Download Chapter 12 Late Middle Ages

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Chapter 12
Late Middle Ages
The Hundred Years War
1337 - 1453
• The Treaty of Paris
– The English King
agreed to become - for
himself and his
successors – vassal of
the French crown for
the duchy of
Causes of War
• French expansionist
wanted the French
Kings to resolve and
absorb the duchy of
• Philip VI of France
confiscated the duchy
in 1337 – ending the
Treaty of Paris
agreement with
Causes Continued
• Edward III – King of
England claimed he
had the right to the
French crown as the
only male heir to the
Capatian dynasty.
– Saw this as the only
way to secure his
claim to Aquitaine.
Causes Continued
• Economic Factors:
– Struggle for control of
the Flemish towns.
– Flanders was a fief of
the French crown.
– Flemish / English wool
trade was the
cornerstone of both
countries economies.
Support for the war
• England
– To win back the rightful
claim of their King.
– Promise of military
conquest & spoils of
– Opportunity to display
chivalric behavior.
– Propaganda stressing
the evils of the French
• France
– Defense of French
– French expansionist
– Fascination with the
glories of war.
– Promise of
employment for
Events of the War
• 1346: Battle of Crecy
– English longbow men
defeat the French
• 1356: Poitier
– French King was
captured and held for
• 1415: Agincourt
– English defeat of a
superior French force.
Joan of Arc
1412 - 1431
• Believed that God spoke
to her through visions.
– 1428: She convinced the
Dauphin to claim his place
as the rightful King of
– Persuaded Charles VII to
raise an army to lift the
English siege of Orlean.
– Captured by the
Burgundians in 1431 – sold
to the English who then put
her to death.
French Victory
• Patriotism inspired by a
new sense of nationalism
led to French victories on
the battle field.
• French drove the English
out of France during the
last 30 years of the war.
• Only English claim in
France that remained
was Calais.
Cost & Consequences of the War
• England
– Destruction of
southern ports.
– Breakdown of civil
order in England.
– Decline in wool trade.
– Failed promises of
– Massive war debt.
– Rise of Parliamentary
• France
– Destruction of land
and property.
– Massive civilian &
military loses.
– Breakdown of trade
system with Europe
and internally.
– Civil ands social
Winners & Losers
• Winners
– French expansionist.
– French monarchy
which was able to
consolidate more
– Parliamentary
assembly in England
who gained more
power over the
• Losers
– England
– Civilian farmers and
– Soldiers of the war.
– French Barons who
supported England
Parliamentary development in
• Representative
assemblies consisting
of Nobles, Bishops,
Knights, and
– Assembled at the
request of the King to
raise funds and
support for foreign and
domestic needs.
• Two Houses Develop:
– House of Lords
• Nobility & Leaders of
the Church.
– House of Commons
• Knights & Burgesses
who recognized the
power they had over
the purse strings of the
• Statute of 1341: Gained
the power to approve or
disapprove of taxes
imposed by the
French Government
• Provincial Assemblies
– Both the Monarch and
the Barons of the
provinces avoided the
assembling of a
national assembly.
– Language,
economic, legal and
political differences
kept the government
from centralizing.
• French identified with
the area / province in
which they lived.
– ie. Norman,
• Feeling of unity based on language,
common ancestry and customs, as well as
living in a common area.
– National pride grew with the propaganda of
the war and the victories of armies.
• Especially in France.