Download Final Exam Study Guide (Periods 1, 4,7, 8) Unit 1: Nature of Science

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Final Exam Study Guide (Periods 1, 4,7, 8)
Unit 1: Nature of Science and Measurement
Name the SI unit of measurement and tools used for mass, length, area, volume,
density, time, and temperature. Explain the difference between mass and weight.
Explain the importance of a controlled experiment in science and what a controlled
experiment entails. Be able to define and distinguish between independent and
dependent variables, controls and constants.
Unit 2: Matter and Its Changes
Unit 3:
Unit 4:
Unit 5:
Unit 6:
What are the parts of an atom? Be able to name, diagram, and describe properties of:
the nucleus, protons, neutrons, and electrons.
 Distinguish between atoms, molecules, compounds and mixtures.
 Use the periodic table to give information about elements. For a given element, you
should be able to determine the number of protons/neutrons/electrons, the atomic
mass, and the atomic number.
 Give examples of physical and chemical properties and changes.
 Density- Give the definition and describe how volume and mass relate to density (i.e.
how does their increase/decrease affect density)
Views of the Earth and Exploring Space
 What is a topographic map? Be able to use the contour lines on a topographic map to
give information about elevation, slope and the terrain.
 What is the electromagnetic spectrum? Be able to list the types of radiation from
longest to shortest wavelength. Be able to describe relationships between energy,
wavelength, and frequency.
The Solar System
 Which planets are considered terrestrial planets? Gas giants? What characteristics can
you use to determine whether a planet is terrestrial or gas?
 What is the order of the planets? What are defining characteristics of each of the
The Sun-Earth-Moon System
 What is the difference between rotation and revolution? What is the result of Earth’s
rotation? Revolution?
 What causes the seasons to change? How does Earth’s axial tilt of 23.5º affect
seasons? Be able to diagram the tilt of the Earth and position of the Sun during each
 Be able to identify and draw pictures of the moon at each phase. How are the Sun,
Earth and moon aligned at the various phases?
 What is the difference between a solar and lunar eclipse? Be able to explain a picture
of the Sun-Earth-Moon system during each.
 How does the Moon affect Earth’s tides? Be able to explain spring and neap tides.
The Atmosphere
 Which gasses compose our atmosphere? Which one is most prevalent?
 What is air pressure? How does air pressure change with altitude?
 What are the layers of our atmosphere? Give
characteristics of each.
 What causes our global winds? How does the Coriolis effect impact the global winds?
 What are local winds? Be able to diagram and describe land and sea breezes.
Unit 7:Weather
 What is the difference between humidity and relative humidity? What is dew point?
 How do clouds form?
 Explain and give characteristics of cold and warm fronts. Explain and give characteristics of
high and low pressure zones.
 Explain the process of precipitation. What conditions are necessary for rain, sleet, snow, or
hail to form?
 How are air masses classified? Use temperature and moisture content data to infer where an
air mass came from.
Unit 8: Minerals and Rocks
 Be able to describe the common physical properties of minerals: hardness, luster, specific
gravity, streak, cleavage, and fracture.
 Apply Mohs scale to determine the hardness of common materials and minerals.
 How can an igneous rock form? Compare and contrast extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks.
 How can a metamorphic rock form? What’s the difference between a foliated and non-foliated
metamorphic rock.
 How can a sedimentary rock form? Compare and contrast detrital, chemical and organic
sedimentary rocks.
 Be able to classify examples as igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary based on
Unit 9: Clues to Earth’s Past
 What is the difference between relative and absolute age? Give an example of each.
 What makes an index fossil unique? Be able to use the concept of index fossils to identify the
age of a rock layer.
 What is the law of superposition? How can it be used to determine the relative age of rock
 What is an unconformity? Be able to recognize unconformities in a picture of a rock sequence.
 What is radiometric decay? What is half life? Be able to determine the absolute age of a
sample given half life data.
 What is the half life of Carbon-14? Why is carbon-14 often used in radiometric dating?
Geologic Time
 What are the characteristics of eons, eras, periods and epochs?
 What are some defining characteristics of Precambrian time? Paleozoic time? Mesozoic time?
Cenozoic time?
Unit 10: Oceans
 Draw a picture to show how temperature of the ocean changes with depth. Label and
describe the temperature characteristics of surface water, the thermocline and deep water.
 Identify and describe important features of the sea floor: continental shelf, abyssal plains,
mid-ocean ridge, ocean trench.
 What causes surface currents? How do they move in the NH? In the SH? In which direction
do warm/cold water currents flow?
 What causes deep water currents? Compare their flow to surface currents.
Unit 11 Stars and the Galaxies
 What are the names and characteristics of the three types of galaxies? What type of galaxy is
the Milky Way galaxy?
 Describe three leading theories for the origin of the universe. Which is the most accepted
theory today?
 What is the difference between absolute and apparent magnitude?
 How can parallax be used to determine the distance to stars?
Which elements are stars commonly made of? How do they use fusion to make their energy
and light?
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