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CHAPTER 1: New World Beginnings, 33,000 B.C.–A.D. 1769
Theme: The first discoverers of America, the ancestors of the American Indians, were small bands of hunters who
crossed a temporary land bridge from Siberia and spread across both North and South America. They evolved a
great variety of cultures, which ranged from the sophisticated urban civilizations in Mexico and Central and South
America to the largely seminomadic societies of North America.
Theme: Europe’s growing demand for Eastern luxuries prompted exploration in the hopes of reducing the expense
of those goods with new trade routes. Exploration occurred incrementally, beginning with the Portuguese moving
around the coast of Africa and establishing trading posts. Awareness of the New World and its wealth pushed
exploration across the Atlantic. Spanish exploration continued in the same fashion, first in the Caribbean islands
then expanding into South and North America.
Theme: Portuguese and Spanish explorers encountered and then conquered much of the Americas and their Indian
inhabitants. This “collision of worlds” deeply affected all the Atlantic societies—Europe, the Americas, and
Africa—as the effects of disease, conquest, slavery, and intermarriage began to create a truly “new world” in Latin
America, including the borderlands of Florida, New Mexico, and California, all of which later became part of the
United States.
Millions of years ago, the two American continents separated from the Eastern Hemisphere land masses where our
human ancestors later evolved. The first people to enter the Americas came across a temporary land bridge from
Siberia about 35,000 years ago. Spreading across the two continents, they developed thousands of societies based
mostly on agriculture and hunting. In North America, some ancient Indian peoples like the Pueblos, the Anasazi, and
the Mississippian culture developed complex settlements. But generally, there were fewer North American Indian
societies, with fewer cities than those in Central and South America, though their culture and social organization
was equally diverse.
Old World exploration began because Europeans wanted new trade routes to the East, the Renaissance had changed
the closed mindset of the Middle Ages, and powerful new monarchs wanted colonies. Beginning with the
Portuguese and Spanish explorers, European encounters with America and Africa changed the entire world. These
transformations included biological change, disease, population loss, conquest, African slavery, cultural change, and
economic expansion.
After they conquered—and intermarried with— South American and Mexican Indians, Spanish conquistadores
expanded into the northern border territories of Florida, New Mexico, and California. Their small but permanent
settlements competed with the French and English explorers who also were settling North America.
Chapter 1 - New World
Great Ice Age
Land Bridge theory
“four corners”
adobe houses
Adena-Hopewell Mound
three sister farming
Iroquois Confederation
Hiawatha leader of Iroquois
Marco Polo
Prince Henry the Navigator
early slave trade
Christopher Columbus
Columbian Exchange
Treaty Line of Tordesillas
Vasco de Balboa
Ponce de Leon
Ferdinand Magellan
Hernando Cortes
Francisco Pizarro
Hernando de Soto
Francisco Coronado
Bartolomé de las Casas
Encomienda system
John Cabot
Pope's Rebellion
Robert de LaSalle
Black Legend
CHAPTER 2: The Planting of English America, 1500–1733
Theme: The English hoped to follow Spain’s example of finding great wealth in the New World, and that influenced
the financing and founding of the early southern colonies. The focus on making the southern colonies profitable
shaped colonial decisions, including choice of crops and the use of indentured and slave labor. This same focus also
helped create economic and cultural ties between the early southern colonies and English settlements in the West
Theme: The early southern colonies’ encounters with Indians and African slaves established the patterns of race
relations that would shape the North American experience—in particular, warfare and reservations for the Indians
and lifelong slave codes for African Americans.
Theme: After a late start, a proud, nationalistic England joined the colonial race and successfully established five
colonies along the southeastern seacoast of North America. Although varying somewhat in origins and character, all
these colonies exhibited plantation agriculture, indentured and slave labor, a tendency toward strong economic and
social hierarchies, and a pattern of widely scattered, institutionally weak settlements.
The defeat of the Spanish Armada and rising Elizabethan nationalism brought England into the race to colonize
America. The first permanent English colony at Jamestown, Virginia faced harsh conditions and hostile Indians, but
cultivating tobacco brought wealth and greater population. It also guaranteed colonists the same rights as
Englishmen and led to an early form of representative self-government.
English settlers’ interactions with the Powhatans in Virginia began many of patterns of later Indian-white relations
in North America. Indian societies changed substantially because of warfare, disease, trade, and the mingling and
migration of Atlantic coast Indians to inland areas.
Colonies were also established in Maryland and the Carolinas. South Carolina thrived on close ties with British
sugar colonies in the West Indies. It also borrowed from the West Indies slave codes and large plantation
agriculture. North Carolina had fewer slaves and more white colonists who owned small farms, while Georgia
served as a buffer against the Spanish and a haven for debtors.
Despite some differences, all the southern colonies depended on staple plantation agriculture, indentured servitude
and African slavery. They developed relatively weak religious and social institutions and hierarchical economic and
social orders because of their widely scattered rural settlements.
Chapter 2 - The Planting of English America
King Henry VIII
joint-stock company
English Protestant Reformation
Virginia Company
Elizabeth I
Sir Walter Raleigh
Captain John Smith
Roanoke Island Colony
“The Lost Colony”
defeat of the Spanish Armada
“starving time”
enclosure movement
Anglo-Powhatan War(s)
John Rolfe
Virginia House of Burgesses
Lord Baltimore
Maryland Act of Toleration
Barbados “Slave Codes”
James Oglethorpe
CHAPTER 3: Settling the Northern Colonies, 1619–1700
Theme: Religious and political turmoil in England shaped settlement in New England and the middle colonies.
Religious persecution in England pushed the Separatists into Plymouth and Quakers into Pennsylvania. England’s
Glorious Revolution also prompted changes in the colonies.
Theme: The Protestant Reformation, in its English Calvinist (Reformed) version, provided the major impetus and
leadership for the settlement of New England. The New England colonies developed a fairly homogeneous social
order based on religion and semicommunal family and town settlements.
Theme: Principles of American government developed in New England with the beginnings of written constitutions
(Mayflower Compact and Massachusetts’s royal charter) and with glimpses of self-rule seen in town hall meetings,
the New England Confederation, and colonial opposition to the Dominion of New England.
Theme: The middle colonies of New Netherland (New York), Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware developed
with far greater political, ethnic, religious, and social diversity, and they represented a more cosmopolitan middle
ground between the tightly knit New England towns and the scattered, hierarchical plantation in the South.
The New England colonies were founded by English Puritans. Most Puritans sought to purify the Church of England
from within instead of breaking away from it, but a small group of Separatists (Pilgrims) founded the Plymouth
Colony in New England (William Bradford = Governor). Led by John Winthrop, a larger group of non-separating
Puritans founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony as part of the great migration of Puritans fleeing English
persecution in the 1630s.
A strong sense of common purpose among the first settlers shaped the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Because religion
and politics were closely aligned, those like Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams who challenged religious
orthodoxy were driven out of Massachusetts for sedition. Williams founded Rhode Island, by far the most
religiously and politically tolerant of the colonies. Massachusetts Bay inspired other New England settlements in
Connecticut, Maine, and New Hampshire. Although they shared a common way of life, the New England colonies
developed considerable independence.
The middle colonies developed differently. New York was founded as New Netherland by the Dutch and later
conquered by England. It was diverse economically and ethnically, but socially hierarchical and politically divisive.
William Penn founded Pennsylvania as a Quaker haven. It attracted an economically ambitious, politically
troublesome and ethnically diverse population.
The middle colonies were the most typically American of England’s thirteen Atlantic seaboard colonies because of
their economic variety, ethnic diversity, and political factionalism.
Chapter 3 - Settling in the Northern Colonies
Martin Luther
John Winthrop
John Calvin
Anne Hutchinson
“Protestant Work Ethic”
Roger Williams
“visible saints”
Rhode Island
Reverend Thomas Hooker
Church of England
the Fundamental Orders
Anglican Church
Puritans Versus Indians
the Mayflower
Wampanoag Indians
Plymouth Colony
Pequot War
William Bradford
Metacom/King Philip
Captain Myles Standish
King Philip’s War
Mayflower Compact
New England Confederation 1643
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Dominion of New England 1686
Sir Edmund Andros
Glorious Revolution 1688
Henry Hudson
New Sweden
Peter Stuyvesant
Duke of York
New Netherlands
New Amsterdam
New York
William Penn
Charter of Liberties
Middle Colonies
British v. French colonization
CHAPTER 4: American Life in the Seventeenth Century, 1607–1692
Theme: In the Chesapeake region, seventeenth-century colonial society was characterized by disease-shortened
lives, weak family life, and a social hierarchy that included hardworking planters at the top and restless poor whites
and enslaved Africans at the bottom. Despite the substantial disruption of their traditional culture and the mingling
of African peoples, slaves in the Chesapeake developed a culture that mixed African and new-world elements, and
developed one of the few slave societies that grew through natural reproduction.
Theme: By contrast, early New England life was characterized by healthy, extended life spans, strong family life,
closely-knit towns and churches, and a demanding economic and moral environment.
Life was hard in the seventeenth-century southern colonies. Disease shortened life spans in the Chesapeake, even for
the young single men who made up the majority of settlers. Families were few and fragile. Men greatly
outnumbered women, who seldom remained single for long.
The tobacco economy relied initially on white indentured servants, who hoped to become landowners and perhaps
even wealthy. But this hope was increasingly frustrated by the late seventeenth century, resulting in Bacon’s
Slavery began to replace an increasingly troublesome white labor supply. Once a rarity, slaves were imported from
West Africa by the tens of thousands in the 1680s, transforming the colonial economy. Slaves in the Deep South
died rapidly of disease and overwork, but those in the Chesapeake tobacco region survived longer. Natural
reproduction increased their numbers, and they developed a distinctive lifestyle that combined African elements
with features developed in America.
By contrast with the South, New England’s clean water and cool air contributed to a healthy way of life, which
added ten years to the average life span. New England life centered on strong families and tightly knit towns and
churches, which were relatively democratic by seventeenth-century standards. Late seventeenth century, social and
religious tensions, however, resulted in conflict like the Salem witch hysteria.
Rocky soil turned many New Englanders to fishing and merchant shipping. Difficult lives and stern religion made
New Englanders tough, idealistic, purposeful, and resourceful—values they later spread across much of American
Seventeenth-century American society was simple and agrarian, and would-be aristocrats who tried to recreate the
social hierarchies of Europe were generally frustrated.
Chapter 4 - American Life in the 17th Century
unhealthy Chesapeake
headright system
indentured servants
Bacon’s Rebellion
Nathaniel Bacon
William Berkeley
colonial slavery
chattel slavery
Middle Passage
New York Slave Revolt 1712
Stono Rebellion 1739
Negro Act of 1740
Half-Way Covenant
Leisler’s Rebellion 1689-91
Salem Witch Hunt 1692
life in New England
Massachusetts School Law
CHAPTER 5: Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution, 1700–1775
Theme: Compared with its seventeenth-century counterpart, eighteenth-century colonial society became more
complex and hierarchical, more ethnically and religiously diverse, and more economically and politically developed.
Theme: Colonial culture, while still limited, took on distinct American qualities in such areas as evangelical religion,
education, press freedom, and self-government.
Theme: England’s Atlantic sea-board colonies, with their population growth and substantial agricultural exports,
grew and developed in importance to the English Empire. Thus, the relationship between England and these colonies
was shifting economically, politically, and culturally. Colonists sold their agricultural abundance not only to
England, but also to France and the West Indies. Royal authority was checked by colonial legislatures that
sometimes refused to pay governors’ salaries and the famous Zenger case. Schools and colleges emerged, and the
cultural reliance on England began to fade.
By 1775 the thirteen American colonies east of the Appalachians were inhabited by two million whites and half a
million blacks. The white population was increasingly a melting pot of diverse ethnic groups including Germans and
the Scots-Irish.
America provided more equality and opportunity (for whites) than Europe, but there was a rising economic
hierarchy and increasing social complexity. Ninety percent of Americans practiced agriculture. Wealthy planters and
merchants dominated the social pyramid, in contrast with slaves and jayle birds from England, who formed a visible
lower class.
By the early eighteenth century, the New England Congregational church was losing religious fervor. Sparked by
fiery preachers like Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield, the Great Awakening spread a new, emotional style
of worship that revived religious zeal. Colonial education and culture were less distinguished than science and
journalism. Politics was universally important, as representative colonial assemblies battled politically appointed
English governors.
Chapter 5 - Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution
GrBritain’s North American colonies
colonial ethnicities
Pennsylvania Dutch
Paxton Boys & Regulator movement
social pyramid of the South
yeoman farmers
indentured servants
Bacon’s Rebellion
clergy, physicians, and lawyers
regional products/economies
triangular trade
1733 Molasses Act
established churches
Congregational Church
Church of England/Anglican Church
the (1st) Great Awakening
Jonathan Edwards, George Whitefield
“Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”
old lights v. new lights
educational institutions
Trumbull, West, Peale, Copley
Georgian architecture
Phillis Wheatley
Franklin’s Poor Richard’s Almanack
John Peter Zenger
colonial state & local governments
CHAPTER 6: The Duel for North America, 1608–1763
Theme: As part of their worldwide rivalry, Great Britain and France engaged in a great struggle for colonial control
of North America, culminating in the British victory in the Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War) that drove
France from the continent.
Theme: Before the Seven Years’ War, Britain and its American colonies had already been facing some tensions, as
can be seen in sporadic British efforts to enforce trade laws and colonial reaction to the peace treaty in 1748. During
the Seven Years’ War, the relationship between British military regulars and colonial militias added to the tensions.
The French defeat in the Seven Years’ War created conditions for a growing conflict between Britain and its
American colonies. The lack of a threatening European colonial power in North America gave the American
colonists a sense of independence that clashed with new British imperial demands, such as stationing soldiers in the
colonies and the Proclamation of 1763.
Like Britain, France entered the American colonial race late. Its extensive but thinly settled empire was based on the
fur trade. Britain and France struggled for power throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, often
resulting in worldwide wars. In North America these wars were fought for imperial control of the continent.
The struggle came to a head when George Washington’s troops ventured into the sharply contested Ohio country.
After early failures, the British under William Pitt defeated the French in the Seven Years’ War (French and Indian
War), with a decisive victory at Quebec. The French were forced from North America.
American colonists were crucial to Britain’s imperial wars with France, resulting in greater colonial self-confidence.
With the French and Spanish threat gone, tensions increased between the colonists and Britain. The Ottawa chief
Pontiac’s unsuccessful uprising in 1763 convinced the British they needed a permanent troop presence in America.
But with foreign threats gone, colonists resisted British taxes for protection, and resented continued British
Chapter 6 - The Duel for North America
1608, France establishes Quebec
Champlain: “Father of New France”
beaver trapping, coureurs de bois
1682, de LaSalle founds Louisiana
1701, Cadillac founds Detroit
King William’s War 1689-97
Queen Anne’s War 1702-1713
Schenectady, NY, Deerfield, MA
War of Jenkins’s Ear 1739
King George’s War 1744-1748
Fort Louisbourg
Ohio River Valley
Fort Duquesne
George Washington, Fort Necessity
Seven Years’ War
Albany Congress
“Join or Die”
Gen. Edward Braddock
William Pitt, the “Great Commoner”
“Organizer of Victory”
1759 Battle of Quebec
James Wolfe
the Plains of Abraham
Marquis de Montcalm
1763 Paris Peace Treaty
effects of F&I War
Chief Pontiac
Pontiac’s Rebellion 1763
smallpox blankets
Proclamation of 1763
CHAPTER 7: The Road to Revolution, 1763–1775
Theme: Tension between the colonies and Britain centered on the issues of mercantilism and its implementation.
The British Empire attempted to more strictly enforce laws aimed at maintaining a system of mercantilism, while
colonists objected to this change from the earlier salutary neglect.
Theme: The American Revolution occurred because the American colonists, who had long been developing a strong
sense of autonomy and self-government, furiously resisted British attempts to impose tighter imperial controls and
higher taxes after the end of the French and Indian War in 1763. The sustained conflict over political authority and
taxation, enhanced by American agitators and British bungling, gradually moved Americans from asserting rights
within the British Empire to openly warring with the mother country.
Theme: At the outset of the Revolutionary War, Britain appeared to be a mighty empire, but it was weaker than it
seemed at first glance. Poor leadership in London, along with second-rate generals in the colonies, reduced the
impact of the larger British population and its naval supremacy. Americans, on the other hand, had many advantages
such as George Washington’s leadership and fighting a defensive war. However, the colonists also faced
disorganization, jealousy, and economic difficulties.
The American War of Independence was a military conflict fought from 1775 to 1783. The American Revolution
transformed both thought and loyalty, beginning with the first settlements and culminating in political separation
from Britain.
Long-term conflict resulted from the tension between the colonists’ freedom and self-government at home and their
participation in the British mercantile system. While British mercantilism provided both economic benefits and
liabilities, Americans resented its limits on freedom and patronizing goal of keeping America perpetually dependent.
The short-term roots of Independence lay in higher British taxes and tighter imperial controls after the French and
Indian War. These were reasonable measures to the British, as the colonists would simply bear a fair share of the
empire’s costs. To the colonists, however, the measures constituted attacks on fundamental rights.
Colonists used well-orchestrated agitation and boycotts to force repeal of both the Stamp Act of 1765 and the
subsequent Townshend Acts, except for the symbolic tax on tea. The Massachusetts governor’s attempt to enforce
that law broke a temporary lull in conflict between 1770 and 1773, causing Boston agitators to conduct the Boston
Tea Party. Britain’s response to the Tea Party was the harsh Intolerable Acts, coincidentally passed along with the
Quebec Act. Ferocious resistance inflamed the colonies, resulting in the First Continental Congress and the battles
of Lexington and Concord. As the two sides prepared for war, British advantages included a larger population, a
professional army, and much greater economic strength. Americans’ greatest asset was the Patriots’ deep
commitment to sacrifice for their rights.
Chapter 7 - The Road to Revolution
favorable balance of trade
Navigation Laws (Acts)
enumerated goods
Privy Council
salutary neglect
J. Hancock, the “King of
George Grenville
Sugar Act (1764)
Quartering Act (1765)
Stamp Act (1765)
admiralty courts
no taxation without
virtual representation
Stamp Act Congress
informal protests/formal protests
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
burning effigies
non-importation agreements
Declaration of Rights and
Grievances (Stamp Act Congress)
Declaratory Act (1766)
“Champagne Charley”
Townshend Acts (1767)
indirect v. direct taxes
Boston Massacre (1770)
Crispus Attucks, John Adams
Committees of Correspondence
Lord North
Boston Tea Party (1773)
(Coercive) Repressive Acts
Intolerable Acts, Boston Port
Quebec Act (1774)
First Continental Congress
Declaration of Rights
the “Shot Heard 'Round the
Lexington and Concord (1775)
John Hancock and Sam Adams
Massachusetts “Minutemen”
North Bridge in Concord
British strengths and weaknesses
American strengths and
Marquis de Lafayette
Patriots/Loyalists; Whigs/Tories
Baron von Steuben
Lord Dunmore
minority war
CHAPTER 8: America Secedes from the Empire, 1775–1783
Theme: When hostilities began in 1775, the colonists were still fighting for their rights as British citizens within the
empire, but in 1776, they declared their independence, based on a proclamation of universal, self-evident truths.
Inspired by revolutionary idealism, they also fought for an end to monarchy and the establishment of a free republic.
Theme: A combination of Washington’s generalship and British bungling in 1776–1777 prevented a quick British
victory and brought French assistance, which enabled the Patriots to achieve victory after several more years of
Theme: American independence was recognized by the British only after the conflict had broadened to include
much of Europe. American diplomats were able to secure generous peace terms because of the international political
scene: Britain’s recently reorganized government that favored peace and France’s inability to make good on its
promises to Spain.
Even after Lexington and Concord, the Second Continental Congress did not initially pursue independence. Its most
important action was selecting George Washington as military commander.
Further armed clashes led George III to formally proclaim the colonists in rebellion, and Thomas Paine’s Common
Sense finally persuaded Americans to fight for independence as well as liberty. Though Paine promoted the
Revolution as an opportunity for popular self-government, more conservative republicans wanted political hierarchy
without monarchy. Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence highlighted the struggle’s roots in self-evident and
universal human rights.
Only a minority of the population, Patriots had to fight both Loyalist Americans and the British. Loyalists were
strongest among conservatives, city-dwellers, and Anglicans (except in Virginia), while Patriots were strongest in
New England and among Presbyterians and Congregationalists.
Washington initially stalemated the British, whose hope to crush the rebellion quickly died at Saratoga. When the
French and others then aided the Americans, the Revolutionary War became a world war.
Americans fared badly in 1780–1781, but the colonial army held on in the South until Cornwallis lost at Yorktown.
Lord North’s British ministry, and achieved the Whigs made an extremely generous settlement with American
Chapter 8 - America Secedes from the Empire
Moore's Creek Bridge
Second Continental Congress
Thomas Paine’s Common Sense
Richard Henry Lee
George Washington
July 2/4, 1776
Ethan Allen, Green Mountain
Thomas Jefferson
Declaration of Independence
Benedict Arnold
war profiteers
Ft. Ticonderoga, Crown Point
the Loyalist “exodus”
Bunker Hill (1775)
Olive Branch Petition
Trenton, Princeton
King George III
St. Leger, Burgoyne, Howe
burning of Falmouth, Maine
Brandywine Creek,
Gen. Richard Montgomery Br.
Valley Forge
Battle of Quebec (1775)
Baron von Steuben
burning of Norfolk, VA (1776)
Battle of Saratoga
Evacuation Day (March 17)
Franco-American Treaty (1778)
Battle of Monmouth
Comte de Rochambeau
Francis Marion, the “Swamp
King's Mountain, Cowpens
Gen. Nathaneal Greene
the “Fighting Quaker”
Gen. Charles Cornwallis
Chief Joseph Brant
Treaty of Ft. Stanwix
George Rogers Clark
John Paul Jones
1783 Treaty of Paris
Hugh Gaine
CHAPTER 9: The Confederation and the Constitution, 1776–1790
Theme: The American Revolution was not a radical transformation like the French or Russian revolutions, but it did
produce political innovations and some social change in the direction of greater equality and democracy.
Theme: Compromise, on a number of important issues, was required in order to create the new federal Constitution.
Adopting the new document required great political skill and involved changing the ratification process defined in
the Articles of Confederation, writing persuasively in support of the stronger central government, and promising to
add amendments to protect individual liberty and states’ rights.
Theme: The federal Constitution represented a moderately conservative reaction against the democratic and
decentralizing effects of the Revolution and the Articles of Confederation. In effect, it embedded the revolutionary
ideals of liberty and popular government within a strong framework designed to advance national identity and
interests against the dangers of fragmentation and disorder.
The Revolution did not overturn the social order, but it did profoundly change social customs, political institutions,
and ideas about society and government. Changes included: separation of church and state; the abolition of slavery
in the North; written political constitutions; and political power shifting from the eastern seaboard toward the
The weak national government under the Articles of Confederation exercised little real authority, but it dealt
successfully with the western lands issue. Weaknesses in foreign policy, commerce and handling Shays’s rebellion
spurred a call alter the Articles.
Rather than revise the Articles, the well-off delegates to the Constitutional Convention created an entirely new
government. Their compromises produced a vigorous central government, a strong executive, and protection for
property, while still upholding republican principles and states’ rights. The pro-Constitution, pro-commercial
Federalists frightened others who feared that the new government would undermine their rights and their interests.
Anti-Federalists in Virginia and New York opposed the Federalists most strongly, but effective Federalist
organization and argument—and promises to include a bill of rights—resulted in ratification. The new national
government checked the Revolutionary movement, but the Federalists conservative regime embraced central
Revolutionary values of popular republican government and liberty.
Chapter 9 - The Confederation and the Constitution
separation of church and state
industry begins
Anglican Church/Episcopal
Baltics and China (trade)
war profiteers
Virginia Statute of Religious
debt, inflation
Freedom 1786
flood of British goods
the Loyalist exodus
Articles of Confederation
“Mr.” and “Mrs.”
western land claims
anti-slavery movement
AOC weaknesses/strengths
republican motherhood
Land Ordinance of 1785
state constitutions
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
constitutional conventions
North African pirates
new state capitals
Dey of Algiers
Loyalist property
Shays' Rebellion
Annapolis Convention
Virginia/Large State Plan
New Jersey/Small State Plan
Great Compromise
Electoral College
Three-Fifths Compromise
Federalists v. Anti-federalists
The Federalist Papers
Jay, Madison, and Hamilton
Chapter 10: Launching the New Ship of State, 1789–1800
Theme: Led by Washington and Hamilton, the first administration under the Constitution overcame various
difficulties and firmly established the political and economic foundations of the new federal government. The first
Congress under the Constitution, led by James Madison, also contributed to the new republic by adding the Bill of
Theme: The cabinet debate over Hamilton’s financial measure expanded into a wider political conflict between
Hamiltonian Federalists and Jeffersonian Republicans—the first political parties in America. Federalists supported a
strong central government, a loose interpretation of the Constitution, and commerce (business). (Democratic)
Republicans supported states’ rights, a strict interpretation of the Constitution, and agriculture (farmers).
Theme: The French Revolution created a severe ideological and political division over foreign policy between
Federalists and Republicans. The foreign-policy crisis coincided with domestic political divisions that culminated in
the bitter election of 1800, but in the end, power passed peacefully from Federalists to Republicans. American
isolationist tradition emerges as a result of Washington’s strong neutrality stance and his farewell warnings about
foreign alliances.
The new government faced both difficulties and skepticism, since traditional political theory held that large-scale
republics were bound to fail. But President Washington brought credibility, while his cabinet, led by Alexander
Hamilton, strengthened its political and economic foundations.
The government’s first achievements were the Bill of Rights and Hamilton’s financial system. Hamilton’s effective
leadership cemented his program of funding the national debt, assuming state debts, imposing customs and excise
taxes, and establishing a Bank of the United States.
The bank was especially controversial because it raised basic constitutional issues. Jeffersonian opposition to the
bank reflected fundamental political disagreements about republicanism, economics, federal power, and foreign
policy. As the French Revolution evolved from moderation to radicalism, the ideological divisions between proFrench Jeffersonians and pro-British Hamiltonians intensified
Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation angered Republicans, who wanted America to aid Revolutionary France. The
British sorely tested Washington’s policy by routinely violating American neutrality. To avoid war, Washington
endorsed the conciliatory Jay’s Treaty, further outraging the Republicans and France.
After the humiliating XYZ affair, the United States verged on war with France, but Adams sacrificed his popularity
and divided his party by negotiating peace. Foreign-policy disagreements embittered domestic politics, as the
Federalist Alien and Sedition Acts engendered Jefferson and Madison’s Virginia and Kentucky resolutions.
Chapter 10 - Launching the New Ship of State
post-revolution financial
Elastic/Necessary and Proper
post-revolution demography
Bank of the United States
George Washington
Whiskey Rebellion
Sec State: T. Jefferson
Hamiltonians v. Jeffersonians
Sec Treasury: A. Hamilton
Sec War: Henry Knox
French Revolution
Bill of Rights
Washington’s Neutrality
James Madison
Judiciary Act of 1789
Citizen Edmond Genêt
John Jay
Gen. "Mad" Anthony Wayne
Hamilton’s economic plan
Battle of Fallen Timbers
funding at par
Treaty of Grenville
national capital deal
Jay's Treaty
strict/loose interpretation
Pinckney Treaty
right of deposit
Washington’s Farewell Address
John Adams
XYZ Affair
Napoleon Bonaparte
Convention of 1800
Alien Acts
Sedition Act
Matthew "Spitting Lion" Lyon
Virginia and Kentucky
compact theory
states’ rights theory/nullification
Chapter 11: The Triumphs and Travails of Jeffersonian Republic, 1800–1812
Theme: Jefferson’s effective, pragmatic policies strengthened the principles of a two-party republican government,
even though the Jeffersonian revolution caused sharp partisan battles between Federalists and Republicans over
particular issues.
Theme: Despite his intentions, Jefferson became deeply entangled in the foreign-policy conflicts of the Napoleonic
era, leading to a highly unpopular and failed embargo that revived the moribund Federalist Party.
Theme: James Madison fell into an international trap, set by Napoleon, which Jefferson had avoided. Western War
Hawks’ enthusiasm for a war with Britain was matched by New Englanders’ hostility.
The bitter election of 1800 between Adams and Jefferson culminated the early Republic’s ideological conflicts.
Fierce campaign rhetoric aside, the Revolution of 1800 demonstrated that power could transfer peacefully from one
party to another. The conservative Federalist Party declined because it was unable to adjust to the democratic future
of American politics.
The political theorist Jefferson was determined to restore his vision of the original American revolutionary ideals
through Republican principles of limited government, strict construction, and antimilitarist foreign policy. But
Jefferson pragmatically compromised many of these goals, thus moderating the Republican-Federalist ideological
Political conflict turned to the judiciary, where John Marshall enshrined the principles of judicial review and a
strong federal government. Jefferson reversed course, enhancing federal power in the Barbary pirate war, and by
purchasing Louisiana from Napoleon. The Louisiana Purchase was Jefferson’s greatest success, increasing national
unity and initiating America’s Western future, but its short term consequences included Aaron Burr’s secessionist
Jefferson became entangled in the Napoleonic wars, as both France and Britain obstructed American trade and
violated freedom of the seas. Jefferson tried to avoid war, but his embargo policy damaged America’s economy and
stirred bitter opposition in New England.
Jeffersonian James Madison fell into Napoleon’s diplomatic trap when western War Hawks—who hoped to acquire
Canada—pushed the Unites States into the War of 1812 against Britain. The nation was totally unprepared, bitterly
divided, and devoid of any coherent strategy.
Chapter 11 - The Triumphs and Travails of Jeffersonian Republic
Father of the American navy
Revolution of 1800
Tripolitan War
Aaron Burr
Robert R. Livingston
Albert Gallatin
Toussaint L'Overture
Judiciary Act of 1801
Louisiana Purchase
midnight judges
Meriwether Lewis
John Marshall
William Clark
Marbury v. Madison
judicial review
Zebulon Pike
Samuel Chase
Aaron Burr issues
Barbary Pirates
British Orders in Council
Stephen Decatur
Leopard v. Chesapeake
1807 Embargo Act
1809 Non-Intercourse Act
James Madison
Macon's Bill No. 2
War Hawks
Henry Clay
the Prophet
William Henry Harrison
Battle of Tippecanoe
Mr. Madison’s War
War of 1812
Ch 12: The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism, 1812–1824
Theme: The American effort in the War of 1812 was plagued by poor strategy, political divisions, and increasingly
aggressive British power. Nevertheless, the United States escaped with a stalemated peace settlement and soon
turned its isolationist back to the Atlantic European world.
Theme: The aftermath of the War of 1812 produced a strong surge of American nationalism that was reflected in
economics, law, and foreign policy. The rising nationalistic spirit and sense of political unity was, however,
threatened by the first severe sectional dispute over slavery.
Theme: Chief Justice John Marshall’s Supreme Court strengthened the federal government by supporting a loose
construction of the Constitution, asserting the federal judiciary’s power over state courts, and enforcing economic
provisions in the Constitution (interstate commerce, sanctity of contracts).
Americans began the War of 1812 with high hopes of conquering Canada. But flawed strategy and efforts threw the
United States on the defensive against British and Canadian forces. Americans fared better in naval warfare, but by
1814 the British had burned Washington and were threatening New Orleans. The Treaty of Ghent ended the war in a
stalemate, but solved none of the original issues. But Americans counted the war a success and turned increasingly
toward isolationism.
Despite New Englanders’ secessionist talk at the Hartford Convention, the divisive war’s ironic outcome was
surging American nationalism and unity. Political conflict virtually disappeared during President Monroe’s Era of
Good Feelings. Fervent new nationalism suffused culture, economics and foreign policy.
The Era of Good Feelings waned when excessive land speculation and unstable banks caused the Panic of 1819.
More serious was the first major sectional dispute over slavery, postponed but not really resolved by the Missouri
Compromise of 1820.
Chief Justice John Marshall enhanced the Supreme Court’s power, promoting a strong national government and
conservative defense of property rights. Marshall’s rulings partially checked the general movement toward states’
rights and popular democracy.
Nationalism also led to a more assertive American foreign policy. Andrew Jackson’s victories in Spanish Florida led
to its acquisition by the US American fears of European intervention in Latin America encouraged Monroe and J. Q.
Adams to articulate the Monroe Doctrine.
Chapter 12 - The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism
War of 1812
death of the Federalist Party
Tallmadge Amendment
three-pronged attack
effects of the War of 1812
Missouri Compromise
Oliver Hazard Perry
Rush-Bagot Treaty, 1817
Chief Justice John Marshall
Gen. William Henry Harrison
Knickerbocker Group
Fletcher vs. Peck (1810)
Battle of the Thames
Hudson River School
Dartmouth College vs.
burning of the Capitol & White
Stephen Decatur
Woodward (1819)
Tariff of 1816
McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819)
Fort McHenry
Henry Clay
Cohens vs. Virginia (1821)
Francis Scott Key’s “The Star
American System
Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824)
Spangled Banner”
Treaty/Convention of 1818
Andrew Jackson
Monroe’s “Era of Good
Andrew Jackson v. Indians in
Battle of Horseshoe Bend
Battle of New Orleans.
Panic of 1819
Florida Purchase Treaty of 1819
Treaty of Ghent, 1814
Cumberland/National Road
Monroe Doctrine
Hartford Convention
Land Act of 1820
Russo-American Treaty of 1824
Chapter 13: The Rise of a Mass Democracy, 1824–1840
Theme: The election to the presidency of the frontier aristocrat and common person’s hero, Andrew Jackson,
signaled the end of the older elitist political leadership represented by John Quincy Adams. A new spirit of mass
democracy and popular involvement swept through American society, bringing new energy, as well as conflict and
corruption to public life.
Theme: Jackson successfully mobilized the techniques of the New Democracy and presidential power to win a series
of dramatic political battles against his enemies. But by the late 1830s, his Whig opponents had learned to use the
same popular political weapons against the Democrats, signaling the emergence of the second American party
Theme: Amidst the whirl of democratic politics, issues of tariffs, financial instability, Indian policy, and possible
expansion in Texas indicated that difficult sectional and economic problems were festering beneath the surface and
not being very successfully addressed.
A powerful movement promoting the common person and the New Democracy transformed traditionally elitist
American politics beginning in the 1820s. The disputed election of New England’s John Quincy Adams in 1824
angered Andrew Jackson followers.
Jackson’s landslide presidential victory in 1828 also marked the New Democracy’s triumph— including spoils-rich
political machines which thrived in the new environment. Jackson’s simple, popular ideas and rough-hewn style
reinforced the growing belief that any ordinary person could hold public office. The “Tariff of Abominations” and
subsequent nullification crisis in South Carolina fueled growing sectionalism and anxiety about slavery that ran up
against Jackson’s fierce nationalism.
Jackson exercised presidential powers against his opponents, particularly Calhoun and Clay. He killed the Bank of
the United States after making it a symbol of financial evil, which reinforced Jacksonian hostility to financial power,
but left the United States with no effective financial system. Jackson’s presidency also focused on westward
expansion. Pursuing civilization, Southeastern Native Americans engaged in extensive agricultural and educational
development. But pressure from white settlers and state governments proved overwhelming, and Jackson supported
forcible removal of all southeastern Indians to Oklahoma along the Trail of Tears. American settlers in Texas
successfully rebelled against Mexico and declared their independence. Jackson recognized the Texas Republic but,
because of the slavery controversy, he refused its application for annexation to the United States.
Jackson’s political foes formed themselves into the Whig party, but lost in 1836 to his handpicked successor, Van
Buren. Jackson’s ill-considered economic policies haunted “Van Ruin,” as the Panic of 1837 plunged the country
into a serious depression. Whigs used economic troubles and mass democratic political hoopla to elect Harrison in
1840, making their own western aristocrat into a heroic democratic symbol. The Whig victory heralded a new twoparty system, in which the parties’ different philosophies and constituencies proved less important than their
widespread popularity and shared roots in the new American democratic spirit.
Chapter 13 - The Rise of Mass Democracy
universal white manhood
John C. Calhoun, “The South
Carolina Exposition,”
Election of 1824
Jackson, Clay, Crawford, and
Tariff of 1832 & Tariff of 1833
JQ. Adams
Force Bill/“Bloody Bill”
“favorite son”
Indian Removal Act of 1830
12th Amendment & the
Society for Propagating the
“Corrupt Bargain”
Gospel Among Indians
astronomical observatory
Cherokee “civilization”
Election of 1828
“Five Civilized Tribes”
“Old Hickory”
Bureau of Indian Affairs
Jackson’s wife Rachel
Bank of the United States,
spoils system/patronage
Nicholas Biddle, “pet banks”
Tariff of 1828/“Tariff of
“wildcat” banks
Henry Clay
Denmark Vesey
Election of 1832
Eaton/Petticoat Affair
Anti-Masonic Party
national nominating conventions
Whig party
Election of 1836
Martin Van Buren
Panic of 1837
over-speculation, Specie
“Divorce Bill”
Mexican independence, 1821
Stephen Austin, Davy Crockett,
Jim Bowie, Sam Houston, Santa
the Alamo, Texan independence,
Election of 1840
Log Cabins and Hard Cider
William Henry Harrison & John
Tyler; “Tippecanoe and Tyler
New Democracy
Chapter 14: Forging the National Economy, 1790–1860
Theme: The importance of the West grew in the early nineteenth century. Cheap land attracted immigrants and
natives alike, and after some technological innovations, the West became an agricultural giant. The increased output
also spurred transportation developments to tie this developing region to the rest of the United States.
Theme: In the era of Jacksonian democracy, the American population grew rapidly and changed in character. More
people lived in the raw West and in the expanding cities, and immigrant groups, like the Irish and Germans, added
their labor power to America’s economy, sometimes arousing hostility from native-born Americans in the process.
Theme: In the early nineteenth century, the American economy developed the beginnings of industrialization. The
greatest advances occurred in transportation, as canals and railroads bound the Union together into a continental
economy with strong regional specialization.
In the early nineteenth century Americans explored and expanded the frontier, where life was crude and hard on the
pioneers, especially women.
Pioneers exploited the environment, exhausting the soil and exterminating wildlife. Yet the West’s wild beauty
became a symbol of American national identity, leading environmentalists to eventually create a national park
system to preserve pieces of the wilderness.
Other changes altered the character of American society and its workforce. Old cities expanded, and new cities
sprang up in the wilderness. Irish and German immigrants poured into the country in the 1830s and 1840s, rousing
nativist hostility because of their Roman Catholic faith.
Inventions and business innovations like free incorporation laws spurred economic growth. Women and children
were the most exploited early factory laborers. Male workers made some gains in wages and hours but unions
generally failed to materialize.
Economic advances in agriculture and transportation spurred growth before the Civil War. Early railroads overcame
many obstacles to spread across the country. Foreign trade was a minor part of the American economy, but
technological change created growing economic links to Europe. By 1860 the telegraph, railroad, and steamship had
begun to replace older means of travel and communication like canals, clipper ships, stagecoach, and pony express.
New means of transportation and distribution laid the foundations for a continental market economy, creating
sectional specialization which altered traditional family economic functions. Concern grew over the class
differences spawned by industrialization, especially in cities. But increased opportunities and standard of living
made America a “land of opportunity” to both immigrants and in-migrants.
Chapter 14 - Forging the National Economy (1790 - 1860)
George Catlin
Eli Whitney
American population growth
cotton gin
urban growth
inter-changeable parts
Irish immigration
Elias Howe
Issac Singer
The Ancient Order of
limited liability
Hibernians was established to
free incorporation
aid the Irish.
Samuel Morse
Molly Maguires
German immigration
child labor
Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842)
“The Know-Nothings”
women in the workforce
Samuel Slater
John Deere
“Father of the Factory System”
steel plow
Cyrus McCormick
mechanical reaper
Lancaster Turnpike
Robert Fulton
the Clermont
Erie Canal/“Clinton’s Big
early railroads
Cyrus Field
clipper ships
Pony Express
gap between rich-poor widened
Chapter 15: The Ferment of Reform and Culture, 1790–1860
Theme: The spectacular religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening reversed a trend toward secular
rationalism in American culture and helped to fuel a spirit of social reform. In the process, religion was increasingly
feminized, while women, in turn, took the lead in movements of reform, including those designed to improve their
own condition.
Theme: The attempt to improve Americans’ faith, morals, and character affected nearly all areas of American life
and culture, including education, the family, literature, and the arts—culminating in the great crusade against
Theme: Intellectual and cultural development in America was less prolific than in Europe, but they did earn some
international recognition and became more distinctly American, especially after the War of 1812.
Movements of moral and religious reform accompanied early nineteenth century democratization of politics and
national market economic expansion. A new wave of revivals replaced growing religious rationalism beginning
about 1800. Western revivalism changed both religious life and other areas of society. It fragmented existing
religious groups, and created new groups like the Mormons. Women became a major presence in the churches,
which inspired reform movements that provided an outlet for energies otherwise stifled in masculinized political and
economic life.
The reform impulse benefited education particularly, fostering the elementary school movement and opening
tradition-bound colleges to a few women. Women pioneered movements for improved treatment of the mentally ill,
peace, temperance, and other causes, leading some to agitate in the 1840s for their own rights, including suffrage.
Closely linked to the antislavery crusade, the women’s rights movement gained adherents even in the face of
vehement opposition.
While many reformers worked to improve society as a whole, others created utopian experiments to model their
religious and social ideals. Some utopians promoted radical sexual and economic doctrines, while others appealed to
high-minded intellectuals and artists.
American theoretical sciences and the fine arts were still weak, but a vigorous national literature blossomed after the
War of 1812. The New England literary renaissance blossomed with the philosophy of transcendentalism, promoted
by Emerson and others. Many great American writers like Walt Whitman reflected the national spirit of utopian
optimism, but dissenters like Hawthorne and Melville explored society’s darker side.
Chapter 15 - The Ferment of Reform and Culture
Emma Willard - Troy Female
Seminary (1821)
2nd Great Awakening
Mary Lyon - Mount Holyoke
“camp meetings”
Seminary (1837)
“circuit riders”
Dorothea Dix
Peter Cartwright
American Temperance Society,
Charles Grandison Finney
Cold Water Army
“Burned-Over District”
Neal S. Dow, the “Father of
Joseph Smith
Maine Law of 1851
Book of Mormon (1830)
Catharine Beecher, Lucretia
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter
Mott, Susan B. Anthony
Day Saints
Elizabeth Candy Stanton, Dr.
Brigham Young, Utah
Elizabeth Blackwell
compulsory education
the Grimke sisters, Amelia
Horace Mann
Noah Webster - Blueback
Seneca Falls Women’s Rights
Convention (1848)
William H. McGuffey Declaration of Sentiments
McGuffey Readers
Robert Owen, New Harmony,
IN (1825)
Oneida Community
Shakers, Mother Ann Lee
John Audubon, Gilbert Stuart
Charles Willson Peale, John
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Self
Henry David Thoreau, Walden,
Civil Disobedience
Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow,
Louisa May Alcott, Little
Emily Dickinson, The Raven
Nathaniel Hawthorne, The
Scarlet Letter
Herman Melville, Moby Dick
Chapter 16: The South and the Slavery Controversy, 1793–1860
Theme: The explosion of cotton production fastened the slave system deeply upon the South, creating a complex,
hierarchical racial and social order that deeply affected whites as well as blacks.
Theme: The economic benefits of an increasing production of cotton due to the cotton gin and slavery were shared
between the South, the North, and Britain. The economics of cotton and slavery also led to bigger and bigger
plantations, since they could afford the heavy investment of human capital.
Theme: The emergence of a small but energetic radical abolitionist movement caused a fierce proslavery backlash in
the South and a slow but steady growth of moderate antislavery sentiment in the North.
Whitney’s cotton gin made cotton production hugely profitable, and created an ever-increasing demand for slave
labor. Southern dependence on cotton production tied it economically to the plantation system and racially to white
supremacy. The plantation aristocracy’s cultural gentility and political domination concealed slavery’s social and
economic costs for whites as well as blacks.
Most slaves were held by a few large planters, but most slave-owners had few slaves, and most southern whites had
no slaves at all. Yet except for some mountaineers, most southern whites strongly supported slavery and racial
supremacy because they hoped to own slaves themselves, and because of a sense of superiority to blacks.
Treatment of economically valuable slaves varied considerably. Within a cruel system, slaves yearned for freedom
and struggled to maintain both humanity and family life.
The older black colonization movement gave way in the 1830s to Garrison’s radical, abolitionism. Along with Nat
Turner’s rebellion, abolitionism caused a strong backlash in the South, which increasingly defended slavery as a
positive good, and rejected liberal Northern political and social ideals.
Most northerners rejected radical abolitionism, respecting Constitutional protection of slavery where it existed. But
many also began to view the South as a land of oppression, and any attempt to extend slavery as a threat to free
Chapter 16 - The South and the Slavery Controversy
King Cotton
Frederick Douglass/Narrative of
Cotton Kingdom
the Life of Frederick Douglass
political, social, economic
blacks v. Irish
importance of cotton
plantation slavery
planter “Aristocracy”
peculiar institution
# of slaves/owner in South
gag resolution
antebellum South
necessary evil v. positive good
Cotton Belt
Sir Walter Scott/Ivanhoe
slave family life, religion,
Southern social pyramid
“poor white
Denmark Vesey & Nat Turner
American Colonization
West Virginia
Society/Republic of Liberia
free blacks; North & South
Theodore Dwight
northern racism
Weld/American Slavery as It Is
Lane Theological Seminary
Lane Rebels
Lyman Beecher, Catharine
Beecher, Henry Ward Beecher
William Lloyd Garrison/The
Wendell Phillips/American
Abolitionist Society
David Walker’s Appeal
Sojourner Truth
Liberty Party, Free-Soil Party
Stephen Foster
violence against abolitionists
Lewis Tappan & Rev. Elijah P.
Chapter 17: Manifest Destiny and Its Legacy, 1841–1848
Theme: American expansionism gained momentum in the 1840s, leading first to the acquisition of Texas and
Oregon, and then to the Mexican War, which added vast southwestern territories to the United States and ignited the
slavery question.
Theme: American international prestige grows as the United States expands. Successful military campaigns against
Mexico along with well-negotiated treaties with Britain force Europe to respect America more, while Latin America
begins to be wary of the Colossus of the North.
As Tyler succeeded President Harrison, the United States became engaged in a series of disputes with Britain. The
Maine boundary conflict was resolved, but British involvement in Texas revived US plans to annex the Lone Star
The 1844 campaign hinged on the Texas and Oregon questions, as Democrats nominated and elected the militantly
expansionist Polk. After Texas’ annexation, conflicts with Mexico over California and the Texas boundary erupted
into war in 1846.
American forces quickly conquered California and New Mexico. Invasions of Mexico by Winfield Scott and
Zachary Taylor were also successful, and the peace treaty gave the US large new territories.
Besides adding California, New Mexico, and Utah, the US trained a new generation of military leaders in the
Mexican War and aroused long-term Latin American resentment. Most important, the war and the Wilmot Proviso
forced the slavery controversy to the center of national debate.
Chapter 17 - Manifest Destiny and Its Legacy
death of President William H. Harrison
Tippecanoe and Tyler Too
John Tyler - “his accidency”
American-British relations
the Caroline & the Creole
Aroostook War/Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Mesabi Range
Oregon fever
Oregon Trail
Manifest Destiny
Young Hickory
54-40 or fight!
49th parallel
Election of 1844
James K. Polk - dark-horse candidate
Manifest Destiny
John Slidell
Texas boundary issues
Rio Grande v. Nueces
Zachary Taylor
Abraham “Spotty” Lincoln’s “Spot Resolution”
Mexican-American War
Santa Anna
Stephen W. Kearny & John C. Fremont
Bear Flag Revolt/Republic
“Old Rough and Ready” Zachary Taylor
Zachary Taylor
Buena Vista, Mexico
Winfield Scott
Old Rough and Ready
Mexico City, Mexico
Nicholas Trist
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Mexican Cession
David Wilmot/Wilmot Proviso
Chapter 18: Renewing the Sectional Struggle, 1848–1854
Theme: The sectional conflict over the expansion of slavery that erupted after the Mexican War was temporarily
quieted by the Compromise of 1850, but Douglas’s Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 exploded it again.
Theme: In the 1850s, American expansionism in the West and the Caribbean was extremely controversial because it
was tied to the slavery question.
Theme: Commercial interests guided American foreign policy in Asia and contributed to sectional tension within the
United States, as regions tried to secure the terminus to a transcontinental railroad.
The acquisition of Mexican territory created new dilemmas over slavery’s expansion for the two major parties,
which had long evaded the issue. The antislavery Free Soil party injected the issue into the election of 1848. Goldrich California’s application for admission to the Union forced the controversy into the Senate, which fiercely
debated slavery and the Union.
After President Taylor’s death cleared the way for a settlement, Congress passed the accomodationist Compromise
of 1850, which temporarily eased sectional tension despite Northern opposition to the Fugitive Slave Law.
As the Whig party died, proslavery expansionists dominated Pierce’s pliant Democratic administration. Controversy
over Nicaragua, Cuba, and the Gadsden Purchase showed that slavery drove expansionism.
Stephen Douglas’s desire for a northern railroad route led him to ram the Kansas-Nebraska Act through Congress in
1854. Because it repealed the Missouri Compromise and subjected the new territory to popular sovereignty on
slavery, this act aroused Northern fury, engendered the Republican Party, and anticipated the Civil War.
Chapter 18 - Renewing the Sectional Struggle
Election of 1848
Dem. Lewis Cass v. Whig Zachary Taylor
popular sovereignty
Free Soiler Martin Van Buren
California Gold Rush
Sutter's Mill
1850 North-South balance of power
Underground Railroad, Harriet Tubman
passengers, stations, conductors
Henry Clay, the “Great Compromiser”
Stephen Douglas, the “Little Giant”
Daniel Webster’s “Seventh of March speech”
the “Young Guard”
William H. Seward/higher law
Millard Fillmore
Compromise of 1850
Fugitive Slave Law of 1850
Personal Liberty Laws
Election of 1852
Franklin Pierce
Winfield Scott
Old Fuss and Feathers
Free Soil Party
William Walker, Nicaragua
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
Ostend Manifesto
Caleb Cushing
Commodore Matthew C. Perry
Treaty of Kanagawa
transcontinental railroad
Secretary of War Jefferson Davis
James Gadsden
Gadsden Purchase
Stephen Douglas
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Chapter 19: Drifting Toward Disunion, 1854–1861
Theme: A series of major North-South crises in the late 1850s culminated in the election of the antislavery
Republican Lincoln to the presidency in 1860. His election caused seven southern states to secede from the union
and form the Confederate States of America.
Successive confrontations punctuated the 1850s, which deepened sectional hostility and precipitated the Civil War.
Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin fanned northern antislavery feeling. In Kansas, proslavery and
antislavery forces fought a bloody microcosm of the Civil War. Buchanan’s support of the proslavery Lecompton
Constitution alienated moderate northern Democrats like Douglas. Congressman Brooks’s beating of Senator
Sumner inflamed both sections.
The 1856 election signaled the rise of the sectional Republican Party. The Dred Scott case delighted the South, but
enraged defiant Republicans. The Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858 deepened the national slavery controversy,
while Brown’s Harpers Ferry raid earned Northern support, but made outraged southerners fear a slave uprising.
The Democrats split along sectional lines, allowing Lincoln to win the four-way 1860 election. Seven southern
states quickly seceded and organized the Confederate States of America.
As optimistic southerners spurned the hated North, lame-duck President Buchanan wavered, and Lincoln opposed
the doomed, last-minute Crittenden Compromise.
Chapter 19 - Drifting Toward Disunion
Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom's Cabin
Hinton Helper, The Impending Crisis of the South
New England Emigrant Aid Company
Beecher's Bibles
border ruffians
John Brown
Pottawatomie Creek
Bleeding Kansas
Lecompton Constitution
James Buchanan
end of national party (for years)
“Bleeding Kansas”
Sen. Charles Sumner
Congressman Preston S. Brooks
Sumner’s “The Crime Against Kansas” speech
Election of 1856
Dem. James Buchanan v. Rep. John C. Fremont
American Party/“Know-Nothing Party”
Millard Fillmore
Dred Scott Supreme Court decision
Chief Justice Roger Taney
5th Amendment & 10th Amendment
Panic of 1857 v. Panic of 1837
Homestead Act, 1860
IL Senatorial election of 1858
Stephen Douglas
Abraham Lincoln
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
“Freeport Doctrine”
John Brown - Harper’s Ferry, VA
Lt. Col. Robert E. Lee
Northern and Southern Democratic factions
Lincoln, Douglas, Breckinridge, Bell
Constitutional Union Party
secession of southern states
Confederate States of America
Jefferson Davis
Crittenden Compromise
Chapter 20: Girding for War: The North and the South, 1861–1865
Theme: The North effectively brought to bear its long-term advantages of industrial might and human resources to
wage a devastating total war against the South. The war helped organize and modernize northern society, while the
South, despite heroic efforts, was economically and socially crushed.
Theme: Lincoln’s skillful political leadership helped keep the crucial Border States in the Union and maintain
northern morale, while his effective diplomacy kept Britain and France from aiding the Confederacy.
South Carolina’s attack on Fort Sumter aroused the North for war. Lincoln’s call for troops to suppress the rebellion
drove four upper South states into the Confederacy, but his combination of political persuasion and force kept the
deeply divided Border States in the Union.
Confederate advantages included upper-class European support, military leadership, and a defensive position on its
own soil. Northern advantages included lower-class European support, industrial and population resources, and
political leadership.
Britain’s upper classes sympathized with the South and aided Confederate naval efforts, but effective diplomacy and
Union military success kept both Britain and France neutral.
Lincoln effectively mobilized the North for war, despite political opposition and resistance to his infringement on
civil liberties. The North eventually mobilized its larger troop resources with an unpopular and unfair draft system.
Economic and financial strengths advantaged the North over the less-industrialized South. Societal changes opened
new opportunities for women, who supported the war effort in both the North and South. Waging war on Southern
soil left the South devastated.
Chapter 20 - Girding for War: The North and the South
Lincoln’s inauguration (disguise) & inaugural address
Fort Sumter
call for volunteers
naval blockade
Confederate capital – Montgomery, AL to Richmond, VA
Border States
martial law
Five Civilized Tribes
Northern & Southern advantages & disadvantages
the role (and nonrole) of cotton in the Civil War
HMS Trent
C.S.S. Alabama
Charles Francis Adams
Laird rams
Napoleon III (Mexico) & Maximilian
Lincoln’s civil liberties violations
conscription (draft)
$300 man
draft riots
Morrill Tariff Act
National Banking System
National Banking Act
Northern war & postwar economy
shoddy millionaires
Clara Barton
Chapter 21: The Furnace of Civil War, 1861–1865
Theme: The Civil War, begun as a limited struggle over the Union, eventually became a total war to end slavery and
transform the nation.
Theme: After several years of seesaw struggle, the Union armies under Ulysses Grant finally wore down the
Southern forces under Robert E. Lee and ended the Confederate bid for independence, as well as the institution of
Northern complacency about a quick victory ended with its defeat at Bull Run. Early Union generals like George
McClellan were unable to defeat Lee’s tactically brilliant Confederate armies, but the Union naval blockade slowly
devastated the South.
The war’s political and diplomatic dimensions became critical. Lincoln initially downplayed emancipation in order
to retain the Border States, but winning the 1862 Battle of Antietam prevented foreign intervention and allowed him
to turn the struggle into a war against slavery. Blacks and abolitionists embraced a war for emancipation, but
Lincoln suffered politically from northern, white resentment.
Union victories at Vicksburg in the West and Gettysburg in the East finally turned the military tide against the
South. Southern resistance remained strong, but the Union victories at Atlanta and Mobile assured Lincoln’s reelection in 1864 and ended the last Confederate hopes. The war ended the issues of disunion and slavery, but at a
tremendous cost to both North and South.
Chapter 21 - The Furnace of Civil War
the “Ninety-Day War”
the Battle of Bull Run
Stonewall Jackson
Army of the Potomac
Gen. George B. McClellan
Peninsula Campaign
Gen. J.E.B. “Jeb” Stuart
Gen. Robert E. Lee
the Seven Days’ Battles
total war
Anaconda Plan
Gen. Winfield Scott
ultimate destination
CSS Virginia/USS Merrimack
USS Monitor
Second Battle of Bull Run
Battle of Antietam Creek
Emancipation Proclamation
Fort Pillow massacre
Gen. Ambrose Burnside
Battle of Fredericksburg
“Fighting Joe” Hooker
Battle of Chancellorsville
Gen. George Meade
Gen. George Pickett
Battle of Gettysburg & Gettysburg Address
Gen. Ulysses S. Grant “Unconditional Surrender
Battles of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson
Battle of Shiloh
Admiral David G. Farragut
Battle of Vicksburg
Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman
Sherman’s March to the Sea
Sherman’s Bowties
Congressional Committee on the Conduct of the War
Radical Republicans
War Democrats v. Peace Democrats
Clement Vallandigham – The Man Without a
election of 1864
Union Party
Andrew Johnson
Wilderness Campaign
Battle of Cold Harbor
Appomattox Courthouse, VA
Lincoln’s assassination
John Wilkes Booth
Dr. Samuel Mudd
costs of the Civil War
Chapter 22: The Ordeal of Reconstruction, 1865–1877
Theme: Johnson’s political blunders and Southern white recalcitrance led to the imposition of congressional military
Reconstruction on the South. Reconstruction did address difficult issues of reform and racial justice in the South and
achieved some successes, but was ultimately abandoned, leaving a deep legacy of racial and sectional bitterness.
Theme: During Reconstruction, the Constitution was strengthened with the Fourteenth (citizenship and equal
protection of the laws) and Fifteenth (black voting rights) Amendments, but it was also tested with the conflicts
between the president and Congress that culminated in an impeachment process.
Theme: Southern resistance to Reconstruction began immediately with the sending of ex-rebels to be seated in
Congress and continued with the creation of violently oppressive groups like the Ku Klux Klan. Although forced to
make some concessions, Southern Redeemers successfully outlasted the congressional Reconstruction efforts.
After the Civil War, the nation faced the problems of rebuilding the South, assisting freed slaves, reintegrating
Southern states into the Union, and deciding who would direct the Reconstruction.
An economically devastated South was socially revolutionized by emancipation. Slave-owners reluctantly
confronted the end of slave labor, while blacks began to shape their own destiny with the help of black churches and
freedmen’s schools.
New President Andrew Johnson was politically inept and personally contentious. His moderate Reconstruction plan
attempted to follow Lincoln’s, but fell victim to Southern whites’ severe treatment of blacks and his own political
After dramatic gains in the 1866 congressional elections, Republicans imposed harsh military Reconstruction on the
South. Southern states reentered the Union with radical governments supported by newly enfranchised blacks and
some sectors of southern society. Some regimes were corrupt, but they also implemented important reforms.
Divisions between moderate and radical Republicans limited and confused Reconstruction’s aims, despite the
important Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments.
Embittered whites hated these radical governments and mobilized reactionary terrorist organizations like the Ku
Klux Klan to restore white supremacy. Congress impeached Johnson but narrowly failed to convict him. The poorly
conceived Reconstruction policy was a disastrous failure.
Chapter 22 - The Ordeal of Reconstruction
life for emancipated slaves
sharecropping & tenant farming
Freedman’s Bureau
Gen. Oliver O. Howard
Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction/10% Plan
Wade-Davis Bill
13th Amendment
Black Codes
political reconstruction
Civil Rights Act of 1866
14th Amendment
Johnson’s Round the Circle speeches
Charles Sumner & Thaddeus Stevens
Reconstruction Act of 1867
15th Amendment
Ex parte Milligan
Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony
Union League
Hiram Revels & Blanche Bruce
Carpetbaggers & Scalawags
“The Invisible Empire” / Ku Klux Klan
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Force Acts
Tenure of Office Act
Sec of War Edwin Stanton
Sec of State William Seward
Alaska - “Seward’s Folly” / “Seward’s Ice-box”
Election of 1876
Rutherford B. Hayes
Samuel Tilden
Compromise of 1877
Chapter 23: Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age, 1869–1896
Theme: Even as post–Civil War America expanded and industrialized, political life in the Gilded Age was marked
by ineptitude, stalemate, and corruption. Despite their similarity at the national level, the two parties competed
fiercely for offices and spoils, while doling out “pork-barrel” benefits to veterans and other special interest groups.
Theme: The serious issues of monetary and agrarian reform, labor, race, and economic fairness were largely swept
under the rug by the political system, until revolting farmers and a major economic depression beginning in 1893
created a growing sense of crisis and demands for radical change.
Theme: The Compromise of 1877 made reconstruction officially over and white Democrats resumed political power
in the South. Blacks, as well as poor whites, found themselves forced into sharecropping and tenant farming; what
began as informal separation of blacks and whites in the immediate postwar years evolved into systematic state-level
legal codes of segregation known as Jim Crow laws.
After the ideals and sacrifices of the Civil War, the post–Civil War era spawned disillusionment. Federal, state and
local politicians were often surrounded by corruption and scandal, while problems afflicting industrializing America
festered beneath the surface.
Popular war hero Grant was a poor politician with a corruption administration. Despite some futile reform efforts,
party patronage fattened Gilded Age politics. The parties competed for spoils, but essentially agreed on most
national policies. Cultural differences, different constituencies, and local issues fueled party competition and
unprecedented voter participation. Periodic complaints by Mugwump reformers and soft-money advocates had little
effect on politics.
The contested 1876 election led to the sectional Compromise of 1877, which ended Reconstruction. The South
began an oppressive system of tenant farming and racial supremacy and segregation, enforced by sometimes lethal
violence. Racial prejudice against Chinese immigrants was also linked to labor unrest in the 1870s and 1880s.
Garfield’s assassination by a spurned office seeker spurred early civil-service reform, making politics more
dependent on big business. The first Democratic president since the Civil War, Cleveland, made lower tariffs the
first real post-war issue in national politics, but the Panic of 1893 eclipsed his mild reform efforts. That crisis made
suffering farmers and workers protest a government and economic system which seemed biased toward big business
and the wealthy.
Chapter 23 - Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age
Election of 1868
Resumption Act
Ulysses S. Grant, Horatio
Greenback Labor Party
the Gilded Age
waving the bloody shirt
Grand Army of the Republic
The Era of Good Stealings
“Jubilee” Jim Fisk, Jay Gould
Roscoe Conkling, Stalwarts
Boss Tweed, Tweed Ring,
James G. Blaine, Half-Breeds
Tammany Hall
Mulligan letters
Thomas Nast
Election of 1876
Grant administration scandals
Rutherford Hayes, Samuel
Samuel J. Tilden
Crédit Mobilier scandal
Electoral Count Act of 1877
Whiskey Ring
Compromise of 1877
Sec of War William Belknap
Jim Crow/Jim Crow laws
Liberal Republican Party
sharecropping, lynching
Horace Greeley, New York
Plessy v. Ferguson, segregation
Great Railroad Strike of 1877
Panic of 1873
Denis Kearney
Greenbacks, Greenback Labor
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
Election of 1880
soft money/cheap money/hard
James A. Garfield, Chester
Winfield Scott
Charles J. Guiteau
Pendleton Act of 1883, Civil
Service Commission
Election of 1884, Mugwumps,
Grover Cleveland
Election of 1888, Benjamin
Harrison, Thomas Reed
“Czar” Reed’s Billion Dollar
McKinley Tariff
Election of 1892
Populist Party/People's Party
literacy tests, poll taxes,
Grandfather clauses
Depression of 1893
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
Adlai Stevenson
William Jennings Bryan
J.P. Morgan
Wilson-Gorman Tariff
Chapter 24: Industry Comes of Age, 1865–1900
Theme: America accomplished heavy industrialization in the post–Civil War era. Spurred by the transcontinental
rail network, business grew and consolidated into giant corporate trusts, as epitomized by the oil and steel industries.
Theme: Industrialization radically transformed the practices of labor and the condition of the American working
people. But despite frequent industrial strife and the efforts of various reformers and unions, workers failed to
develop effective labor organizations to match the corporate forms of business.
Theme: With the concentration of capital in the hands of a few, new moralities arose to advance justifications for
this social and economic phenomenon. A “survival of the fittest” theory emerged, a popular theory based on the
thought of Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner, which argued that millionaires were products of natural
selection. Another theory known as the “Gospel of Wealth” argued that well-to-do societies had to prove themselves
morally responsible.
Government subsidies and loans aided construction of the first transcontinental rail line in 1869. This and other parts
of a national rail network opened new markets and prompted industrial growth. Railroad power and corruption led to
public demands for regulation, with minimal success.
New technology and business organization spawned huge corporate trusts, pioneered by Andrew Carnegie in steel
and John D. Rockefeller in oil. The oil industry initially supplied kerosene for lamps, before expanding into gasoline
production to fuel automobiles. Cheap steel transformed industries from construction to rail building, while railroads
dominated the economy and reshaped American society.
The benefits of industrialization were unevenly distributed. The South remained underdeveloped and dependent,
growing class divisions placed industrial workers at the bottom of American society. Independent producers and
farmers became dependent wage earners, vulnerable to illness, industrial accidents, and unemployment.
Attempts to organize labor were generally ineffective. The Knights of Labor disappeared after the Haymarket
bombing, but Gompers’ AF of L successfully organized skilled craft laborers while ignoring most industrial
workers, women, and blacks.
Chapter 24 - Industry Comes of Age
financing & building railroads
transcontinental railroad
Union Pacific Railroad, Omaha,
Irish & Chinese; Paddies
Central Pacific Railroad
Big Four (Huntington, Stanford,
Crocker, Hopkins)
Promontory Point, Ogden, Utah,
golden spike
James H. Hill, Cornelius
steel rails, standardized gauge,
air brake
Pullman Palace Cars
telegraph, double-tracking,
block signal, time zones
devastation of the buffalo
Crédit Mobilier scandal
Jay Gould
stock watering, pools
kickbacks, rebates, free passes
the Grange, Wabash case
short/long hauls
Interstate Commerce Act
Richard Olney
Alexander Graham Bell,
Thomas Edison, light bulb, etc.
the “Wizard of Menlo Park”
liquid capital, natural resources,
Mesabi iron ore range
cash register, stock ticker,
refrigerator car, electric dynamo,
electric railway
Andrew Carnegie,
Carnegie/U.S. Steel Corporation
John D. Rockefeller, Standard
Oil Company
vertical integration, horizontal
interlocking directorates
J.P. Morgan
Kelly-Bessemer Process
Drake's Folly
internal combustion engine
economies of scale
Gustavus F. Swift, Philip
Gospel of Wealth, Social
Charles Darwin, On the Origin
of Species
Rev. Russell Conwell, Acres of
14th Amendment
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
holding company
James Buchanan Duke,
American Tobacco Company
Henry W. Grady-Atlanta
Charles Dana Gibson’s Gibson
Unions, collective bargaining
Scabs, lockouts
ironclad oaths, yellow dog
contracts, black lists
company town, scrip
National Labor Union
Knights of Labor, Terence V.
May Day strikes, 1886, Chicago
Haymarket Square Incident
American Federation of Labor,
Samuel Gompers
trade agreements, closed/open
boycott, strike
Labor Day
Chapter 25: America Moves to the City, 1865–1900
Theme: In the late nineteenth century, American society was increasingly dominated by large urban centers.
Explosive urban growth was accompanied by often disturbing changes, including the New Immigration, crowded
slums, new religious outlooks, and conflicts over culture and values. While many Americans were disturbed by the
new urban problems, cities also offered opportunities to women and expanded cultural horizons.
Theme: African Americans suffered the most as the south lagged behind other regions of the country with regard to
educational improvements and opportunities. Two schools of thought emerged as to the best way to handle this
problem. Booker T. Washington advocated that blacks should gain knowledge of useful trades. With this would
come self-respect and economic security—Washington avoided the issue of social equality. W.E.B. Du Bois
demanded complete equality for blacks, both social as well as economic.
Americans moved from the country to the city in the post–Civil War decades. Urban development caused both
excitement and severe social problems, including overcrowding and slums. After the 1880s New Immigrants
flooded cities, mostly from southern and eastern Europe. Their strange customs and non-Protestant religions
engendered nativist hostility and discrimination. Religion adjusted to social and cultural changes. Roman
Catholicism and Judaism gained strength, while Protestant churches divided over conflicts about evolution and
biblical interpretation.
American secondary and graduate education expanded rapidly, while blacks and immigrants had limited success in
using education as a path to upward mobility. Conflicts arose over moral values, especially relating to sexuality and
women’s role in society. The new urban environment expanded opportunities for women but created difficulties for
families, which grew more isolated as the divorce rate rose and average family size shrank. American literature and
art reflected a new realism, while popular amusement became a big business.
Chapter 25 - America Moves to the City
Booker T. Washington,
indoor plumbing, telephones,
Tuskegee Institute
skyscrapers, elevators
Atlanta Compromise Speech
Louis Sullivan, Frank Lloyd Wright
George Washington Carver
Marshall Field's,
W.E.B. DuBois, Talented Tenth,
Chicago/Macy's, New York
Brooklyn Bridge, NYC
Howard University, Atlanta
Theodore Dreiser, Sister Carrie
Morrill Act (1862), Hatch Act (1887)
mail order catalogs Sears,
land-grant colleges
Montgomery Ward
University of California, Texas
dumbbell apartments
A&M, Ohio State
Old Immigration - northern and
Cornell, Stanford, and the
western Europe
University of Chicago
New Immigration - southern and
Louis Pasteur, Joseph Lister
eastern Europe
social gospel, Walter Rauschenbusch
Library of Congress, Carnegie Libraries
settlement house
Joseph Pulitzer, New York World
Jane Addams, Hull House, Chicago
William Randolph Hearst, San
Francisco Examiner
yellow journalism
Associated Press
Harper's, Atlantic Monthly, and
Edwin L. Godkin, Nation
Henry George, Progess and
Edward Bellamy, Looking
dime novels, Harlan F. Halsey
Horatio Alger, rags-to-riches
stories, Ragged Dick
Lillian Wald, Henry Street
Settlement, NYC
nativism, American Protective
Statue of Liberty; Emma
Lazarus: huddled masses
Dwight Lyman Moody, Moody
Bible Institute
Salvation Army
Mary Baker Eddy, Church of
Christ, Scientist
fundamentalists/ modernists
Chataqua movement, lyceums
Walt Whitman, “Leaves of Grass”
realism, Mark Twain, Tom
Sawyer, Huckleberry Finn
Bret Harte, gold rush stories
William Dean Howells, editor of
Atlantic Monthly
Stephen Crane, Maggie: A Girl of the
Streets, The Red Badge of Courage
Henry James, Daisy Miller, The
Jack London, The Call of the
Wild, White Fang
Victoria Woodhull, free love
Anthony Comstock, Comstock Law
Charlotte Perkins Gilman,
Women and Economics
National American Suffrage Association
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B.
Anthony, Carrie Chapman Pratt
Ida Wells, anti-lynching, National
Association of Colored Women
National Prohibition Party,
Anti-Saloon League
Francis E. Willard, Carrie A. Nation
18th & 21st Amendments
American Red Cross, Clara Barton
James Whistler, John Singer Sargent
Mary Cassat, George Inness,
Winslow Homer
jazz, ragtime, blues
Columbian Exposition
Barnum & Bailey, “The Greatest
Show on Earth”
wild west shows, Buffalo Bill”
Cody, Annie Oakley
baseball, horse racing, croquet, bicycling
basketball (William Naismith)
Chapter 26: The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution, 1865–1896
Theme: After the Civil War, whites overcame the Plains Indians’ fierce resistance and settled the Great West,
bringing to a close the long frontier phase of American history.
Theme: The farmers who populated the West found themselves the victims of an economic revolution in agriculture.
Trapped in a permanent debtor dependency, in the 1880s, they finally turned to political action to protest their
condition. Their efforts culminated in the Populist Party’s attempt to create an interracial farmer/labor coalition in
the 1890s, but William Jennings Bryan’s defeat in the pivotal election of 1896 signaled the triumph of urbanism and
the middle class.
Immediately after the Civil War, Indians who hunted buffalo on horseback still occupied the Great Plains and
Mountain West. They fought white encroachment on their land and way of life, but whites’ railroads, mining, and
livestock broke up Indian territory, while diseases cut their strength and numbers. Environmental destruction and
intertribal warfare undermined Indian resistance and soon threatened Native Americans’ existence. The federal
government used poorly conceived treaties and sporadic warfare to force the Indians onto largely barren
reservations. The Dawes Act attempted to coerce Indians into adopting white ways by ending tribal land ownership,
while insensitive humanitarians set up Indian boarding schools, which eroded traditional culture.
Mining and cattle industries dominated western history until farmers, lured by free homesteads, railroads, and
irrigation, settled the frontier. The 1890 census declared the frontier closed, ending a formative phase of American
history. Less of a safety valve than many believed, the frontier West was actually the most urbanized region of the
United States by the 1890s.
In the 1870s, farmers began to settle the treeless prairies beyond the 100th meridian, using dry farming techniques
that gradually contributed to soil loss. Irrigation projects, later financed by the federal government, allowed
specialized farming in many arid western areas, including California. The frontier’s close in 1890 ended traditional
westward expansion, but the Great West remained a unique social and environmental region.
Mechanized agriculture accompanied the opening of new lands, making farmers more dependent on specialized
production and international markets. Debt dependent farmers protested declining prices and other woes through the
Grange, Farmers’ Alliances, and the People’s (Populist) party.
The Panic of 1893 deepened class conflict and spurred farmer and labor strikes and unrest. Pro-silverite William
Jennings Bryan won the Democratic Party’s 1896 nomination, but lost both urban workers and the election to
goldbug Republican William McKinley. The election transformed American politics, as the city and middle class
dominated the new party system, which downplayed monetary issues and engendered Republican dominance for
two generations.
Chapter 26 - The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution
Fort Laramie (1851) and Fort
Atkinson treaties
reservation system, Indian Wars
Samuel Colt, Colt .45 revolver (sixshooter)
Winchester repeating rifle
Buffalo Soldiers
Sand Creek Massacre, Fetterman
Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868)
Black Hills, SD
Col. William Armstrong Custer, Chief
Yellow Hair
Battle of Little Bighorn/Custer's Last
Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull
Nez Perce, Chief Joseph, O.O.
“I will fight no more forever”
Apache, Geronimo
Helen Hunt Jackson, A Century of
Sun Dance, Ghost Dance, Battle of
Wounded Knee
Dawes Severalty Act, Carlisle Indian
Jim Thorpe (football, baseball,
basketball, track)
Pike's Peak, CO/”Fifty-Niners”
Virginia City, NV/Comstock Lode
boom town, saloon, bordello, ghost
women's suffrage in the West, long
Bret Harte, Wyatt Earp, Wild Bill
Samuel Glidden, barbed wire
Homestead Act, dry farming
Mormons, polygamy, Utah
Oklahoma, the “Sooner state”
Yellowstone National Park, Yosemite,
Frederick Jackson Turner, “Turner
safety-valve theory
steam driven tractors, combine,
refrigerator car
overproduction, contraction, tenant
National Grange of the Patrons of
Oliver H. Kelley, Granger Laws, coops
James B. Weaver, Farmers' Alliance
Colored Farmers' National Alliance
People's Party, Populist Party
graduated income tax, sub-treasury
unlimited coinage of silver
William Hope Harvey, Coin's
Financial School
Jacob Coxey, Coxey’s
Army/Commonweal Army
U.S. Attorney General Richard Olney
Election of 1896
William McKinley, Mark Hanna
William Jennings Bryan, Cross of
Gold Speech
Dingley Tariff Bill
Gold Standard Act
Klondike gold rush
Chapter 27: Empire and Expansion, 1890–1909
Theme: In the 1890s, a number of economic and political forces sparked a spectacular burst of imperialistic
expansionism for the United States that culminated in the Spanish-American War—a war that began over freeing
Cuba and ended with the highly controversial acquisition of the Philippines and other territories.
Theme: In the wake of the Spanish-American War, President Theodore Roosevelt pursued a bold and sometimes
controversial new policy of asserting America’s influence abroad, particularly in East Asia and Latin America.
Several factors made previously isolated America turn its attention overseas in the 1890s. Changes behind the new
imperialism included demand for new economic markets, the sensationalism of the yellow press, missionary fervor,
Darwinist ideology, great-power rivalry, and naval competition.
American intervention in the Venezuelan boundary dispute of 1895–1896 reflected an aggressive new assertion of
the Monroe Doctrine, which forced Britain to accept American domination in the Western Hemisphere. White
American planters culminated longtime American involvement in Hawaii in 1893 by fomenting a revolution against
native rule by. President Cleveland refused to annex the islands, but the annexation question triggered the United
States’ first full-fledged imperialistic debate.
American outrage over Spanish oppression of Cuba triggered the Spanish-American War in 1898, exacerbated by
the yellow press. Public passion over the Maine explosion in February 1898 pushed a reluctant President McKinley
into war, even though Spain was ready to concede on the major issues. Admiral Dewey’s naval victory in the
Spanish Philippines in May 1898 set the stage for American troops, assisted by Filipino rebels, to captured Manila.
American forces overcame mass confusion to overwhelm the Spanish in Cuba and Puerto Rico. Pro-imperialists
narrowly won a bitter national debate over American imperialism in the Senate, and the United States took the
Philippines and Puerto Rico as colonial possessions. Despite serious doubts about imperialism, the United States
asserted itself as a new international power.
America annexation of the Philippines aroused violent Filipino resistance, as they had expected independence. The
ensuing, brutal was longer and costlier than the Spanish-American conflict. Imperialist competition deepened
America’s role in China. Hay’s Open Door policy kept the great powers from carving up China, while US and
international forces suppressed the Boxer Rebellion. Theodore Roosevelt brought new assertiveness to American
foreign policy. When the Colombian Senate frustrated his plans to build a canal in Panama, he promoted a
Panamanian independence movement which brought his plans to fruition. He also added the Roosevelt Corollary to
the Monroe Doctrine, declaring an American right to intervene in South America. Roosevelt angered both parties
while negotiating an end to the Russo-Japanese War, one of several incidents which demonstrated US-Japanese
competition in East Asia.
Chapter 27 - Empire and Expansion
“yellow journalism”
Joseph Pullitzer/NYWorld
William Randolph Hearst/NYJournal
Josiah Strong, Our Country
Alfred Thayer Mahan, The Influence of
the Sea
James G. Blaine’s “Big Sister” policy
Samoan Isls/New
Orleans/Valparaiso/Pribilof Islands
British Guiana - Venezuela border
the Great Rapprochement
the Hawaiian Islands
Sanford Dole/sugar/McKinley Tariff
Queen Liliuokalani
revolution ≠ immediate annexation of
Hawaii (1898)
Pearl Harbor
Grover Cleveland
Cuban War for Independence/SpanishAmerican War
General Valeriano “Butcher” Weyler
reconcentrado program
William McKinley
“de Lôme Letter”/Dupuy de Lôme
U.S.S. Maine
“You supply the pictures, I’ll supply the
Teller Amendment
Assistant Secretary of the Navy T.
the Philippines
Commodore George Dewey
Emilio Aguinaldo
Gens William Shafer & Nelson Miles
TR and Col. Leonard Wood’s “Rough
El Caney/San Juan Hill
disease/TR’s “round robin” letter
“The Splendid Little War”
Treaty of Paris of 1899 (one vote)
Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines
($20 million)
Anti-Imperialist League
Rudyard Kipling’s “The White Man’s
Foraker Act of 1900 (Puerto Rico)
the Insular Cases
Dr. Walter Reed (yellow fever)
Platt Amendment
Guantanamo Bay
Philippine Commission/William Howard
John Philip Sousa, "Stars and Stripes
“Little Brown Brothers”
"spheres of influence"
Sec of State John Hay/“Open Door
Boxer Rebellion
William McKinley/ Leon Czolgosz
“Speak softly and carry a big stick”
Panama Canal
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
Philippe Bunau-Varilla
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty/Panama
Roosevelt Corollary
the Good Neighbor policy
Russo-Japanese War/Treaty of
Sakhalin island
1906 Nobel Peace Prize
San Francisco school board
Gentlemen’s Agreement
“The Great White Fleet”
Root-Takahira Agreement
Chapter 28: Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt, 1901–1912
Theme: The strong progressive movement successfully demanded that the powers of government be applied to
solving the economic and social problems of industrialization. Progressivism first gained strength at the city and
state level, and then achieved national influence in the moderately progressive administrations of Theodore
Theme: Roosevelt’s hand-picked successor, William H. Taft, aligned himself with the Republican Old Guard,
causing Roosevelt to break away and lead a progressive third-party crusade.
The early twentieth century progressive movement became the greatest reform crusade since abolitionism.
Inaugurated by Populists, socialists, social gospelers, female reformers, and muckraking journalists, progressivism
tried to use governmental to correct social and economic problems caused by industrialization.
Begun at the city and state level, Progressivism focused first on political reforms before turning to social and
economic ones. Women galvanized progressive social concern for reforms involving child labor, poor tenement
housing, and consumer causes. Viewing reform as an extension of their roles as wives and mothers, female activists
changed both law and public attitudes in these areas.
At the national level, Roosevelt’s Square Deal used the federal government to mediate conflicts between labor and
corporate trusts, as well as acting on behalf of consumer and environmental concerns. Roosevelt crusaded for
conservatism, although preservationists disagreed sharply with those who favored multiple uses of nature. Federal
emphasis on rational use of public resources generally worked to benefit large enterprises and to inhibit action by
the smaller users.
Roosevelt selected Taft as his successor, expecting him to continue “my policies,” but Taft was dominated by the
conservative Republican Old Guard and rapidly lost public support. The Republican Party split between pro-Taft
conservatives and Roosevelt’s progressives, who led a third-party crusade in the 1912 election.
Chapter 28-Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt
Thorstein Veblen’s The Theory of the Leisure Class
conspicuous consumption
Jacob Riis’ How the Other Half Lives
Ida M. Tarbell - Standard Oil
initiative, referendum, recall
16th, 17th, 18th Amendments
city-manager system
Robert M. La Follette
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
Muller vs. Oregon (1908)
Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
Anti-Saloon League
“Square Deal”
1902 anthracite coal miners strike
Elkins Act & Hepburn Act
Northern Securities Company
“good trusts” and “bad trusts”
William Howard Taft
Meat Inspection Act
Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle
Pure Food and Drug Act
Desert Land Act of 1877
Forest Reserve Act of 1891
Gifford Pinchot
Newlands Act of 1902
Jack London’s Call of the Wild
Boy Scouts of America & Sierra Club
Hetchy Hetch Valley
“Roosevelt Panic” of 1907
Aldrich-Vreeland Act of 1908
Election of 1908
William Howard Taft
William Jennings Bryan
Eugene V. Debs
“Dollar Diplomacy”
Ballinger-Pinchot quarrel of 1910
Election of 1912
Chapter 29: Wilsonian Progressivism at Home and Abroad, 1912–1916
Theme: After winning a three-way election, focused on different theories of progressivism, Woodrow Wilson
successfully pushed through a sweeping program of domestic economic and social reform in his first term.
Theme: Wilson’s attempt to promote an idealistic progressive foreign policy failed, as dangerous military
involvements threatened Latin America, the North Atlantic, and Europe.
Wilson and his New Freedom defeated Roosevelt and his New Nationalism in a contest over differing forms of
progressivism. Eloquent, idealistic ex-professor Wilson reformed the tariff, finances, and regulation of trusts. His
social reforms benefited the working classes, but not blacks.
Wilson’s had less success in implementing progressive moral goals in foreign policy, as he stumbled into military
involvements in the Caribbean, and revolutionary Mexico. The outbreak of World War I in Europe threatened
American neutrality, especially because of German submarine warfare.
Wilson delayed war by extracting the precarious Sussex pledge from Germany, and his antiwar campaign in 1916
narrowly won him reelection over the still-quarreling Republicans.
Ch 29-Wilsonian Progressivism at Home and Abroad
“Bull Moose” Party
Campaign of 1912
Woodrow Wilson
Princeton University
New Freedom
New Nationalism
Underwood Tariff of 1913
1913 Federal Reserve Act
Federal Reserve Board
Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914
1914 Clayton Anti-Trust Act
Federal Farm Loan Act of 1916
Warehouse Act of 1916
Seamen’s Act of 1915
Workingmen’s Compensation Act of 1916
1916 Adamson Act
Panama Canal Tolls Act of 1912
Jones Act in 1916
Latin American involvement
Victoriano Huerta
Venustiano Carranza
Francisco “Pancho” Villa
Tampico, Mexico
Vera Cruz
ABC powers
General John J. Pershing
anti-German wartime sentiment
HMS Lusitania
“Sussex pledge”
Election of 1916
Charles Evans Hughes
“He kept us out of war”
Chapter 30: The War to End War, 1917–1918
Theme: Entering World War I in response to Germany’s unrestricted submarine warfare, Wilson turned America’s
participation into a fervent ideological crusade for democracy that successfully stirred the public to a great voluntary
war effort, but at some cost to traditional civil liberties.
Theme: After America’s limited but important contribution to the Allied victory, a triumphant Wilson attempted to
construct a peace based on his idealistic Fourteen Points. But European and senatorial opposition, and especially his
own political errors, doomed American ratification of the Versailles Treaty and participation in the League of
The United States finally declared war because of Germany’s unlimited submarine warfare, combined with the
Zimmerman note proposing an alliance with Mexico. Wilson spurred patriotism by calling for an idealistic crusade
for democracy and permanent peace based on his Fourteen Points.
Though it suppressed dissent, wartime propaganda stirred voluntary commitment to the war effort, facilitating
industrial organization, food production, and financing the war. Labor, including women, made substantial wartime
gains, while black migration to northern cities led to racial tensions and riots.
America’s soldiers arrived in Europe after nearly a year, and fought in only two major battles at the war’s end.
America’s main contribution to the Allied victory was to provide supplies, personnel, and improved morale.
Wilson’s prestige created high expectations for an idealistic peace, but his political blunders and European
statesmen’s intransigence forced him to compromise his lofty aims.
Fighting Lodge’s reservations, Wilson tried to gain national support for the League of Nations, but his physical
collapse and refusal to compromise killed the treaty and the League. Republican isolationists turned Harding’s
victory in 1920 into a death sentence for the League.
Chapter 30 - The War to End Wars
“peace without victory”
Zimmerman note (or telegram)
Arthur Zimmerman
Jeanette Ranking
“make the world safe for
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
League of Nations
Committee on Public
George Creel
Espionage Act of 1917
Sedition Act of 1918
Industrial Workers of the World
Eugene V. Debs
William D. Haywood
Council of National Defense
Bernard Baruch
War Industries Board
National War Labor Board
William H. Taft
American Federation of Labor
(AF of L)
wartime strikes
wartime race issues
19th Amendment
Women’s Bureau
Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act
of 1921
Herbert Hoover
Food Administration
“Meatless Tuesdays”
“Wheatless Wednesdays”
Fuel Administration
Liberty Loans & drives
Central Powers
Allied Powers
French Marshal Foch
Second Battle of the Marne
General John J. Pershing
Meuse-Argonne offensive
Sgt. Alvin C. York
11th hour, 11th day, 11th month
“Armistice Day” - “Veterans’
midterm elections of 1918
Henry Cabot Lodge
1919 Paris Conference
Vittorio Orlando
Georges Clemenceau
David Lloyd George
War Guilt Clause
the “irreconcilables”
Lodge reservations
Article X
Election of 1920
Warren G. Harding
Franklin D. Roosevelt (VP
Adolf Hitler
Chapter 31: American Life in the “Roaring Twenties,” 1919–1929
Theme: A disillusioned America turned away from idealism and reform after World War I and toward isolationism
in foreign affairs, domestic social conservatism, and the pleasures of prosperity.
Theme: New technologies, mass-marketing techniques, and new forms of entertainment fostered rapid cultural
change along with a focus on consumer goods. But the accompanying changes in moral values and uncertainty about
the future produced cultural anxiety, as well as sharp intellectual critiques of American life.
After World War I’s crusading idealism, Americans turned inward, demonizing anything foreign or different. The
red scare and the Sacco-Vanzetti case targeted radicals, while the new Ku Klux Klan joined others in promoting
further immigration restrictions. Cultural conflict swirled around the prohibition experiment and evolution.
A new mass-consumption economy fueled 1920s prosperity, while Henry Ford’s automobile industry transformed
both the economy and American lifestyles.
Radio and film altered popular culture and values, while birth control and Freudian psychology overturned
traditional sexual standards, especially for women. Young literary rebels, mostly Midwesterners, rejected New
England and small-town culture, searching for new values as far away as Europe. The stock-market boom
epitomized the decade’s free-wheeling spirit.
Chapter 31-American Life in the Roaring ‘20s
“Red Scare, ” A. Mitchell Palmer
Nicola Sacco & Bartolomeo Vanzetti
“nativism,” new Ku Klux Klan
Emergency Quota Act of 1921
Immigration Act of 1924
Prohibition, 18th Amendment
Volstead Act
Women’s Christian Temperance Union
Al Capone, St. Valentine’s Day Massacre
Charles Lindbergh- Spirit of St. Louis
Lindbergh Law
John Dewey
“Monkey Trial”-John T. Scopes
WJ Bryan/Clarence Darrow
Treasury Secretary A. Mellon
assembly-line production
Henry Ford, Model T
automobile culture
Orville and Wilbur Wright
Kitty Hawk, N.C.
Bruce Barton, The Man Nobody Knows
installment plan
Babe Ruth & Jack Dempsey
Guglielmo Marconi-radio
D.W. Griffith, The Birth of a Nation
The Jazz Singer (Al Jolson)
Margaret Sanger
“flappers” - “Charleston”
Sigmund Freud
Harlem Renaissance
Langston Hughes, Marcus Garvey
United Negro Improvement Association
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Ernest Hemingway
Sinclair Lewis
Frank Lloyd Wright
Chapter 32: The Politics of Boom and Bust, 1920–1932
Theme: The Republican administrations of the prosperous 1920s pursued conservative, pro-business policies at
home, and economic unilateralism abroad.
Theme: The great crash of 1929 led to a severe, prolonged depression that devastated the American economy and
spirit and resisted Hoover’s limited efforts to correct it.
Republican governments of the 1920s practiced active, pro-business policies, while neglecting much of the
progressive legacy. America’s desire to withdraw from international involvements led to the Washington Naval
Conference and sky-high tariffs, which protected American industry but caused worldwide economic problems.
Puritanical Calvin Coolidge succeeded a morally lax Harding administration mired in scandal, while feuding
Democrats and La Follette progressives were outpolled by Republican prosperity.
American demands for strict war debt repayment roiled international economies. The Dawes plan provided
temporary relief, but the Hawley-Smoot Tariff devastated international trade.
The stock-market crash of 1929 terminated prosperity and plunged America into a horrible depression. Herbert
Hoover’s relief efforts and reputation both collapsed, despite his unprecedented—if limited— federal assistance to
revive the economy.
Chapter 32-The Politics of Boom and Bust
Warren G. Harding
Sec of State Charles Evans Hughes
Sec of Commerce Herbert Hoover
Sec of Treasury Andrew W. Mellon
Sec of Interior Albert B. Fall
Atty Gen Harry M. Daugherty
Adkins v. Children’s Hospital
Esch-Cummins Transportation Act
Merchant Marine Act
Veterans’ Bureau
Washington Disarmament Conference
Five-Power Naval Treaty-5:5:3
Four-Power Treaty
Nine-Power Treaty
Sec of State Frank B. Kellogg
1929 Nobel Peace Prize
Kellogg-Briand Pact (Pact of Paris)
Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law
Charles R. Forbes
Teapot Dome Scandal
Calvin Coolidge
McNary-Haugen Bill
Sen Robert La Follette
Dominican Republic, Haiti, Nicaragua
Dawes Plan
Herbert Hoover, Hoovervilles
Alfred E. Smith - “wet”
Hawley-Smoot Tariff (1930)
October 29, 1929, Black Tuesday
Great Depression
Hoover Dam, Muscle Shoals Bill
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Norris-La Guardia Anti-Injection Act
“Bonus Expeditionary Force”
Douglas MacArthur
Hoover-Stimson Doctrine
Japan invades Manchuria
Chapter 33: The Great Depression and the New Deal, 1933–1939
Theme: Roosevelt’s New Deal tackled the Great Depression with massive federal programs designed to bring about
relief, recovery, and reform.
Confident, aristocratic Roosevelt took office with an urgent mandate to address the depression. His bank holiday and
frantic Hundred Days restored confidence and created a host of new agencies to provide relief for the unemployed,
economic recovery, and permanent systemic reform.
Federal New Deal programs put millions of the unemployed back on the job. FDR responded to popular
demagogues Huey Long and Father Charles Coughlin by reorganizing and reforming American history, labor, and
agriculture. The TVA, Social Security, and the Wagner Act brought far-reaching changes that especially benefited
the economically disadvantaged.
Conservatives denounced the New Deal, but Roosevelt’s powerful coalition of urbanites, labor, new immigrants,
blacks, and Southerners swept him to victory in 1936.
Women began to exercise their politically and intellectually rights a decade after the Nineteenth Amendment was
Roosevelt’s Court-packing plan failed, but the Court began to approve New Deal legislation. Mounting conservative
opposition and the stubborn persistence of unemployment frustrated the later New Deal. The highly controversial
New Deal saved America from extreme right-wing or left-wing dictatorship.
Chapter 33–The Great Depression and the New Deal
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Hundred Days
Relief, Recovery, Reform
Emergency Banking Relief Act
bank holiday, gold standard
Fireside Chats
Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)
Harry L. Hopkins
Home Owners’ Loan Corporation (HOLC)
Civil Works Administration (CWA)
Father Charles Coughlin
Huey P. Long
Dr. Francis E. Townsend
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
Eleanor Roosevelt
Sec of Labor Frances Perkins
Mary McLeod Bethune
Office of Minority Affairs
National Recovery Administration (NRA)
Public Works Administration (PWA)
Sec of Interior Harold L. Ickes
Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)
Dust Bowl
John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath
Resettlement Administration
Dawes Act
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
Federal Housing Administration (FHA)
Social Security Act
Wagner Act (National Labor Relations Act)
National Labor Relations Board
John L. Lewis
United Mine Workers
Committee for Industrial Organization
Fair Labor Standards Act
Congress of Industrial Organizations
American Liberty League
20th Amendment
Schechter Poultry Corp. v. U.S.
FDR’s “court-packing scheme”
“Roosevelt Recession”
John Maynard Keynes
deficit spending
Reorganization Act
Hatch Act (1939)
Chapter 34: Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War, 1933–1941
Theme: In the early and mid-1930s, the United States attempted to isolate itself from foreign involvements and wars.
But by the end of the decade, the spread of totalitarianism and war in Europe forced Roosevelt to provide more and
more assistance to desperate Britain, despite strong isolationist opposition.
Roosevelt’s early foreign policies— wrecking the London economic conference and starting the Good Neighbor
policy in Latin America— reflected America’s focus on domestic recovery and less active role in the world. The US
withdrew from virtually all European affairs, and promised Filipino independence in order to avoid Asian
European and Asian depression-spawned chaos in Europe and Asia strengthened US isolationism, as Congress
passed four Neutrality Acts, which aimed to keep America out of foreign wars. The United States adhered to
neutrality at first, despite Italian, German, and Japanese aggression, but after World War II began in Europe,
Roosevelt provided some aid to the Allies.
After the fall of France, FDR forged the destroyers-for-bases deal and lend-lease act to aid desperate Britain. Stillpowerful isolationists protested, but Republican candidate Wendell Willkie refused to attack Roosevelt’s foreign
policy in the 1940 campaign.
By the summer of 1941, the United States was fighting an undeclared, North Atlantic naval war with Germany,
leading Roosevelt and Churchill to issue the Atlantic Charter. Failed negotiations with Japan and the surprise Pearl
Harbor attack plunged the United States into World War II.
Chapter 34-FDR and the Shadow of War
1933 London Conference
Tydings-McDuffie Act (1934)
Good Neighbor Policy
Sec of State Cordell Hull
Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act
Stalin/ Hitler/Mussolini
Hitler’s “Big Lie”
Rome-Berlin Axis (1936)
1934 Nye Committee
Neutrality Acts in 1935-37
Gen Francisco Franco
“Quarantine Speech”
USS Panay
1938 Munich Conference
Neville Chamberlain-appeasement
USSR-Germany nonaggression treaty
Neutrality Act (1939)
“phony war”
Havana Conference (1940)
Destroyers for Bases Deal (1940)
Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies
America First Committee
Wendell L. Willkie
Lend-Lease Act
Atlantic Conference
Robin Moor, Greer, Kearny, Reuben James
December 7, 1941, Pearl Harbor
Chapter 35: America in World War II, 1941–1945
Theme: Unified by Pearl Harbor, America effectively carried out a war mobilization effort that produced vast social
and economic changes within American society.
Theme: Following its “get Hitler first” strategy, the United States and its Allies invaded and liberated conquered
Europe from Fascist rule. The slower strategy of island-hopping against Japan also proceeded successfully until the
atomic bomb brought a sudden end to World War II.
Wounded but unified by Pearl Harbor, America followed Roosevelt’s strategy of dealing with Hitler first, while
preventing a Japanese advance in the Pacific.
Except for Japanese-American concentration camps, the United States escaped the fanaticism and civil liberties
violations that occurred in World War I. World War II effectively mobilized the economy, using new labor sources
such as women and Mexican braceros. Many African and Native Americans left their rural homelands and migrated
North and West to urban war-industry jobs. War brought full employment, prosperity, and enduring social changes
for millions of Americans thrown together in the military and uprooted into new communities across the country.
Unlike in Europe and Asia, however, the war caused relatively little economic and social devastation in the United
The Battles of Midway and the Coral Sea stemmed the tide of Japanese conquest, and American forces began island
hopping toward Tokyo. Allied troops provided a small, compromise second front by invading North Africa and Italy
in 1942–1943, in an attempt to appease the Soviet Union and France. The D-Day invasion of France became the real
second front in June 1944, as the Allies moved rapidly across France, before their setback in the Low Countries
during the Battle of the Bulge.
Americans established a bombing base from which to attack the Japanese home islands by capturing the Marianas
Islands. Roosevelt won a fourth term as Allied troops entered Germany and met the Russians, ending Hitler’s rule in
May 1945. After brutal fighting on Okinawa and Iwo Jima, detonation of two atomic bombs ended the Japanese war
in August 1945.
Chapter 35 - America in WW II
Pearl Harbor
get Germany first
Japanese-American internment
Hirabayashi v. U.S.
Korematsu v. U.S.
(Civil Liberties Act of 1988)
Atlantic Charter
Henry J. Kaiser-“Sir
War Production Board
Office of Price Administration.
United Mine Workers- John L.
Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act
WAACS (Army)
WAVES (Navy)
SPARS (Coast Guard)
“Rosie the Riveter”
A. Philip Randolph
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car
Fair Employment Practices
racially separate blood banks
Congress of Racial Equality
“code talkers”
Bataan Death March
Gen Douglas MacArthur
“I shall return”
Coral Sea
“island hopping”
German U-boats
“enigma” code
El Alamein
second front
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Casablanca Conference
British PM Winston Churchill
“unconditional surrender”
Benito Mussolini
Adolph Hitler
Joseph Stalin
Monte Cassino
D-Day: June 6, 1944
Normandy Landings
Operation Overlord
Tehran Conference
Big Three (FDR, Churchill,
Election of 1944
Thomas E. Dewey
Harry S. Truman (not Henry
Battle of the Bulge
101st Airborne Division
concentration camps
FDR dies, 4/12/45
Hitler dies, 4/30/45
May 8, 1945 V-E Day
Japanese “kamikaze” pilots
Iwo Jima & Okinawa
Potsdam Conference
Alamogordo, New Mexico
Hiroshima & Nagasaki
Emperor Hirohito
General Tojo
Chapter 36: The Cold War Begins, 1945–1952
Theme: America emerged from World War II as the world’s strongest economic power and commenced a postwar
economic boom that lasted for two decades. A bulging population migrated to the suburbs and Sunbelt, leaving the
cities increasingly to minorities and the poor.
Theme: The end of World War II left the United States and the Soviet Union as the two dominant world powers, and
they soon became locked in a Cold War confrontation. The Cold War spread from Europe to become a global
ideological conflict between democracy and communism. Among its effects were a nasty hot war in Korea and a
domestic crusade against disloyalty.
Widespread fears of a return to depression plagued the postwar years, but cheap energy, increased productivity, and
programs like the GI Bill promoted rapid economic expansion lasting from 1950 to 1970. Affluence transformed
American industry and society, and drew more women into the workforce.
Americans migrated to Southern and Western sunbelts, and left the poorer populations of northeastern cities for the
growing suburbs. Families grew rapidly, as the baby boom population bulge lasted for decades.
Near the end of World War II, the controversial Yalta agreement left major issues undecided and roiled postwar
relations with the Soviet Union. Combative President Truman battled the Soviets over Eastern Europe, Germany,
and the Middle East.
The Truman Doctrine’s military aid began a crusade against international communism, while the Marshall Plan
aided starving, communist-threatened Europe on it way to joining the NATO military alliance.
Cold War revelations of spying aroused fears of domestic communist subversion, culminating in McCarthy’s witchhunts. Fear of communism abroad and social change at home generated national and local assaults on those
perceived to be different. Cold War and civil rights issues fractured the Democrats three ways in 1948, but Truman’s
gutsy campaign overcame divisions to win re-election.
Chinese Communists won a civil war against the Nationalists. North Korea invaded South Korea, and the Americans
and Chinese joined the seesaw war, fighting to a bloody stalemate, while Truman fired McArthur for
insubordination and threats to attack China.
Chapter 36 - The Cold War Begins
postwar economic slump &
Taft-Hartley Act of 1947
“closed” shops
Employment Act of 1946
Servicemen’s Readjustment Act
of 1944
GI Bill of Rights
R and D
baby boom
Dr. Benjamin Spock
Federal Housing Authority
“white flight”
Harry S. Truman
“Missouri gang”
Yalta Conference, February
Cold War
Bretton Woods Meeting, 1944
International Monetary Fund
United Nations, April 25, 1945
Security Council
WHO (World Health
Nuremberg Trials
Berlin Airlift
“containment policy”
George F. Kennan
Truman Doctrine
Greece and Turkey
Sec of State George C. Marshall
Marshall Plan
Israel, May 14, 1948
1947 National Security Act
Department of Defense
National Security Council
Central Intelligence Agency
“Voice of America”
Selective Service System
North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (NATO), 1948
Warsaw Pact
Gen Douglas MacArthur –
Mao Zedong & Chiang Kai-shek
Formosa (Taiwan)
Soviet atomic bomb, September,
Loyalty Review Board
Smith Act of 1940
House Committee on UnAmerican Activities (HUAC)
Richard M. Nixon
Alger Hiss
Sen Joseph R. McCarthy
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Dennis v. U.S., 1951
Election of 1948
Thomas E. Dewey
Dwight D. Eisenhower
“Dixiecrats”-Strom Thurmond
“Fair Deal”
Korean Conflict
38th parallel
Truman fires MacArthur
Chapter 37: The Eisenhower Era, 1952–1960
Theme: The Eisenhower years were characterized by prosperity and moderate conservatism at home and by the
tensions of the Cold War abroad.
Theme: The 1950s witnessed a huge expansion of the middle class and the blossoming of a consumer culture.
Crucial to the development of a new lifestyle of leisure and affluence was the rise of the new technology of
Theme: While Dwight Eisenhower and the majority of Americans held to a cautious, family-oriented perspective on
domestic social questions, an emerging civil rights movement and the influence of television and popular music
presented challenges to the spirit of national consensus.
The new medium of television enhanced grandfatherly Ike’s popularity, and he soothed a country badly shaken by
the Cold War and Korea. Eisenhower hesitated to go after Joseph McCarthy, whose demagogic bubble finally burst.
Ike reacted cautiously to the early civil rights movement, but sent troops to Little Rock to enforce court orders. His
domestic policies were moderately conservative, but left most New Deal agencies in place.
Despite Dulles’s tough talk, Eisenhower’s foreign policies were cautious. He aided Diem but avoided military
involvement in Vietnam and pressed Britain, France, and Israel to resolve the Suez crisis. He refused to intervene in
the Hungarian revolt and sought negotiations to thaw the frigid Cold War. Nikita Khrushchev proved difficult, as
Sputnik, the Berlin Crisis, the U-2 incident, and Castro’s Cuban revolution all kept Cold War tensions high. Senator
John Kennedy defeated Eisenhower’s vice president, Richard Nixon in a tight election by calling for the country to
“get moving again” by more vigorously countering the Soviets.
American society grew ever more prosperous in the Eisenhower era, as science, technology, and the Cold War
fueled burgeoning new industries like electronics and aviation. Women joined the movement into the increasingly
white-collar workforce, and chafed at widespread restrictions they faced.
Consumer culture, now centered around television, fostering a new ethic of leisure, enjoyment, and more open
sexuality in popular entertainment. Intellectuals and artists criticized an emphasis on private affluence rather than
the public good. Jewish, black, and southern writers impact on American culture to a striking new degree.
Chapter 37 – The Eisenhower Era
International Business Machines (IBM)
“white-collar” workers “blue collar” workers
“Ozzie and Harriet” “Leave It to Beaver”
Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique
McDonald’s, Disneyland
Billy Graham
Elvis Presley, Marilyn Monroe
22nd Amendment, 1951
Election of 1952
Adlai E. Stevenson
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Richard M. Nixon “Checkers Speech”
Army – McCarthy hearings
Jackie Robinson
Rosa Parks
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Earl Warren
Brown v. Board of Education of
Topeka, Kansas, 1954
Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
“separate but equal”
Interstate Highway Act
Orval Faubus, Little Rock Nine, 1957
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Greensboro, NC, lunch counter, 1960
Massive Retaliation
Strategic Air Command (SAC)
Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev
French Indochina/Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh
Dienbienphu, 1954 Geneva Conference
Hungarian rebellion
Iran coup
Suez crisis
Gamal Abdel Nasser
James R. Hoffa
Landrum-Griffin Act (1959)
“Space Race”
Sputnik I & II
National Defense and Education Act
Camp David talks, 1959/Paris conference, 1960
U-2 incident
Fulgencio Batista, Fidel Castro
Election of 1960
Richard Nixon v. John F. Kennedy
Catholic president (?!)
televised debates
Alaska and Hawaii
Chapter 38: The Stormy Sixties, 1960–1968
Theme: The Kennedy administration’s flexible response doctrine to combat Third World communism bore ill fruit
in Cuba and especially Vietnam. Johnson’s massive escalation of the war failed to defeat the Communist
Vietnamese forces, while growing domestic opposition finally forced him from power.
Theme: The Kennedy administration’s domestic stalemate ended in the mid-1960s, as Johnson’s Great Society and
the black civil rights movement brought a tide of liberal social reform. But the diversion of resources and the social
upheavals caused by the Vietnam War wrecked the Great Society.
Kennedy’s New Frontier, bogged down in congressional stalemate. Confrontations over Berlin and Russian missiles
in Cuba created threats of the Cold War turning hot, while flexible response to Third World communism led to
dangerous involvement in Vietnam and elsewhere.
Johnson succeeded Kennedy and soundly defeated Goldwater, and his huge congressional majorities passed a mass
of liberal Great Society legislation. Blacks won integration and voting rights, but northern black ghettos erupted in
violence amid calls for black power.
Johnson escalated military involvement in the Dominican Republic and Vietnam. Troop and casualty levels
escalated without military success, causing dovish war protests to gain strength, and Johnson not to seek reelection.
Deep Democratic divisions over the war allowed Nixon to win the White House.
Chapter 38 - The Stormy Sixties
23rd Amendment, 1961
Eisenhower’s farewell address
military/industrial complex
Kennedy’s “New Frontier”
Atty Gen Robert Kennedy
FBI - J. Edgar Hoover
Sec Defense Robert S. McNamara
Peace Corps
steel industry conflict
Berlin Wall (1961)
Common Market
Charles de Gaulle
“Flexible Response”
African Congo
Laos -1962 Geneva Conference
Special Forces/Green Berets
Viet Cong/Ho Chi Minh
Alliance for Progress
Bay of Pigs Invasion, April 17, 1961
Fidel Castro
Cuban Missile Crisis, Oct 1962
“hot line”
Freedom Riders, SNCC
James Meredith, U of MS
Birmingham, 1963
JFK’s Assassination
Lee Harvey Oswald, Jack Ruby
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
“Great Society”
Barry Goldwater
Tonkin Gulf Incident
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
“blank check”
Department of Transportation
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
Robert C. Weaver
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
Project Head Start
Voting Rights Act of 1965
24th Amendment, 1964
“freedom summer”
Goodman, Cheney, Schwerner
Watts riot
Malcolm X (Little)
Nation of Islam, Elijah Muhammed
Black Panthers, Stokely Carmichael
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
MLK, Jr.’s assassination, April 4, 1968
Six-Day War
Senate Committee of Foreign Relations
Senator William Fullbright
Tet Offensive
Election of 1968
Eugene McCarthy
Robert Kennedy
RFK’s assassination
Hubert Humphrey
Richard Nixon
Spiro Agnew
George C. Wallace
60s counterculture
Jack Kerouac, On the Road
Rebel without a Cause, James Dean
Free Speech Movement
Dr. Alfred Kinsey
Manhattan Society
SDS & Weathermen
three P’s of the 60s
CHAPTER 39: The Stalemated Seventies, 1968–1980
Theme: As the war in Vietnam finally came to a disastrous conclusion, the United States struggled to create a more
stable international climate. Détente with the two communist powers temporarily reduced Cold War tensions, but
trouble in the Middle East threatened America’s energy supplies and economic stability.
Theme: Weakened by political difficulties of their own and others’ making, the administrations of the 1970s had
trouble coping with America’s growing economic problems. The public also had trouble facing up to a sharp sense
of limits and a general disillusionment with society. With the notable exception of the highly successful feminist
movement, the social reform efforts of the 1960s fractured and stalled, as the country settled into a frustrating and
politically divisive stalemate.
Nixon’s Vietnamization policy reduced American ground participation, but his Cambodia invasion sparked massive
war protests. Nixon established new relations with Communist Moscow and Beijing, while at home, he and the
Supreme Court promoted affirmative action and environmental protection.
Nixon’s 1972 election victory and the cease-fire in Vietnam were negated by Watergate and protest of his secret
bombing of Cambodia, which led Congress to pass the War Powers Act. The 1973 Middle East War and the Arab
oil embargo triggered energy and economic difficulties throughout the decade. Americans began to realize the cost
of their Middle Eastern oil dependency, and took tentative steps toward conservation and alternative energy sources.
Unelected Gerald Ford succeeded Nixon after Watergate forced him to resign. Communist North Vietnam
conquered South Vietnam in 1975. The loss in Vietnam fueled both disillusionment and a new sense of limits on
American power. The civil rights movement fractured, and divisive issues of busing and affirmative action enhanced
racial tension. Feminism achieved widespread social breakthroughs, but failed to pass the Equal Rights Amendment.
Outsider Jimmy Carter campaigned against Washington and Watergate, but proved unable to master Congress or the
economy once in office. The Camp David accords brokered peace between Egypt and Israel, but the Soviet invasion
of Afghanistan and Iranian revolution led to new energy troubles and Iranian hostage woes.
Chapter 39 - The Stalemated Seventies
1970s economic stagnation
Vietnamization & Nixon Doctrine
Silent Majority
My Lai Massacre, 1968
invasion of Cambodia
Kent State Massacre
“hawks” and “doves”
26th Amendment, 1971
Daniel Ellsberg/Pentagon Papers
détente; China, USSR
Henry A. Kissinger
ABM Treaty, SALT, & MIRV
Chief Justice Earl Warren
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
Chief Justice Warren E. Burger
Roe v. Wade (1973)
Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
affirmative action
Philadelphia Plan
reverse discrimination
Rachel Carson, Silent Spring
Clean Air Act of 1970
1973 Endangered Species Act
Election of 1972
George McGovern
1973 cease-fire
Pol Pot
1973 War Powers Act
Arab Oil Embargo, OPEC
Spiro Agnew
CREEP, Watergate
Saturday Night Massacre
Nixon’s tapes, executive privilege
August 8, 1974, Nixon resigns
25th Amendment
Gerald Ford
Nixon pardon
1975 Helsinki accords
1975 fall of South Vietnam
Title IX, ERA, Phyllis Schlafly
Election of 1976
Jimmy Carter
Camp David, Sadat & Begin
1979 Iranian Revolution
Shah of Iran, Ayatollah Khomeini
Carter’s malaise speech
SALT II, Leonid Brezhnev
Iran Hostage Crisis
Olympics boycotts, 1980 &1984
hostage rescue attempt
CHAPTER 40: The Resurgence of Conservatism, 1980–1992
Theme: Leading a conservative movement to power in Washington, Ronald Reagan vigorously pursued new right
economic and social policies. Under Reagan and his successor George Bush, these policies brought both economic
growth and massive budget deficits that put severe constraints on the federal government.
Theme: Religion pervaded American politics in the 1980s; especially conspicuous was a coalition of conservative,
evangelical Christians known as the religious right – led by Jerry Falwell, an evangelical from Virginia. An
organization called the Moral Majority rose to oppose what they viewed as the moral deterioration of American
Theme: The 1980s saw a revival of Cold War confrontation, but the decade ended with the collapse of Communism,
first in Eastern Europe and then in the Soviet Union itself. With the end of the Cold War and the US-led victory over
Iraq in the Persian Gulf War, America remained the world’s only superpower. A series of relatively small military
interventions in the Caribbean, Africa, and the Balkans raised questions about the proper use of American force in
the underdeveloped world.
Reagan led sweeping Republicans victories in 1980 and 1984 over divided, demoralized Democrats. Riding a
conservative national tide, Reagan pushed both lower taxes of supply-side economics and new-right social policies
opposing affirmative action, abortion, and drugs. Supply side brought economic recovery, less inflation, and record
budget deficits that severely restricted big government.
The Supreme Court became increasingly conservative under Reagan and his successor, George Bush, while
Clarence Thomas’s confirmation hearings highlighted issues of sexual harassment.
Reagan revived Cold War confrontations with the Soviet Union, and gave US military support for anti-leftist forces
in Latin America and elsewhere. Increased military spending and Gorbachev’s attempts at reform unraveled Soviet
and Eastern European Communism in 1989–1991. George Bush, President of the only remaining superpower, led an
international coalition to victory in the Persian Gulf War, but the Middle East remained troubled despite new efforts
to resolve the Israel-Arab conflict.
Chapter 40 - The Resurgence of Conservatism
Election of 1980
Edward (Ted) Kennedy, Chappaquiddick
Ronald Reagan (FDR fan?)
big gov’t: “gov’t IS the problem”
hostages released
James Watt
John Hinckley, Jr.
boll weevils
supply side/ trickle-down/Reaganomics
Strategic Defense Initiative/Star Wars
Beirut bombing
Nicaragua, Sandinistas, Contras
Grenada, October 1983
Election of 1984
Walter Mondale & Geraldine Ferraro
Gorbachev, glasnost, perestroika
INF Treaty
Ferdinand Marcos & Corazon Aquino
Col. Oliver North, Iran-Contra Affair
Reagan’s $2 trillion debt
Rev. Jerry Falwell & Moral Majority
Sandra Day O’Connor
Ward’s Cove Packing v. Antonia
Webster v. Reproductive Health
Planned Parenthood v. Casey
Robert Bork
S&L bailout
Election of 1988
Gary Hart, Jesse Jackson
George Herbert Walker Bush
Tiananmen Square, 1989
fall of the Berlin Wall
Boris Yeltsin
Commonwealth of Independent States
Chechnyen rebellion
Nelson Mandela
Manuel Noriega
Saddam Hussein
Operation Desert Storm
Norman Schwarzkopf
1990 Americans with Disabilities Act
Clarence Thomas & Anita Hill
“Read my lips”
27th Amendment
CHAPTER 41: America Confronts the Post-Cold War Era, 1992–2004
Theme: Elected as the first baby-boom president, Bill Clinton tried to turn the Democratic Party in a more centrist
direction. Ideological conflicts and sharp partisan battles in the 1990s were partly overshadowed by a booming
economy, a balanced federal budget, and America’s search to define its role in the increasingly global economy and
system of international relations.
Theme: The 2000 election, between Bush and Gore, and the subsequent events that followed it would deeply divide
the nation and alienate the United States from traditional allies in the world community.
Theme: The reelection of George W. Bush to a second term in 2004 brought about additional issues and concerns
across the country; most notably, the war in Iraq continued to plague America and its reputation around the world.
Bush saw his reelection as a mandate to continue his conservative agenda and focused his second term on addressing
issues such as attacking many of the New Deal programs, adding conservative elements to the Supreme Court, and
standing up for his position on the War on Terror.
Dynamic baby-boomer Bill Clinton defeated George H W Bush in 1992, and pushed a centrist new Democrat
reform agenda. Clinton’s stumbles over health care reform and foreign policy empowered conservative Republicans
advocating a “contract with America,” who gained control of Congress in 1994 for the first time in fifty years. But
over-reaching by Newt Gingrich led Republicans’ enabled a revived Clinton to win re-election in 1996.
In his second term, Clinton successfully claimed the political middle ground on issues like welfare reform,
affirmative action, smoking, and gun control. Clinton created budget surpluses with the aid of a booming economy,
which encouraged his efforts toward international free trade. American diplomatic and military involvements in
Middle Eastern and Balkans conflicts had mixed results. Several scandals culminated in the Monica Lewinsky affair,
leading to Clinton’s impeachment and acquittal in 1999.
Texas Governor George W Bush defeated Clinton’s vice president, Al Gore, in a disputed election in 2000 that was
finally decided by the Supreme Court. The fourth elected president to lose the popular vote, George W. Bush
promised to bring to Washington the conciliatory skills he had used as Texas’ Republican governor, where he had
worked well with the Democratic legislative majority. Bush as president was more divider than uniter, focusing on
social issues— abortion, banning same-sex marriages, embryonic stem cell research, and the environment—rather
than addressing an increasing budget deficit. These polarizing policies divided American society.
On September 11, 2001 suicidal terrorists slammed two hijacked airliners into the twin towers of New York City’s
World Trade Center. A third plane crashed into the Pentagon and heroic passengers forced down a fourth plane in
rural Pennsylvania. Terrorist Osama bin Laden masterminded the World Trade Center attack, and Bush ordered a
military campaign against Afghanistan when the Taliban refused to turn over bin Laden. Within three months,
American and Afghani rebel forces had overthrown the Taliban but failed to find bin Laden.
Fear of future threats led officials to take controversial actions following September 11. At Bush’s urging, Congress
passed the Patriot Act and created the Department of Homeland Security. The government rounded up and tried
suspected terrorists in military tribunals (where the usual rules and procedures do not apply), and Bush ordered a
controversial invasion and occupation of Iraq. Bush’s deception over reasons for the invasion, and incompetent
prosecution of the occupation led voters to reject Republican leadership, as Democrats recaptured both houses of
Congress in the 2006 mid-term elections.
Chapter 41 - America Confronts the Post-Cold War Era
Election of 1992
Clinton/Gore v. Bush/Quayle
Ross Perot
Janet Reno
Ruth Bader Ginsburg
“don’t ask, don’t tell”
Hillary Rodham Clinton
health care reform
1993 Brady Bill
1993 World Trade Center bombing
Timothy McVeigh, OK City
Waco, David Koresh, Branch Davidian
Gingrich’s Contract with America
Election of 1996
Bob Dole, Ross Perot
Somalia, Kosovo, Haiti
Whitewater Land Corporation
Vincent Foster, Jr.
Monica Lewinski, impeachment
Clinton’s pardons
Election of 2000
GW Bush/Cheney
Gore /Lieberman
Green Party, Ralph Nader
Florida, Jeb Bush, Katherine Harris
September 11, 2001
World Trade Center, Pentagon
Flight 93 (PA)
Al Qaeda, Osama Bin Laden
war on terror, Iraq, Afghanistan
WMDs, Patriot Act
Atty Gen John Ashcroft
Dept of Homeland Security
Enron & WorldCom
Election of 2004
John Kerry, George W. Bush
CHAPTER 42: The American People Face a New Century
Theme: The United States underwent drastic economic and social change in the final decades of the twentieth
century. The economic transformation from an industrial age to an information age produced new economic
advances, as well as a rapidly increasing income gap between the wealthy and the poor. Changes in women’s roles,
the family, and the arrival of new immigrant groups substantially altered the ways Americans live and work.
Theme: Despite the weaknesses of television and problems in US education, American culture, literature, and art
remained the most dynamic and influential in the world. The new types of media, diversity of gender, ethnic, and
racial voices contributed to the vital energy that made American democracy not simply a political system but an
ever-changing source of fresh ideas and popular images.
American culture and economy underwent dynamic changes in the 1980s and 1990s, from a heavy industrial age to
one of computerized information and mass culture. Science and education drove new wealth, and growth the
Internet fueled a new, global economy. Benefits of the new wealth were not equally shared, as educational gaps led
to increasingly severe income and wealth inequality.
Women’s decades-long movement into the workforce provided increased opportunity, and altered both men’s and
women’s roles in family life. Women’s concern for health and child care issues widened a persistent political gender
gap between Democrats and Republicans in national elections. With fewer families and fewer children for nativeborn Americans, an aging population became a potent lobbying force.
New immigration, especially from Asia and Latin America, brought migrants seeking economic opportunity and
liberties unavailable in their homelands. Hispanics, Asians, and Indians asserted their identity and pride, making
areas like the American Southwest a bi-cultural zone.
Poverty was increasingly concentrated in inner cities ringed by affluent suburbs, and frustrated millions of
Americans, including many minorities. African Americans made great strides in education, politics, and other areas,
but the upwardly mobile drifted further from those left behind. Drugs and crime plagued America’s cities, but
soaring crime rates of the 1980s turned downward in the 1990s, while many cities began to show signs of renewal.
Both high and pop culture remained dynamic and inventive. New voices of westerners, women, African Americans,
Asians, and others became more influential and popular, injecting US society with variety, energy, and humor. The
postwar abstract expressionist movement in New York City began a revolution of American visual arts and
architecture and transformed the nature of urban life.
Born an international revolutionary force, America in the twentieth century became more conservative in a world
swept by global change. Yet the powerful values of democracy challenged Americans to live up to their ideals as
“the last, best hope on earth.”
Chapter 42 - The American People Face a New Century
Microsoft Corp.
information age
Human Genome Project
Stem Cell Research
income gap, gender gap
1996 Welfare Reform Bill
1993 Family Leave Bill
Social Security tensions
1986 Immigration Reform & Control Act
United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC), Cesar Chavez
American Indian Movement (AIM)
population shift
OJ Simpson