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Interactive Slide Lecture Guide
Thought Questions:
1. What is the “POPULAR VOTE?”
2. How might people feel when they realize the popular vote does not matter?
Slide #1: The Palace of Versailles
Versailles is located 11 miles ________________
of Paris.
Everything about the palace was _____________.
Louis the 14th required hundreds of nobles to live
with him in the splendid palace he built. It
increased his power because it made the
_______________ completely dependent on him
The palace faced a huge royal courtyard
dominated by a statue of Louis XIV.
The palace itself stretched for a distance of over
___________ (equal to five football fields).
Some people recorded that food made in the
kitchen was often cold by the time it reached the
Versailles was like a small __________________
because of its great size. The palace was filled
with riche furnishings and decorations that clearly showed Louis’ wealth and power to everyone who came to
the palace.
In 1994 dollars, the palace was worth an estimated ____________________.
In 2003 dollars, it was worth an estimated $2.5 billion.
Versailles had 36,000 laborers (workers who sole purpose was to ________________ the king.)
The estate had _______________ acres of gardens, lawns, and woods and with in the gardens were 1,400
Slide #2 and #3: Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
Many problems were facing France in the 1770’s and 1780’s. One of the biggest problems was that France’s
government sank deeply into _____________. The King, Louis the 16th, failed to solve France’s financial
Louis XVI became King in 1774 when his father died of ___________________. He lived in the legacy of
Louis the 14th. He married Marie Antoinette when he was 15 and she was 14. He and his wife, Marie
Antoinette, were extravagant __________________ of France’s money. He also inherited considerable debt
from ___________________________.
He doubled France’s debt by borrowing heavily to help American _________________________ in their war
against Great Britain (France’s chief rival).
Louis was an all-around ___________ leader. He was indecisive and let matters drift (he didn’t care). He paid
little attention to his government advisors and had little __________________ for the details of governing.
Louis’ tutors (teachers) made little effort to prepare him for his role as ______________. He was bored by state
affairs and preferred to spend his time _________________ and working with his hands- lock-making, metalworking, and bricklaying. Despite his shortcomings, he was well-intentioned but lacked the ability to make
good and effective __________________.
Marie Antoinette only added to Louis’ ___________________. She interfered in the government and frequently
offered Louis poor advice. She was a member of the _____________ royal family (France’s long-time enemy)
which made her unpopular from the moment she stepped foot in France. Many accused her of being an Austrian
spy. Her behavior only made her ______________________ worse. She spent extravagant amounts of money
on gowns, shoes, jewels, gambling, and gifts that she became known as “Madame Deficit.”
But she was pretty, light-hearted, and charming. She referred to Louis as “____________________________”
and sometimes set the clock forward an hour just to be rid of his presence. In constant need of entertainment,
Marie Antoinette spend hours ___________________________. One year she lost the equivalent of $ _______
million by gambling in card games.
Slide #4: A Peasant Carrying the Nobility and Clergy
The Old Order = The Old ________________
People in France were divided into three large _____________ classes,
also known as ESTATES. But the real divide was between the privileged
estates and the Third estate.
People were not treated __________________ in France.
The First Estate was comprised of Roman Catholic _______________.
They owned 10 % of the land and contributed 2% to government taxes.
The Second Estate was made up of wealthy ____________. They
comprised 2% of the population but owned 20% of the land.
The 1st and 2nd Estates scorned Enlightenment ___________________.
The Third Estate was 97% of the population. Within the 3rd estate was:
Bourgeoisie (middle class)- well _______________ and believed in
Enlightenment ideas.
Workers (poorest group)- received low wages and were often out of
work. They often went ______________. Some attacked bread carts
and shops to steal what they needed.
Peasants- 80% of the population. Half of their ____________ went to taxes.
Members of the Third Estate were fed up and ________________. They began listening to enlightenment ideas.
They faced the heavy burden of ________________, the cost of living was rising sharply, bad weather caused
widespread __________________________, there was a severe shortage of grain, and the price of
_____________ doubled. Many people faced ________________________.
Slide #5: Meeting of the Estates General
Rather than cutting expenses, Louis put off
dealing with the emergency until there was
practically no money ___________.
His solution was to _______________ taxes on
the nobility. However, the second estate was
outraged and forced him to call a meeting of
Estates ______________- an assembly of
representatives from all three estates- to
approve the new tax.
The meeting, the first in ______ years, was
held on May 5, 1789 at the Palace of
Throughout history, the clergy and nobility had
always _____________________ the Estates General and expected to do so once again in 1789. Under
medieval rules, each estate’s delegates met in a separate hall to vote, and each estate then could cast one vote.
The two privileged estates could always _________________ the Third Estate.
The meeting began with arguments over how to count the votes. The members of the Third Estate ___________
that everyone meet together and that each delegate gets one vote. This would give the ___________________
to the Third Estate, and therefore to the majority of France’s population (the Third Estate had more delegates
that the other two combined).
The king sided with the ____________ and ordered the Estates-General to follow the medieval rules. But the
Third Estate became more and more ______________ to wield power. Finally, a member of the ___________
who was sympathetic to the Third Estate gave a dramatic speech.
He suggested the Third Estate delegates name themselves the ____________________ ASSEMBLY and pass
laws and reforms in the name of the French people.
After a long night of excited debate, the 3rd Estate agreed to the idea by an overwhelming _______________.
On June 17, 1789, they voted to establish the National Assembly. They ended absolute monarchy and began a
representative government. This was the first deliberate act of revolution.
Thought Question:
1. If you were given a blank slate to form a new government, what would be the most important principles,
freedoms, and/or clauses you would include?
Slide #6: The National Assembly and the Tennis Court Oath
Three days after the vote to form the National
Assembly, the delegates found themselves _________
out of their meeting room.
So they broke down a door to an indoor tennis court,
and pledged to stay in the court until they had drawn
up a new _______________________ for France.
This pledge became known as the Tennis Court Oath.
Soon after, nobles and members of the clergy who had
favored reform joined the Third Estate delegates.
In response to these events, Louis stationed his
mercenary army of ____________ guards around
Versailles. He also reluctantly gives into their
Slide #7: The Storming of the Bastille
In Paris, ______________ flew!
Some people suggested that Louis was intent on using military
force to dismiss the National Assembly. Others charged that
foreign troops were coming to Paris to _____________ French
People began to gather weapons in order to defend the city against
_______________ (by the King’s Swiss army).
On July 14, 1789, a mob searching for gunpowder and weapons
stormed the Bastille, a Paris ____________ (The mob thought
there would be more gunpowder and weapons there).
The officer of the Bastille refused to give in to the angry mob and
then __________ his weapon into the crowd. The mob
overwhelmed the guard and seized control of the prison. The angry attackers hacked the prison commanders
and several guards to death. They then paraded around the streets with the dead men’s heads on pikes. _______
people died in the attack.
The fall of the Bastille became a great __________________ act of revolution. Ever since, July 14- Bastille
Day- has been a French national holiday, similar to the Fourth of July in the United States.
Slide #8: The Great Fear and the March on Versailles
Before long, ________________ spread from Paris to
the countryside.
Wild rumors circulated that nobles were hiring outlaws to
_________________ the peasants.
A wave of senseless panic called the ________________
rolled through France. Peasants soon became outlaws
themselves. Armed with pitchforks and other farm tools,
they broke into ____________ farm houses and
destroyed old legal papers that bound them to the land.
Sometimes, they burned down the house.
In October 1789, thousands of Parisian women rioted
over the rising price of ______________. Carrying knives, axes, and other weapons, the women ____________
on Versailles. First they demanded the National Assembly take action to provide bread. Then they turned their
anger on the _________ and ____________. They broke into the palace, killing some of the guards. They
women demanded Louis and Marie Antoinette go to Paris. After some time, Louis ____________. They royal
family and their servants left Versailles never again to return. Their ________ signaled the change of power and
radical reform about to overtake France.
Slide #9: The Assembly Reforms France
While mobs were controlling the ______________ of Paris
and peasants were wreaking havoc in the countryside, the
National Assembly was working hard to create a new
government for France.
August 4, 1789- motivated more by fear than __________,
members of the clergy and nobility joined other members
of the National Assembly in _____________ away the old
feudal privileges of the 1st and 2nd Estates. Commoners
were equal to the nobles and clergy. By morning, the Old
Regime was dead.
Three weeks later- August 27, 1789- the National
Assembly voted to _______ the Declaration of the Rights
of Man and of the Citizen. This document:
-reflected the influence of the _______ Dec. of Ind.
-guaranteed equal justice, freedom of _______, and
freedom of religion
-revolutionary leaders adopt the slogan, “Liberty,
______________, Fraternity” as the revolutionary
In 1790, the National Assembly focused on the church.
They took over church land and church officials had to be
_____________. Proceeds from the sale of lands helped
pay off France’s debt.
Irony- millions of devout ______________ were alarmed by the actions of the assembly and stopped supporting
the ______________. This drove a wedge between the bourgeoisie and the peasants.
For two years, the assembly argued over a new constitution. In September 1791, the new constitution was
completed (which Louis reluctantly approved). They created a _____________ constitutional monarchy which
stripped the king of much of his power. He kept ______________ power to enforce laws, but couldn’t make
laws. The new law-making body, the Legislative Assembly, was put into place to create laws and approve war.
Louis ____________ his fate as the monarch. Some of his advisors warned him that he and his family were in
danger. Many nobles who supported the monarchy fled France. In June of 1791, the ______________ family
tried to escape to Austria. They got close to the border, but they were caught and returned to Paris. This
increased the influence of his _____________ enemies and sealed his fate.
On August 27, 1789, the National Assembly of France adopted a revolutionary document, the
Declaration of the Rights of Man of the Citizen. As you read this portion of the document, consider
the rights it guaranteed French citizens.
The representatives of the French people, organized as the National Assembly, believing that the
ignorance, neglect, or contempt of the rights of man are the sole cause of public calamities and of the
corruption of governments, have determined to set forth in a solemn declaration the natural,
unalienable, ad sacred rights of man, in order that this declaration, being constantly before all the
members of the social body, shall remind them continually of their rights and duties… Therefore the
National Assembly recognizes and proclaims, in the presence and under the auspices of the Supreme
Being, the following right of man and of the citizen:
1. Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be founded only upon
the general good.
2. The aim of all political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of
man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.
3. Liberty consists in the freedom to do everything which injures no one else; hence the exercise of
the natural rights of each man has no limits except those which assure to the other members of
the society the enjoyment of the same rights. These limits can only be determined by law.
4. Law can only prohibit such actions as are hurtful to society…
5. Law is the expression of the general will. Every citizen has a right to participate personally, or
through his representative, in its foundation. It must be the same for all, whether it protects or
6. No person shall be accused, arrested, or imprisoned except in the cases and according to the
forms prescribed by law… But any citizen summoned or arrested in virtue of the law shall submit
without delay, and resistance constitutes an offense.
7. The law shall provide for such punishments only as are strictly and obviously necessary, and no
one shall suffer punishment except it be legally inflicted in virtue of a law passed and
promulgated before the commission of the offense.
8. As all persons are held innocent until they shall have been declared guilty, if arrest shall be
deemed indispensable, all harshness not essential to the securing of the prisoner’s person shall
be severely repressed by law.
9. No one shall be disquieted on account of his opinions, including his religious views, provided
their manifestation does not disturb the public order established by law.
10. The free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man.
Every citizen may, accordingly, speak, write, and print with freedom, but shall be responsible for
such abuses of this freedom as shall be defined by law…
11. A common contribution is essential for the maintenance of the public forces and for the cost of
administration. This should be equitably distributed among all citizens in proportion to their
12. Since property is an inviolable and sacred right no one shall be deprived thereof except where
public necessity, legally determined, shall clearly demand it and then only on condition that the
owner shall have been previously and equitably indemnified.
Thought Question:
1. Is capital punishment (death penalty) a necessary evil? Why/why not?
Slide #10: Old Problems, New Divisions
Old problems __________________ despite the new government. There were still
food shortages and government debt.
Soon there were angry ___________ for more liberty, more equality and more
bread that turned the revolution’s leaders against one another.
The question of how to answer the _______ problems caused the Legislative
Assembly to split into three general groups; each of which sat in different parts
of the meeting hall. (see below) These groups disagreed but were not ________.
Groups forming outside of the Legislative Assembly were more extreme:
Emigres- extreme ___________- were nobles and others who fled France and
wanted to completely undo the revolution and return to the _______________.
Sans Culottes- extreme ___________- Parisian workers and shop keepers who
wanted even more change. Sans Culottes means “without fancy breeches.”
Although they did not have a role in the Assembly, they began to exert their
power in the streets of France.
The terms we use today to describe where people stand politically are derived from the factions that developed
in the Legislative Assembly in 1791.
Sat on left side of the hall; were
called “left-wing.”
Opposed the King and the idea
of a Monarch
Wanted sweeping changes in
government and proposed
common people have full power
in a republic
Sat in the center of the hall and
were called centrists.
Wanted some changes in
government, but not as many as
the radicals.
Sat on the right side of the hall;
were called “right-wing,” and
were said to be on the right.
Upheld the idea of a limited
Wanted few changes in
Slide #11: War and Extreme Measures
While the revolution was occurring within ______,
the nation faced an external threat as well. In 1792,
European ___________ and nobles around Europe
feared the changes in France. Nearby nations did
not want their people ____________ to revolt
against them. Austria and Prussia suggested the
Legislative Assembly should ___________ the
Monarch. The Assembly responded by declaring
war. The war began badly- Prussian forces were
advancing on __________. A Prussian commander
threatened to destroy Paris if a member of the
royal family was harmed.
This enraged Parisians. On August 10, 1792, 20,000
men and women invaded the palace where the
royal family was staying. The mob _________________ the royal guards and imprisoned (in a stone tower)
Louis, Marie Antoinette and their children.
September massacres- rumors were again flying! Angry and ______________ citizens take matters into their
own hands. They raided prisons. During the raid, they murdered over 1,000 prisoners, all of which who were
king’s supporters, nobles, priests, and royalists. Parisian mobs, through _________, were gaining control and
threatening the effectiveness and success of the fledgling government (Legislative Assembly).
Slide #12: Parisian Radicals and the National Convention
In the Year of Our Lord,
Seventeen hundred and ninety-one
Dear Louis-Charles, Noble Baron de Breteuil,
This new Constitution of 1791 is absurd and
detestable. Though I have signed it, I regret it. I have
contacted the Royal Court in Austria and plan to flee there
when possible. From there, perhaps I can organize support
for the return of the monarchy. God bless you in these times
of shame.
Louis XVI, King of France
Under _______________ from radicals in the streets and among its members, the Legislative Assembly set
aside the Constitution of 1791. It declared the king ______________, dissolved the Legislative Assembly and
called for the election of a new ___________________.
The new governing body was established on Sept. 21, 1792. It was called the NATIONAL CONVENTION.
The leaders declared France a _______________.
A radical, political organization/club called the Jacobins was mostly responsible for all of the changes. The first
thing they did was __________________ Louis the 16th role from that of a king to a common citizen and
prisoner. Guided by the radical Jacobins, the National Convention tried Louis XVI for treason. They charged
him with conspiring with the _______________ (see letter above) to restore his authority. The Convention
found him guilty and by a very close vote, sentenced him to death.
January 21, 1793- the former king walked with calm dignity up the steps of the scaffold to be beheaded by a
machine called the guillotine.
Some doctors believed that a victims
head retained its hearing and eye sight
for up to 15 minutes after the blade’s
deadly blow. All remains were
eventually gathered and buried in simple
If you think the guillotine was a cruel from of capital
punishment, think again. Dr. Joseph Ignace Guillotin
proposed a machine that satisfied many needs- it was
efficient, humane, and democratic. A physician and
member of the National Assembly, Guillotin claimed
that those executed with the device “wouldn’t even
feel the slightest pain.”
Prior to the guillotine’s introduction in 1792,
many French criminals had suffered through horrible
punishments in public places. Although public
punishments continued to attract large crowds, not all
spectators were pleased with the new machine. Some
witnesses felt that death by the guillotine occurred
much too quickly to be enjoyed by the audience.
Criminals in 17th-18th century
France sometimes faced one or more
of the following fatal penalties:
Being broken on a wheel
Being pulled apart by horses
Women knitters, or tricoteuses,
were regular spectators at
executions and knitted stockings for
soldiers as they sat near the base of
the scaffolding.
Once the executioner
cranked the blade to the
top, a mechanism
released it. The sharp
weighted blade fell,
severing the victim’s
head from his or her
More than 2,100 people were
executed during the last 132 days
of the Reign of Terror. The pie graph
below shows the breakdown of
beheadings by class:
Before each execution, bound victims
traveled from the prison to the scaffold in
horse-drawn carts during a 1 ½ hour
procession through city streets.
First Estate
Second Estate
Third Estate
Sentenced to death by the National Convention, Louis XVI was executed on January 21, 1793. This is an eye
witness account of the King’s final hours.
On January 20, 1793, the National Convention condemned Louis XVI to death, his execution scheduled for the next day. Louis spent
that evening saying goodbye to his wife and children. The following day dawned cold and wet. Louis arose at five. At eight o'clock a
guard of 1,200 horsemen arrived to escort the former king on a two-hour carriage ride to his place of execution. Accompanying Louis,
at his invitation, was a priest, Henry Essex Edgeworth, an Englishman living in France. Edgeworth recorded the event and we join his
narrative as he and the fated King enter the carriage to begin their journey:
"The King, finding himself seated in the carriage, where he could neither speak to me nor be spoken to without
witness, kept a profound silence. I presented him with my breviary, the only book I had with me, and he seemed
to accept it with pleasure: he appeared anxious that I should point out to him the psalms that were most suited to
his situation, and he recited them attentively with me. The gendarmes, without speaking, seemed astonished and
confounded at the tranquil piety of their monarch, to whom they doubtless never had before approached so near.
The procession lasted almost two hours; the streets were lined with citizens, all armed, some with pikes and
some with guns, and the carriage was surrounded by a body of troops, formed of the most desperate people of
Paris. As another precaution, they had placed before the horses a number of drums, intended to drown any noise
or murmur in favour of the King; but how could they be heard? Nobody appeared either at the doors or
windows, and in the street nothing was to be seen, but armed citizens - citizens, all rushing towards the
commission of a crime, which perhaps they detested in their hearts.
The carriage proceeded thus in silence to the Place de Louis XV, and stopped in the middle of a large space that
had been left round the scaffold: this space was surrounded with cannon, and beyond, an armed multitude
extended as far as the eye could reach. As soon as the King perceived that the carriage stopped, he turned and
whispered to me, 'We are arrived, if I mistake not.' My silence answered that we were. One of the guards came
to open the carriage door, and the gendarmes would have jumped out, but the King stopped them, and leaning
his arm on my knee, 'Gentlemen,' said he, with the tone of majesty, 'I recommend to you this good man; take
care that after my death no insult be offered to him - I charge you to prevent it.'… As soon as the King had left
the carriage, three guards surrounded him, and would have taken off his clothes, but he repulsed them with
haughtiness- he undressed himself, untied his neckcloth, opened his shirt, and arranged it himself. The guards,
whom the determined countenance of the King had for a moment disconcerted, seemed to recover their
audacity. They surrounded him again, and would have seized his hands. 'What are you attempting?' said the
King, drawing back his hands. 'To bind you,' answered the wretches. 'To bind me,' said the King, with an
indignant air. 'No! I shall never consent to that: do what you have been ordered, but you shall never bind me. . .'
The path leading to the scaffold was extremely rough and difficult to pass; the King was obliged to lean on my
arm, and from the slowness with which he proceeded, I feared for a moment that his courage might fail; but
what was my astonishment, when arrived at the last step, I felt that he suddenly let go my arm, and I saw him
cross with a firm foot the breadth of the whole scaffold; silence, by his look alone, fifteen or twenty drums that
were placed opposite to me; and in a voice so loud, that it must have been heard it the Pont Tournant, I heard
him pronounce distinctly these memorable words: 'I die innocent of all the crimes laid to my charge; I Pardon
those who have occasioned my death; and I pray to God that the blood you are going to shed may never be
visited on France.'
He was proceeding, when a man on horseback, in the national uniform, and with a ferocious cry, ordered the
drums to beat. Many voices were at the same time heard encouraging the executioners. They seemed reanimated
themselves, in seizing with violence the most virtuous of Kings, they dragged him under the axe of the
guillotine, which with one stroke severed his head from his body. All this passed in a moment. The youngest of
the guards, who seemed about eighteen, immediately seized the head, and showed it to the people as he walked
round the scaffold; he accompanied this monstrous ceremony with the most atrocious and indecent gestures. At
first an awful silence prevailed; at length some cries of 'Vive la Republique!' were heard. By degrees the voices
multiplied and in less than ten minutes this cry, a thousand times repeated became the universal shout of the
multitude, and every hat was in the air."
Slide #13: Robespierre and the Reign of Terror
External problems persisted: France was still facing the problems of war. Austria and Prussia were
joined by ________________, Holland, and Spain. Forced to contend with so many enemies,
France suffered a string of ______________.
The Jacobins had thousands of enemies within France as well. Such as:
Peasants who were horrified by the King’s ________________, Priests
who would not accept government control, and rival leaders who were
stirring up rebellion.
Controlling all of these enemies became a central issue.
Maximilien Robespierre ____________ gained power in 1793. He
Set out to build a “republic of virtue” by wiping out every trace of
France’s past (monarchy and nobility). For example:
Decks of cared with _________, ____________ and Jacks were
changed to figures representing revolutionary ideals.
Changed the calendar to be based on reason (12 months with 30
days and renamed each month)
Calendar had no Sundays because radicals considered religion
_________________ and dangerous.
Closed all churched in Paris
Summer of 1793-Robespierre created the Committee on Public Safety
For the next year, Robespierre ruled like a _______________. This
period of rule became known as the Reign of Terror. Under
Robespierre’s leadership, “enemies” of the revolution were often
Tried in the morning and guillotined in the _______________. Some
Crimes were: saying “down with the Republic,” owning a _________
with the King’s seal on it, and cutting down a tree planted in the name of liberty (18 yr. old boy).
His most famous victim was __________________________. He also killed many leaders of the revolution
whose only crime was being less radical than he. In two years, ________________ French men and women
were sentenced to death. 85% were peasants or urban poor; the common people whom the revolution was
supposed to benefit.
Slide #14: The End of Terror and the Directory
In July of 1794, _______________ for their own safety, members
of the National Convention turned on Robespierre.
The Reign of Terror ended on July 28, 1794 when Robespierre met
his own ____________ in the guillotine.
Public opinion shifted dramatically as people had grown ________
of the high prices of bread, salt, and other necessities of life.
In 1795, _________________ leaders drafted a new plan of
government, the third since 1789 (beginning of the revolution).
Power was handed over to the ____________ middle class. They
created a TWO-house legislature and an executive body of five
men called the Directory. These five men were moderates and
they ruled for ________ years.
But some of them were _____________ and made themselves rich
at the country’s expense. They did, however, give a troubled
country a brief period of order.
They also found the right general to command France’s army!
Thought Question:
1. Would you trade your civil liberties (freedoms) if it guaranteed you law, order, and stability? Why or
why not?
Slide #15: Napoleon Gains Power
He was a _______________ man, only 5’3”, but is recognized in history
as one of the greatest military geniuses of all time. In only ______ years,
(1795-99), he rose from a relatively obscure position as ______________
in the French army to become master of France.
In October 1795, fate handed the young officer a chance for ___________.
He successfully defended the delegates of the National Convention from
royalist rebels. Napoleon Bonaparte became the hero of the __________
and was hailed in Paris as _____________ of the revolution.
In 1796, the Directory appointed Napoleon to lead the French army
against ___________. He swept through the Alps and won a series of
remarkable victories. He kept stories of his ______________ out of
public scrutiny and therefore remained a __________ for the French
November 9, 1799- his friends urged him to ____________ power. So he
led a COUP D’ETAT (military _____________ of the government) of the
Directory. His troops drove out most of the members of the legislature
(which was already ___________). Those who remained voted to _______________ the Directory. Soon
Napoleon assumed dictator powers as the First Consul of France.
Slide #16: Napoleon Crowns Himself the Emperor of France
At first, Napoleon pretended to be the ________________________
elected leader of the free republic. In 1800, a PLEBISCITE, or ________
of the people, was held to approve a new constitution. Desperate for
strong leadership and STABILITY and ORDER, the people
overwhelmingly voted in _____________ of the new constitution. This
gave Napoleon all of the real power.
France was given _________ and ______________! And Napoleon kept
many of the changes of the revolution.
1. He got the economy back on stable ground
2. He reduced government corruption
3. He provided government with _____________ officials by setting up
LYCEES, or government run public ______________.
4. He restored the power of the _________________. He signed a
CONCORDANT (__________________) with the Pope where
Government would recognize the power of the church so long as the
Church did not interfere with ________________ affairs. Therefore
Napoleon gains the support of the church and the French people.
5. His greatest work was his comprehensive set of ____________, known as the NAPOLEONIC CODE. It was
a uniform set of laws and eliminated many ________________. However, it did limit liberty and promoted
order and authority over individual rights.
The Economy
Goals of the
1. Equal taxation
2. Lower inflation
1. Set up fairer tax code
2. Set up national bank
3. Stabilized currency
4. Gave loans to
1. Equal taxation
2. Stable economy
Government and Society
1. Less gov’t corruption
2. Equal opportunity in
1. Appointed officials by
2. Fired corrupt officials
3. Created lycees
4. Created code of laws
1. Less powerful Catholic
2. Religious tolerance
1. Recognized Catholicism as “faith of
2. Signed concordant with
the Pope
3. Did not give back
seized church lands
1. Religious tolerance
2. Government control of
church lands
3. Government recognition of church influence
1. Honest, competent
2. Equal opportunity in
3. Public education
In 1804, Napoleon decided to make himself _______________, and the French voters supported him. He
dressed in a splendid robe of ____________ velvet and walked down the long aisle of Notre Dame Cathedral.
The _________ waited for him with a glittering crown. As thousands watched, Napoleon took the crown and
put it on his own head. This gesture signaled that he was more powerful than the ______________.
But Napoleon was content just being ____________ of France. He wanted to control the rest of _____________
and to reassert French power in the Americas. After all, he was a _________________ leader at heart.
Slide #17: Napoleon Creates an Empire
Napoleon failed to keep the ________ world territories under
French control. In 1801, a slave revolt in Saint Domingue (Haiti)
led by Toussaint L’Ouverture successfully defeated French forces.
It was the only successful slave revolt in history. Haiti won its
After that ______________, Napoleon decided to cut his losses in
the Americas and he sold the Louisiana Territory in _________
to Thomas Jefferson for $15 million.
So he turned his sights on conquering ____________ and was
very successful. He created the largest European empire since the
______________. He just could not defeat the British _________.
Those nations not under his control could easily be manipulated by
threat of military action. The French empire was huge but
_________________. He was only able to maintain it for five
years, from 1807- 1812. Then it quickly fell to pieces.
Slide #18: The Empire Collapses
His own personality caused his _________________.
He loved power and his need for more led to serious
misjudgments and his ultimate ___________.
He made three costly mistakes:
1. Continental System- a _________________ of
Britain which was meant to destroy its economy.
But the blockade was not tight enough so it didn’t
work. In return, Britain blockaded France with
their powerful navy and was successful. This hurt
Napoleon more than it helped him.
2. Peninsular War of 1808- _______________
ignored the Continental System so Napoleon sent
an army through Spain. Spanish towns _______.
In response, Napoleon deposed the Spanish king
And put his brother in power. This __________
the Spanish people. So bands of Spanish peasant fighters, known as guerillas, fought the French army. Their
___________ was to ambush and then hide. Napoleon lost _________________ men in this war.
3. Invasion of Russia in 1812- This was his third and most _____________ mistake. Russia refused to stop
selling grain to Britain so Napoleon invaded Russia. Napoleon pushed in and Russian troops retreated back. As
the ______________ advanced, the Russian practiced a scorched-earth _______________. As they retreated,
they burned ____________ and slaughtered live stock leaving the enemy, the French, nothing to eat. The
French advanced on ________________ only to see the Russians had burned their city (rather than surrender
their holy city). After a month, Napoleon decided to return to France. But the harsh Russian ____________
staggered Napoleon’s army. His soldiers suffered from wounds, exhaustion, hunger and __________________.
Some soldiers feet were so frozen that they sounded like wooden clogs on the ground. The temperature was 30
degrees below zero. It was so cold that birds fell _____________ from the sky. All the while, Russian raiders
mercilessly attacked Napoleon’s army. The ______________ from Moscow devastated Napoleon’s grand army.
By the time he got back to France, he only had 10,000 soldiers left to fight.
By then, Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Sweden all _______________ forces against him. All of the main
powers of Europe were against him. Napoleon tried to fight on, but couldn’t with his ill-equipped and untrained
army. In April of 1814, he surrendered and gave up his throne. The victors gave him a small _____________
(pay) and ________________ (banished) him to Elba, a tiny island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Louis XVIII (18th), the brother of Louis XVI (16th) assumed the French _______________. (Louis XVII (17th),
the executed King’s son died in prison in 1795.) The new king quickly became ___________________, as
many thought he would reverse the progress of the revolution.
Napoleon escaped from Elba in 1815. French people joyously welcomed him and he was again _____________
of France. He returned to France for One Hundred Days. But the European ____________ quickly organized to
fight him. They met in Waterloo in Belgium. Napoleon ______________. He was shipped off by the British to
St. Helena, a remote island in the south ______________ Ocean. He lived in lonely _____________ for six
years where he wrote his memoirs. He died in 1821 of stomach cancer.
Slide #19: The Congress of Vienna and the Legacy of the Revolution
The Congress of Vienna was a meeting of all the great
European leaders who were looking to restore order and
stability to Europe after the ______________ of
Napoleon. It was scheduled to last four weeks and it
ended up taking eight months.
The main goal of the meeting was to RESTORE THE
BALANCE OF _________________ in Europe so that
no one nation would become too strong (like France
Just had done).
The leader of the meeting was Klemens Von Metternich
of Austria. He outlined three goals of the Congress:
1. Prevent future _____________ aggression
2. Restore the balance of power
3. Restore Europe’s _____________ families to
the thrones they held before Napoleon’s
conquests. Therefore Louis XVIII was put back
in power in France under a constitutional
The Congress was a political ________________ in many ways:
 The settlements were fair and there were no real grudges
 It did not plant any seeds for future wars
 For the first time in a long while, _____________ of an entire continent were _________________.
 It created a time of _______________ in Europe for nearly forty years.
The Legacy of the Revolution:
The Congress of Vienna was a ___________________ for conservatives. But there were still irreversible
political changes in France and England. Conservative monarchs could not turn back the hands of time. The
French Revolution gave ________________ its first experiment in democratic government. Although the
experiment _______________, it set new political ideas in motion.
The French Revolution also ______________ the Latin American Revolutions. More and more, people saw
__________________ as the nest way to ensure equality and justice for all. A new era had begun!