* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Chapter 12 Late Middle Ages The Hundred Years War 1337 - 1453 • The Treaty of Paris 1259 – The English King agreed to become - for himself and his successors – vassal of the French crown for the duchy of Acquitaine Causes of War • French expansionist wanted the French Kings to resolve and absorb the duchy of Aquitaine. • Philip VI of France confiscated the duchy in 1337 – ending the Treaty of Paris agreement with England. Causes Continued • Edward III – King of England claimed he had the right to the French crown as the only male heir to the Capatian dynasty. – Saw this as the only way to secure his claim to Aquitaine. Causes Continued • Economic Factors: – Struggle for control of the Flemish towns. – Flanders was a fief of the French crown. – Flemish / English wool trade was the cornerstone of both countries economies. Support for the war • England – To win back the rightful claim of their King. (Aquitaine) – Promise of military conquest & spoils of war. – Opportunity to display chivalric behavior. – Propaganda stressing the evils of the French monarch. • France – Defense of French lands. – French expansionist policy. – Fascination with the glories of war. – Promise of employment for soldiers. Events of the War • 1346: Battle of Crecy – English longbow men defeat the French Knights. • 1356: Poitier – French King was captured and held for ransom. • 1415: Agincourt – English defeat of a superior French force. Joan of Arc 1412 - 1431 • Believed that God spoke to her through visions. – 1428: She convinced the Dauphin to claim his place as the rightful King of France. – Persuaded Charles VII to raise an army to lift the English siege of Orlean. – Captured by the Burgundians in 1431 – sold to the English who then put her to death. French Victory • Patriotism inspired by a new sense of nationalism led to French victories on the battle field. • French drove the English out of France during the last 30 years of the war. • Only English claim in France that remained was Calais. Cost & Consequences of the War • England – Destruction of southern ports. – Breakdown of civil order in England. – Decline in wool trade. – Failed promises of wealth. – Massive war debt. – Rise of Parliamentary power. • France – Destruction of land and property. – Massive civilian & military loses. – Breakdown of trade system with Europe and internally. – Civil ands social conflicts. Winners & Losers • Winners – French expansionist. – French monarchy which was able to consolidate more power. – Parliamentary assembly in England who gained more power over the monarchy. • Losers – England – Civilian farmers and merchants. – Soldiers of the war. – French Barons who supported England Parliamentary development in England • Representative assemblies consisting of Nobles, Bishops, Knights, and Burgesses (commoners) – Assembled at the request of the King to raise funds and support for foreign and domestic needs. • Two Houses Develop: – House of Lords • Nobility & Leaders of the Church. – House of Commons • Knights & Burgesses who recognized the power they had over the purse strings of the Kingdom. • Statute of 1341: Gained the power to approve or disapprove of taxes imposed by the monarchy. French Government • Provincial Assemblies – Both the Monarch and the Barons of the provinces avoided the assembling of a national assembly. – Language, geographical, economic, legal and political differences kept the government from centralizing. • French identified with the area / province in which they lived. – ie. Norman, Burgundian. Nationalism • Feeling of unity based on language, common ancestry and customs, as well as living in a common area. – National pride grew with the propaganda of the war and the victories of armies. • Especially in France.