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Chapter 6 The American Revolution (1776-1783) Section 2 The War Continues
After Saratoga
•Saratoga was a turning point, Patriot ___________________ now seemed possible
•European nations, especially ___________________ saw that the Americans might actually win
•Ben Franklin went to Paris, France to seek French support
•The French gave to the Americans ___________________, but were not their allies…..yet
•After Saratoga, France ___________________ announced their support of the United States
•February 1778- France and the US worked out a trade agreement and an alliance
•France declared ___________________ on Britain
•Also sent ___________________, equipment, and troops to aid (help) the Patriots
•Other European nations helped as well, mainly because they ___________________ the British
•Spain did not recognize American ___________________, but still declared war on Britain in1779
•The Spanish governor of Louisiana, Bernardo de Galvez raised an ___________________
•This army forced the British out and captured ___________________ at Mobile and Pensacola
•This diverted British troops from other ___________________of the war
Winter of 1777-1778
•Howe and the British spent the winter in ___________________ in Philadelphia
•About 20 miles west, Washington set up his camp at ______________________________________
•Washington and the army endured terrible ___________________
•Lacked ___________________, clothing, shelter, and medicine
•Washington’s biggest challenge was keeping the army ___________________
Valley Forge
•Due to snowstorms and damaged roads, it was hard to get ___________________ in
•The Continental army build ___________________ and gathered supplies from the countryside
•Volunteers, including Martha Washington, made ___________________ and cared for the sick
•Washington said no army had ________ suffered “such uncommon hardships” with such “patience and fortitude.”
Joseph Martin at Valley Forge
•Joseph Martin, a young private from Connecticut wrote;
• “Most of the men lacked ___________________, ___________________, and ___________________.”
•Martin made a pair of rough moccasins and later wrote
•“The only alternative I had, was to endure this inconvenience and go ___________________, as hundreds of my
companions had to, till they might be tracked by their blood upon the rough frozen ground”
More of Valley Forge
•Many men ___________________ (left without permission)
•Some ___________________resigned
•The army was falling ___________________
•With strong determination, the Continental Army ___________________ the winter
•Conditions improved and new ___________________ joined
•“The army grows ___________________ everyday”
•April 1778, Washington told the troops of the alliance with France
•The Army celebrated with a ___________________ festival and a parade
Help From Overseas
•Among the leaders at Valley Forge was a French nobleman- the Marquis de ___________________
•Lafayette offered his help to Washington and became a trusted ___________________ to him
•Others also helped the American cause including ___________________ engineer Thaddeus Kosciusko and
cavalry officer Casimir Pulaski
More Help From Overseas
•Prussian officer Friedrich von ___________________ helped drill the Patriot troops at Valley Forge
•Taught the soldiers ___________________ discipline
•Turned the ragged group into an ___________________ fighting force
•Spaniard Juan de Miralles befriended the Patriot leaders and loaned ___________________ to the cause
•Other Europeans who had recently moved to the United States joined the ___________________ cause
•Even with help, the Continental Army still needed large amounts of ______________ to continue to fight the war
Money Problems
•Getting money to finance the war was a ___________________ problem
•Continental Congress had no power to raise money through ___________________
•Some money came in from the ___________________ and other countries, but much more was needed
•Congress and the states printed hundreds of millions of dollars’ worth of paper ___________________
•There was not enough ___________________ or ___________________ backing them and they lost value
•This led to ___________________
•No one would take the ___________________ and Congress stopped making them
Changing Attitude
•Ideals of liberty and ___________________ inspired the American Revolution
•These same ideals caused some ___________________ to question their place and treatment in American society
•Judith Sargeant Murray argued that women’s minds are as good as men’s
•Therefore women should also get an ___________________
•Abigail ___________________ also stood up for women’s interests
Hopes For Equality
•The ideals of the Revolutionary War led some white Americans to question ___________________
•Governor Livingston of New Jersey asked the legislature to free all ___________________ people in the state
•Livingston said slavery was “utterly inconsistent with the principles of ___________________ and humanity”
•Many other states attempted to end ___________________
•The issue (matter) of slavery would remain ___________________ for many years
Treatment of Loyalists
•Thousands of Loyalists fought for the British
•Some ___________________ on Patriots
•Many ___________________ the colonies
•Those that remained faced ___________________ times
•Shunned by neighbors
•Became victims of ___________________ violence
Essential Question
•How did the United States gain allies and aid during the Revolutionary War?
•Britain had many European ____________
•Benjamin Franklin convinced ___________________ to send money
•After __________________, other British rivals joined