 to speak to Talleyrand. America refused.
 Quasi- War- The principle among the causes of the Quasi-War was the signing of Jay’s Treaty between the
United States and Great Britain in 1794.
 Convention of 1800- Tactically detached the United States from its alliances with France at the price of American
claims for damages resulting from French actions against U.S. commerce since the beginnings of the French
Revolutionary Wars. It ended the naval war.
 Alien and Sedition Acts-took away civil liberties of the people and violated the first amendment; freedom of
speech and press. It also took away the fundamental freedoms.
 Virginia and Kentucky resolution- Written in secret by VP Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. It opposed the
Alien and Sedition Acts, that extended the powers of the federal government.
 “High Federalists”- People like Alexander Hamilton, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. The federalist were a political
party early in U.S. national experience.
The 1850s
 Sumner-Brooks Affair- Pro-slavery congressman Preston Brooks attacked antislavery Senator Charles Sumner on
the floor of the senate. Violence of attack hinted of civil war to come.
 Pottawatomie Massacre-John Brown and his company of free state volunteers murdered five men settled along
the Pottawatomie Creek in southeastern Kansas.
 Lecompton Constitution- When the Kansas territory was ready to seek admission to the Union in 1857, the key
issue was whether it would be a free state or a slave state. It claimed to let voters decide between a
“Constitution with slavery” and a “Constitution without slavery”, but no real choice; the “Constitution without
slavery” prohibited only the importation of new slaves, not the maintenance of slaves already established in the
 Election of 1856- Democrats turned to James Buchanan, the Republicans ran their first presidential campaign in
1856, choosing John C. Fremont. The American party nominated Millard Fillmore. James Buchanan won the
 Dred Scott decision- He was to remain a slave. Said that he was not a citizen of the U.S., but merely property and
so he was not allowed to sue. Said he was never free, he was property and the Missouri Compromise of 1820
was unconstitutional.
 Panic of 1857- a sudden downturn in the economy of the US over 5,000 businesses failed within a year. This
happened when James Buchanan was President.
 Lincoln’s “House divided” speech- delivered upon winning the nomination for US senate in 1858. He lost, but it
established Lincoln in the national political scene.
 Freeport Doctrine- The individual territories can choose to abolish slavery in that territory if they decide they
wish to do so.
 Harper's Ferry raid- John Brown raided it, capturing a supply of gins and ammunition with the plan to distribute
them to slaves. Brown was hunted down and hanged.
 Election of 1860- Political parties split into factions between the North and the South. Lincoln won the election.
 Constitutional Union party- A political party organized in Baltimore in May 1860 by the Whig party and the know
nothing party. The constitutional union party___ sectional politics and was supported by states in the middle of
the US along the North/ South division. It was believed that the part of the country would become the main
battleground in a civil war.
Crittenden Compromise Proposal- Extending the Missouri compromise line to the Pacific coast and guaranty
slavery in areas south of this line forever, used federal funds to pay slaveholders for runaway slaves not
Civil War
By: Leslie Solis
Lincoln’s Inaugural Speech:
Lincoln's second inaugural address was about reconciliation and putting back together a nation that had fallen into an
abyss of hatred and killing; all of which somehow had some higher meaning in the plans of God. Lincoln felt that God
chose to cleanse the country of the horrible sin of slavery through the suffering and destruction of the Civil War. Lincoln
insisted that there "were no unbridgeable differences: Both read the same Bible, and pray to the same God.”
Sec. of State William H Seward:
In the U.S. Senate (1849 – 61), he was an antislavery leader in the Whig and Republican parties. A close adviser to Pres.
Abraham Lincoln, he served as U.S. secretary of state (1861 – 69). He helped prevent foreign recognition of the
Confederacy and obtained settlement in the Trent Affair. In 1865 he was stabbed by a conspirator of John Wilkes Booth
but recovered. He is best remembered for successfully negotiating the Alaska Purchase (1867), which critics called
Seward's Folly.
Sec. of Treas. Salmon P. Chase:
Salmon P. Chase was U.S. Secretary of the Treasury during the critical early years of the Civil War. Chase had for many
years been a leading citizen of Cincinnati and a lawyer well-known for defending escaped slaves. (Angry Southerners
called him "The Attorney General of Fugitive Slaves.") Chase was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1848 and served one
term, after which he was twice elected governor of Ohio (in 1856 and 1858) and then was again elected senator in 1860.
Two days after taking office, he left the Senate to join Abraham Lincoln's cabinet. Chase resigned his Treasury post in
1864 and ran against Lincoln for the Republican nomination for president; he lost, but later that same year Lincoln
appointed him to be Chief Justice of the United States. In that role Chase presided over the 1868 impeachment trial of
President Andrew Johnson.
Sec. of War Edwin St. Stanton:
He was involved in the controversy over Presidents Jackson’s impeachment. In order to protect Stanton’s part the
Tenure of Office act was passed. This prohibited the president removing any cabinet officers without the consent of the
Senate. Johnson ended up being impeached by the House because he tried to remove Stanton from office.
Border States:
The states that were seen as Border States were Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri. They didn’t have many
plantations and the slavery population was 17%.
Seceding States:
First Seven:
When Abraham Lincoln was elected as president in 1860, Southerners thought the government was becoming too
strong. They did not think the government had the right to tell them how they should live. Southerners felt if they stayed
in the United States, the North would control them. Some southern states decided they had no choice. They decided to
secede, or leave, the United States. South Carolina was the first to leave the Union and form a new nation called the
Confederate States of America. Four months later, six other states seceded. They were Georgia, Florida, Alabama,
Mississippi, Texas and Louisiana. Later Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee joined them. The people of
these states elected Jefferson Davis as president of the Confederacy.
Jefferson Davis:
Military hero and successful politician Jefferson Davis accepted the office of president of the Confederacy, although he
preferred a military command in the new Confederate Army. Davis sincerely believed that slavery benefited slaves as
much as white slaveholders. The profits he made from his plantation and the good care he took of his slaves
corroborated his beliefs. As president of the Confederacy, Davis frequently tried to force his own military strategies for
victory upon his generals. His insistence upon the need for a strong central government in order to win the war
convinced many in the South that he was unsympathetic to states' rights doctrine. Davis justified his actions with the
reply, "We are fighting for independence, and that, or extermination, and we will have." Short-tempered and
opinionated, Davis quickly amassed political enemies within the South, including his own vice president, Alexander
Stephens. Throughout the war, he attempted to maintain control over the unwieldy Confederate government,
frequently quarreling with both the Confederate Congress and state governments throughout the South.
Alexander Stephens:
Alexander Stephens was a Whig (later Democratic) member of the U.S. Congress off and on from 1843 until the end of
his life. From 1861 to 1865, he served as the vice president of the 11 Confederate states that seceded from the Union
over the question of slavery and other issues. His main goal as a politician was the preservation of the traditional
Southern way of life, including slavery, within a peaceful Union. However, when this way of life was threatened, he
became a reluctant supporter of secession. In his famous "Cornerstone Speech," which he made shortly after the South's
secession in 1861, he declared: "We are now the nucleus of a growing power, which if we are true to ourselves, our
destiny, and our high mission, will become the controlling power on this continent."
Confederate States of America:
The CSA were Southern states that had seceded from the union in early February of 1861 to form a separate nation. The
purposes of this new union were to preserve slavery, establish Southern autonomy from the U.S federal government
and ensuring the sovereignty of individual Southern states before a central government. The confederacy only lasted
throughout the Civil War.
South’s advantages in the war:
The South had the upper hand in the case of geography. It was a large area with poor roads and rugged terrain, making
it more difficult to conquer by the North. It also had a long coastline that would take a lot of time to capture. The South
had the "home-field advantage," because they were defending their area as opposed to taking the offensive.
North Advantages during the war:
The North had a larger population base and a huge industrial base. It could produce more finished goods such as guns
and armaments. There was more money in the North. The United States was better recognized by foreign governments
as an established nation, so the Confederacy had a harder time obtaining foreign credit and aid. The states in the Union
had an easier time recognizing a central government so organizing the army was easier, and Lincoln's authority was
better recognized. The North also had a better developed system of roads and railroads.
Fort Sumter:
Lincoln’s dilemma and decision:
Lincoln believed that a relief expedition was feasible and ordered merchant steamers, protected by warships, to carry
"subsistence, and other supplies" to Anderson. He also notified Governor Francis W. Pickens of South Carolina that an
attempt would be made to resupply the fort. After debate - and some disagreement - the Confederate cabinet
telegraphed Beauregard on April 10 to fire on Fort Sumter if absolutely necessary to prevent reinforcement. Brig. Gen.
Beauregard, in command of the provisional Confederate forces at Charleston, South Carolina, demanded the surrender
of the Union garrison of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. Garrison commander Anderson refused. On April 12,
Confederate batteries opened fire on the fort, which was unable to reply effectively. At 2:30 pm, April 13, Major
Anderson surrendered Fort Sumter, evacuating the garrison on the following day. The bombardment of Fort Sumter was
the opening engagement of the American Civil War.
Volunteers and conscriptions, draft riots:
There was no general military draft in America until the Civil War. The Confederacy passed its first of 3 conscription acts
16 April 1862, and scarcely a year later the Union began conscripting men. Government officials plagued with manpower
shortages regarded drafting as the only means of sustaining an effective army and hoped it would spur voluntary
enlistments. Conscription nurtured substitutes, bounty-jumping, and desertion. Doctors certified healthy men unfit for
duty, while some physically or mentally deficient conscripts went to the front after sham examinations. Enforcement
presented obstacles of its own; many conscripts simply failed to report for duty. Several states challenged the draft's
legality, trying to block it and arguing over the quota system. Unpopular, unwieldy, and unfair, conscription raised more
discontent than soldiers.
Anaconda Plan:
The first military strategy offered to President Abraham Lincoln for crushing the rebellion of Southern states was devised
by Union General-in-Chief Winfield Scott. From April 1 through early May 1861 Scott briefed the president daily, often in
person, on the national military situation; the results of these briefings were used by Scott to work out Union military
aims. About 3 May Scott told his protégé, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, that he believed an effective "Blockade" of
Southern ports, a strong thrust down the Mississippi Valley with a large force, and the establishment of a line of strong
Federal positions there would isolate the disorganized Confederate nation "and bring it to terms." Contemporary
sources said McClellan called it Scott's "boa-constrictor" plan. Scott then presented it to the president, in greater detail,
proposing that 60,000 troops move down the Mississippi with gunboats until they had secured the river from Cairo, Ill.,
to the Gulf, which, in concert with an effective blockade, would seal off the South. Then, he believed, Federal troops
should stop, waiting for Southern Union sympathizers to turn on their Confederate governors and compel them to
surrender. It was his belief that sympathy for secession was not as strong as it appeared and that isolation and pressure
would make the "fire-eaters" back down and allow calmer heads to take control. But the war-fevered nation wanted
combat, not armed diplomacy, and the passive features of Scott's plan were ridiculed as a proposal "to squeeze the
South to military death." The press, recalling McClellan's alleged "boa-constrictor" remark, named the plan after a
different constricting snake, the anaconda. The plan was not adopted, but in 1864 it reappeared in aggressive form. Lt.
Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's 2-front war, fought in Virginia and Tennessee, pressed the Confederates, while Maj. Gen. William
T. Sherman's march through Georgia to the sea helped "squeeze the South to military death.
Bull Run (Manassas):
Just months after the start of the war at Fort Sumter, the Northern public clamored for a march against the Confederate
capital of Richmond, Virginia, which could bring an early end to the war. Yielding to this political pressure, unseasoned
Union Army troops under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell advanced across Bull Run against the equally unseasoned
Confederate Army under Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard near Manassas Junction. McDowell's ambitious plan for a surprise
flank attack against the Confederate left was not well executed by his inexperienced officers and men, but the
Confederates, who had been planning to attack the Union left flank, found themselves at an initial disadvantage. Both
sides were sobered by the violence and casualties of the battle, and they realized that the war would potentially be
much longer and bloodier than they had originally anticipated.
General George McClellan:
He was a major general during the American Civil War. He organized the famous Army of the Potomac and served briefly
(November 1861 to March 1862) as the general-in-chief of the Union Army. Early in the war, McClellan played an
important role in raising a well-trained and organized army for the Union. Although McClellan was meticulous in his
planning and preparations, these characteristics may have hampered his ability to challenge aggressive opponents in a
fast-moving battlefield environment. He chronically overestimated the strength of enemy units and was reluctant to
apply principles of mass, frequently leaving large portions of his army unengaged at decisive points. McClellan’s
Peninsula Campaign in 1862 ended in failure, with retreats from attacks by General Robert E. Lee's smaller Army of
Northern Virginia and an unfulfilled plan to seize the Confederate capital of Richmond. His performance at the bloody
Battle of Antietam blunted Lee's invasion of Maryland, but allowed Lee to eke out a precarious tactical draw and avoid
destruction, despite being outnumbered. As a result, McClellan's leadership skills during battles were questioned by U.S.
President Abraham Lincoln, who eventually removed him from command, first as general-in-chief, then from the Army
of the Potomac. Lincoln offered this famous evaluation of McClellan: "If he can't fight himself, he excels in making others
ready to fight." Indeed, McClellan was the most popular of that army's commanders with its soldiers, who felt that he
had their morale and well-being as paramount concerns.
Robert E. Lee, “Stonewall” Jackson:
When Virginia declared its secession from the Union in April 1861, Lee chose to follow his home state, despite his
personal desire for the Union to stay intact and despite the fact that President Abraham Lincoln had offered Lee
command of the Union Army. During the Civil War, Lee originally served as a senior military adviser to President
Jefferson Davis. He soon emerged as a shrewd tactician and battlefield commander, winning numerous battles against
larger Union armies.
Significance of the Antietam Battle:
It gave President Lincoln the victory he needed to deliver the emancipation proclamation. Also it was the single
bloodiest day in American history. It also stopped lees invasion of the north.
Fredericksburg, Dec. 1862:
The Battle of Fredericksburg was fought December 11–15, 1862, in and around Fredericksburg, Virginia, between
General Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and the Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by
Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside. On December 13, the "grand division" of Maj. Gen. William B. Franklin was able to
pierce the first defensive line of Confederate Lt. Gen. Stonewall Jackson to the south, but was finally repulsed. Burnside
ordered the grand divisions of Maj. Gens. On December 15, Burnside withdrew his army, ending another failed Union
campaign in the Eastern Theater.
May 1863, Chancellorsville:
On May 3, the Confederates attacked with both wings of the army and massed their artillery at Hazel Grove. This finally
broke the Federal line at Chancellorsville. Hooker withdrew a mile and entrenched in a defensive “U” with his back to
the river at United States Ford. Union generals Berry and Whipple and Confederate general Paxton were killed;
Stonewall Jackson was mortally wounded. On the night of May 5-6, after Union reverses at Salem Church, Hooker
crossed to the north bank of the Rappahannock. This battle was considered by many historians to be Lee’s greatest
July 1863, Gettysburg:
Robert E. Lee attempted and failed to invade the North in a move designed to take pressure off of Virginia and possibly
earn a victory that could end the war. The failure of Pickett’s Charge meant that the South had lost. The loss for the
South was demoralizing and General Lee never again attempted to invade the North on this grand scale.
July 4, 1863 Vicksburg:
In May, 1863, Joseph E. Johnston ordered General John Pemberton to attack Ulysses S. Grant at Clinton, Mississippi.
Considering this too risky, Pemberton decided to attack Grant's supply train on the road between Grand Gulf and
Raymond. Discovering Pemberton's plans, Grant attacked the Confederate Army at Champion's Hill. Pemberton was
badly defeated and with the remains of his army returned to their fortifications around Vicksburg. After two failed
assaults, Grant decided to starve Pemberton out. This strategy proved successful and on 4th July, Pemberton
surrendered Vicksburg. The western Confederacy was now completely isolated from the eastern Confederacy and the
Union Army had total control of the Mississippi River.
Atlanta and march through Georgia—Sherman:
After capturing Atlanta in September 1864, a victory that guaranteed the reelection of Abraham Lincoln and the
continuation of the Civil War, Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman, Union commander in the west, turned his thoughts to
the most direct assault he could imagine on the heart of the Confederacy, one that targeted Southern morale. Despite
some misgivings on the part of Lincoln and Ulysses S. Grant, the overall Union commander and Sherman's closest friend,
Sherman decided to send a blocking force under George H. Thomas to stop Confederate moves northward. Breaking his
lines of communication, he would fan out his army and set off for Savannah, Georgia, on a giant raid that became known
as the march to the sea, carving a wide swath through the Georgia countryside on his way.
Appomattox Courthouse:
A former town located in southern central Virginia, U.S. This was the site of the surrender of Robert E. Lee to Ulysses S.
Grant on April 9, 1865, effectively ending the American Civil War. It was virtually deserted after the removal of the
county seat to the new town of Appomattox in 1892.
Emancipation Proclamation 1863:
The Emancipation Proclamation was a military measure proclaimed by Lincoln acting as commander in chief of the
armed forces. It freed the slaves in those parts of the south which continued the war as of Jan 1, 1863. Of course most of
these areas were under Confederate control so it actually freed no one at the time. It was not aimed at slaves held in the
Border States because these states weren’t "in Rebellion". But it was a very shrewd move politically. It changed the war
from one where the north was trying to "preserve the union" - once the country was reunited then it could be decided
what, if anything, to do about slavery, into a war to free the slaves. This ensured that no European country (France or
England) was going to intervene in the war on the side of the Confederacy, because they would not want to be depicted
as fighting for slavery.
By: Zak Sawyer