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Student Name: Alia Hussain Abu Al Rahi ID #: 201101164 Major: Information Technology Instructor Name: wisal Ali Memory What is a memory? Memory is the process by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Encoding or registration: receiving, processing and combining of received information. Storage: creation of a permanent record of the encoded information. Retrieval, recall or recollection: calling back the stored information in response to some cue for use in a process or activity. What are the types of memory? Memory has two types which are: 1. Random Access Memory (RAM). 2. Read Only Memory (ROM). Random Access Memory: Is a form of computer data storage. A random-access device allows stored data to be accessed quickly in any random order. In contrast, other data storage media such as hard disks, CDs, DVDs and magnetic tape, as well as early primary memory. Random access memory has two types: 1. Dynamic memory: Is a type of random-access memory that stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor within an integrated circuit. 2. Static Memory: Is a type of semiconductor memory that uses bistable latching circuitry to store each bit. The term static differentiates it from dynamic RAM (DRAM) which must be periodically refreshed. SRAM exhibits data permanence, but it is still volatile in the conventional sense that data is eventually lost when the memory is not powered. Read Only Memory: Is a class of storage medium used in computers and other electronic devices. Data stored in ROM cannot be modified, or can be modified only slowly or with difficulty, so it is mainly used to distribute firmware. Read Only Memory has two three types: Programmable Read Only Memory: A programmable read-only memory (PROM) nonvolatile memory (NVM) is a form of digital memory where the setting of each bit is locked by a fuse or ant fuse. Such PROMs are used to store programs permanently. The key difference from a strict ROM is that the programming is applied after the device is constructed. EPROM: Erasable programmable read only memory, is a type of memory chip that retains its data when its power supply is switched off. In other words, it is non-volatile. It is an array of floating-gate transistors individually programmed by an electronic device that supplies higher voltages than those normally used in digital circuits. Once programmed, an EPROM can be erased by exposing it to strong ultraviolet light source. EEPROM: Is user-modifiable read-only memory (ROM) that can be erased and reprogrammed (written to) repeatedly through the application of higher than normal electrical voltage generated externally or internally in the case of modern EEPROMs. EPROM usually must be removed from the device for erasing and programming, whereas EEPROMs can be programmed and erased in-circuit.