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Increasing Conflict and War, 1805-1815
After you read and analyze this chapter, you should be able to:
Trace how steps taken by the warring powers of Europe affected Jefferson’s efforts to remain
neutral in the struggle between France and England.
Describe the effects of Jefferson’s embargo policy on the United States and explain why frontier
politicians began to advocate war with Britain.
Explain how the United States became involved in the War of 1812 and the war’s strange
Analyze the effect of the War of 1812 on the United States and the changing economic conditions
of the nation’s geographical regions.
Troubling Currents in Jefferson’s America
A. Emerging Factions in American Politics
1. Federalists in the Northeast began to plan to secede from the United States.
a) Timothy Pickering and the Essex Junto believed their interests could not succeed
under the Republicans.
2. Divisions appeared also among the Republicans.
a) John Randolph of Virginia opposed the expansion of the government’s power
under Jefferson and his proposed solution to the Yazoo controversy.
b) Randolph formed a third party because of Jefferson’s scheme to acquire Florida.
3. Aaron Burr caused the Republicans considerable discomfort.
a) Burr schemed with the Essex Junto to bring New York State into their proposed
b) After losing election as governor of New York, he killed Hamilton in a duel.
c) He next participated in a scheme to establish a new republic in the West.
d) During Burr’s trial for treason, Jefferson clashed with Chief Justice Marshall and
then suffered the embarrassment of Burr’s acquittal.
B. The Problem of American Neutrality
1. Renewed warfare in Europe led to American prosperity between 1803 and 1807.
a) Exports to Europe rose.
b) Re-exports of foreign goods to Europe also increased.
2. America was neutral in the war, but faced pressure from the warring powers.
a) England seized British sailors on American ships.
b) France’s Berlin Decree barred neutral ships from landing at French ports if they
had been at English ports.
c) Britain’s Orders in Council required neutral ships going to Europe to first pay a
tax at an English port.
C. Economic War
1. Efforts by the Europeans to enforce their policies led to tension with the United States.
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Chapter 9: Increasing Conflict and War, 1805-1815
The British Leopard fired on an American ship and seized sailors on it while in
American waters.
b) In the Milan Decree, France announced it would seize neutral ships that traded
with England or that had been boarded by English impressment parties.
2. To preserve neutrality, Jefferson decided to embargo all trade with Europe.
Crises in the Nation
A. Economic Depression
1. The embargo caused a severe depression.
a) Northeastern shipping crashed.
b) Southern and western agricultural exports went down sharply.
B. Political Upheaval
1. Madison’s easy victory for the presidency disguised divisions in the nation.
a) Federalists attracted support because of the depression caused by the embargo.
b) Some southern Republicans (the Tertium Quids) attempted to nominate James
c) Northeastern Republicans tried to elect George Clinton because of the embargo.
2. Republican strength increased in the congressional elections two years later.
a) The new Republicans in Congress did not support Madison’s moderate approach
to England; they wanted war.
C. The Rise of the Shawnee Prophet
1. A key reason for War Hawk militancy was the unsettled conditions along the western
2. In the midst of the crisis, one disheartened, diseased alcoholic rose above his afflictions
to lead the Indians into a brief new era of hope.
a) Whites called him “The Prophet.”
b) He taught them to go back to their traditional lifestyle.
c) The Prophet at first preached nonviolence but later advocated resistance by the
D. Prophecy and Politics in the West
1. Tecumseh began to organize frontier Indians in a confederation to end white
a) Americans charged that he and the Prophet (his brother) were British agents.
2. Westerners began to advocate war with Britain.
a) War would provide an excuse for breaking up emerging Indian confederations.
b) War would make it possible to seize Canada and to secure American control of
the Northwest Territory.
c) Frontiersmen blamed England for the depression of 1808.
E. Choosing War
1. Early in 1811, Madison was forced to suspend all trade with the British.
a) France’s devious use of Macon’s Bill No. 2 required a suspension of all trade
with England.
2. Developments in the West increased pressure for war with Britain.
a) Tecumseh and Governor William Henry Harrison reached a stalemate over the
Fort Wayne Treaty.
b) Harrison assembled an army at Prophetstown after an isolated Indian raid
c) At the Battle of Tippecanoe, the Prophet’s forces attacked but were defeated by
Harrison, who then destroyed Prophetstown.
d) Tecumseh assembled an army.
e) Harrison asked for federal military support against what he said was a BritishIndian declaration of war.
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Chapter 9: Increasing Conflict and War, 1805-1815
3. Congress declared war on Britain.
III. The Nation at War
A. The Fighting Begins
1. The land war included a three-pronged attack on Canada and attacks against the
a) The attacks against Canada failed.
b) Raids against Indian villages succeeded.
2. The naval war was more successful.
a) The American navy sank several British ships.
b) Privateers captured many British vessels.
3. The election of 1812 reflected misgivings about the war.
a) Madison won, but barely, and Republican strength in Congress declined.
b) The Federalists supported DeWitt Clinton—a northeastern Republican opposed
to the war.
B. The War Continues
1. America scored victories on Lake Erie.
2. In the North, the two sides harassed each other.
a) Tecumseh—who was fighting with the British—was killed during an American
foray into Canada.
3. War erupted in the South with part of the Creek Nation.
a) The Red Stick faction, which had joined Tecumseh’s confederation, scored a
victory in the Fort Mims Massacre.
b) Tennessee and Georgia forces inflicted severe losses on the Red Sticks in
4. The British seized control of the Atlantic.
a) American ships were blockaded in port.
C. The Politics of War
1. Negotiations with the British began at the end of 1813.
2. Congress took action to strengthen the army and to raise money.
a) The army’s size was increased, and incentives were offered to increase
b) Congress authorized a loan and new treasury notes.
3. Congress enacted the Embargo of 1813.
a) Its purpose was to end trade with Britain via neutral ships.
b) The ban on all trade affected the economies of all states, particularly those in the
D. New British Offensives
1. France’s defeat led to a British buildup in North America.
2. The British began a three-pronged offensive.
a) The British invasion at Plattsburgh, New York, was turned back.
b) The British burned Washington, D.C., but failed to take Baltimore.
c) In their third prong, the British began to move from Pensacola in Spanish Florida
toward New Orleans.
3. Andrew Jackson undertook the defense of the Gulf Coast.
a) He had earlier inflicted total defeat on the Red Stick Creeks at Horseshoe Bend.
b) He then organized the defense of New Orleans and defeated the British invasion
force there.
E. The War’s Strange Conclusion
1. The treaty merely ended the war and restored diplomatic relations.
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Chapter 9: Increasing Conflict and War, 1805-1815
IV. Peace and the Rise of New Expectations
A. New Expectations in the Northeastern Economy
1. Cut off from European-manufactured goods, Americans started to make more textiles
and other items for themselves.
a) The spread of textile manufacturing during the embargo and war eras was
2. Factories in New England and elsewhere eventually supplied more and more of the
country’s consumer goods.
a) This changed economic roles as well as the hopes of many Americans.
B. New Opportunities in the West
1. One of the designs behind the exploratory expeditions had been to gain entry for the
United States into the burgeoning economy, most notably the fur trade, in the
continent’s interior.
2. But American westward expansion posed a terrible threat to Native Americans.
3. Collaboration between the United States and the Native Americans helped to prevent
renewed warfare, but at an enormous cost to the Indians.
a) Many Indians were forced to cede their lands.
C. A Revolution in the Southern Economy
1. The technological and economic changes that came in the war’s wake pumped new
energy into the South’s economy.
a) But the mechanization of the British textile industry in the late eighteenth century
brought dramatic changes.
b) The production of cotton cloth rapidly increased, and the need for raw cotton
fiber grew.
2. Eli Whitney found a solution to the problem of the time and labor required for cotton
a) Whitney designed a machine that quickly combed out seeds and did not require a
large number of skilled operators.
b) The outcome of Whitney’s inventiveness was the rapid spread of short-staple
3. With the departure of the British naval blockade, cotton growing began to spread at a
staggering rate.
D. Reviving and Reinventing Slavery
1. Many southerners began to question the use of slaves as early as the 1780s.
2. Some southern leaders advocated abolishing slavery and transporting freed blacks back
to Africa.
3. As a result of the booming southern economy after the War of 1812, African American
slavery expanded as never before.
4. Specialized manufacturing in the North and large-scale commercial food production in
the West permitted an intensified cotton industry in the South.
a) This helped foster the increasing dehumanization of the peculiar labor system
that drove it.
Identify the following items and explain the significance of each. While you should include any
relevant historical terms, using your own words to write these definitions will help you better remember
these items for your next exam.
William Henry Harrison
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Chapter 9: Increasing Conflict and War, 1805-1815
Essex Junto
John Randolph
Yazoo affair
Tertium Quid
Berlin Decree
Milan Decree
10. Embargo of 1808
11. party caucus
12. James Monroe
13. War Hawks
14. The Prophet
15. Tecumseh
16. Old Northwest
17. Non-Intercourse Act
18. Macon’s Bill No. 2
19. Battle of Tippecanoe
20. John C. Calhoun
21. Old Ironsides
22. War of 1812
23. Oliver Hazard Perry
24. flagship
25. Andrew Jackson
26. merchant marine
27. Embargo of 1813
28. bond
29. discretionary powers
30. Francis Scott Key
31. Battle of Horseshoe Bend
32. Jean Laffite
33. Battle of New Orleans
34. concession
35. Treaty of Ghent
36. cotton
37. Eli Whitney
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Chapter 9: Increasing Conflict and War, 1805-1815
38. patent
Select the correct answer.
Tertium Quids were
disenchanted Republicans who opposed Jefferson.
b. New Englanders who supported a renewed Federalist Party.
westerners who advocated the sale of public lands.
d. southerners who attacked slavery.
Aaron Burr found himself tried for treason because he
plotted with the Essex Junto for New York to secede from the United States.
b. supported Tecumseh and the Prophet.
allegedly participated in a scheme against the United States.
d. mortally wounded Alexander Hamilton.
Incidents like the attack on the Chesapeake showed that
England had every intention of continuing to impress British sailors found on neutral ships.
b. America had an incompetent navy.
France would enforce the Berlin Decree at any cost.
d. America could not trust the French any more than the English.
American relations were particularly strained with Britain during the Jefferson administration
because of the British practice of
embargoing American goods entering Britain.
b. smuggling contraband into the United States.
impressment of American sailors.
d. pirating American ships on the high seas.
As a result of the depression of 1808,
farmers in the West once again rose in rebellion.
b. Jefferson called out the army to suppress rioting in New York City, Boston, and
Jefferson lost the election of 1808.
d. textile manufacturing in the United States began to increase.
To many whites on the Ohio frontier, Prophetstown represented
protection against Indian marauders.
b. the last outpost of civilized culture in the wilderness.
the threat of Indian militancy.
d. the potential of religion for converting Indians to white culture.
Napoleon exploited Macon’s Bill No. 2 by
agreeing to Jefferson’s embargo policy.
b. secretly allowing American merchandise to be shipped to England.
promising to stop French restrictions on American ships.
d. dropping his threat to take back Louisiana by force.
To Native Americans, William Henry Harrison represented
Americans who sincerely sought peace with the Shawnees.
b. white militant expansionists.
American officials who were convinced that Tecumseh was a potential ally against the
d. British agents who sought to destabilize the American frontier.
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Chapter 9: Increasing Conflict and War, 1805-1815
The War Hawks
argued that the British were allied with the Indians on the frontier.
b. opposed the Northeast’s Federalists.
represented the South and West in Congress.
d. All of these
Andrew Jackson rose to national prominence
as governor of Tennessee.
b. when he defeated the British at New Orleans.
by facing down the British during the Treaty of Ghent negotiations.
d. for his denunciations of President Madison’s conduct of the war.
Napoleon’s defeat in Europe subsequently caused danger to the United States because
the new rulers of France sided with the English against the Americans.
b. American shipping was no longer protected by the French navy.
the American economy was ruined by the cessation of trade with France.
d. Britain was able to send more troops to North America.
The Battle of Horseshoe Bend
meant the end of Creek military power in the South.
b. posed grave danger to the American defenders of New Orleans.
was a stunning defeat for the British, who had tried to invade New York State from Canada.
d. made England and the United States decide to end the war by negotiating.
The War of 1812 had all of the following effects EXCEPT
stimulating the growth of industry in America.
b. promoting agricultural exports.
increasing the number of factory workers in the United States.
d. making the United States more economically self-sufficient.
As a consequence of Eli Whitney’s work,
New Orleans fell to the British.
b. cotton agriculture soared in the South.
fur trapping in the West expanded.
d. Tecumseh’s movement was destroyed.
The Treaty of Ghent
awarded vast new territories to the United States.
b. permitted Britain to navigate freely on the Mississippi River.
changed nothing that had existed before the War of 1812.
d. dealt successfully with the issue of impressment.
Although both France and Britain violated the neutrality of the United States, the nation chose to
go to war only with England. What can account for this?
DEVELOPING YOUR ANSWER: You should explore the following three factors in formulating
your answer:
The pressure of western settlers for war with England, explaining why the West was so
hostile to the British.
The highhanded behavior of the British on the high seas, exhibited in the practice of
stopping neutral ships and impressing British sailors found on them, and in such incidents as
the attack on the Chesapeake.
Napoleon’s success in connection with Macon’s Bill No. 2.
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Chapter 9: Increasing Conflict and War, 1805-1815
Enjoying fame as a result of their actions before and during the War of 1812, both William Henry
Harrison and Andrew Jackson in later years became presidents of the United States. Describe how
the records of these men in connection with the War of 1812 contributed to their reputations.
DEVELOPING YOUR ANSWER: Harrison’s unyielding opposition to the Prophet and his
brother, Tecumseh, led to the Battle of Tippecanoe, the name given by history to the confrontation
at Prophetstown and its destruction. Once war broke out with England, Harrison led the campaign
against Canada. Finally, late in 1813, he struck in Canada and defeated a British force there. His
forces also killed Tecumseh.
Andrew Jackson achieved fame first against the Red Stick Creek Indians and then against the
British. He inflicted a withering defeat on the Red Sticks at Horseshoe Bend. He then invaded
Florida (which was still Spanish) contrary to orders, and forced the British out of Pensacola.
Later, in the Battle of New Orleans, Jackson achieved his most spectacular victory. In addition to
the actual fighting there, you should demonstrate how he organized the city to oppose the British
and took some unorthodox steps in the process.
Because the treaty that ended the War of 1812 left matters largely as they had been before the war,
it would appear that this conflict had little impact on the United States. Do you agree?
DEVELOPING YOUR ANSWER: It is true that the Treaty of Ghent did not resolve such
problems (for Americans, at least) as impressment, the rights of neutrals, and the presence of the
British in Canada, but the country did undergo change as a result of the conflict. For one,
Americans felt more secure because of the elimination of the threat they thought that Native
Americans east of the Mississippi River posed. The Red Stick Creeks had been destroyed
militarily in the South, while in the Northwest Territory, Tecumseh had been killed and the
Prophet’s revival movement had evaporated. Tecumseh’s death meant the end to his dream of a
confederation to stop white expansion.
The country also began to change economically. The embargoes of 1808 and 1813 had caused
depressions, but they forced Americans to begin manufacturing on their own. Furthermore, the
war had demonstrated the necessity for a better transportation network, something that would
facilitate the movement of not only troops in wartime but also merchandise in times of peace.
Finally, the Federalist Party went into a decline from which it never recovered. Federalists’
disenchantment with the war led them to contemplate the secession of the Northeast from the
United States. This ruined them politically, especially when news of the victory at New Orleans
and of the Treaty of Ghent spread across the nation. With the Federalists gone as an effective
force, only one political party, the Republicans, remained.
Following their defeat of Napoleon, the British launched a three-pronged campaign in North
America aimed at defeating the United States. Demonstrate where the British attempted to
implement their strategy. (Consult Map 9.2 to verify the accuracy of your depiction.)
Assume that you were a contemporary British war planner who objected to this plan. Indicate on
Map 9.2 how you would instead attack the United States. Explain the reasons for your alternative
recommendations in a brief “campaign plan.”
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Chapter 9: Increasing Conflict and War, 1805-1815
To answer the following questions, consult the Individual Choices section at the beginning of the
How did Tecumseh’s lineage demonstrate unity between all Native American people?
How did most Americans in the early nineteenth century view Indians? How did they use that
view to justify their own actions?
Did Tecumseh’s life fit this white-held stereotype? Why or why not?
Identify and explain the significance of the Treaty of Greenville.
Describe Tecumseh’s plan to challenge white control of their land and peoplees. Did it work?
Why or why not?
What role did William Henry Harrison play in these white/Indian clashes?
What role did the British play in these white/Indian clashes?
Explain the significance of Tecumseh’s death to white/Indian relations in the early 19th century
United States.
Examining a Primary Source: Tecumseh Describes American Indian
Policy Under William Henry Harrison
To answer the following questions, consult the Individual Choices section at the beginning of the
Identify the Vincennes Conference.
Identify the role of Winemac in Harrison’s dealings with the Indians.
What exactly is Tecumseh charging Harrison and his agents of doing? What does this suggest
about Tecumseh’s understanding of the nature of Indian organization and Harrison’s
misunderstandings about it?
Why would Tecumseh insist that warriors rather than village chiefs decide policy toward the
United States?
What did Tecumseh propose to do if Harrison persisted in conducting Indian policy and land
acquisition as he had done at Fort Wayne? Why do you think Tecumseh chose this particular
Would have you have taken the same approach? Justify your answer.
RUBRIC: As you read more about frontier politicians, complete the following rubric. Think about the
choices each made in expanding the nation westward and their continual conflicts with the peoples
already living there.
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Chapter 9: Increasing Conflict and War, 1805-1815
Their leader, John Randolph, depicted himself as the last true Republican. See page 243.
b. The Tertium Quids were a breakaway group of Republicans who opposed Jefferson. See
page 243.
The Tertium Quids were not a western movement. Their leader was from the South. See
page 243.
They did not attack the institution of slavery. See page 243.
Although the details are not clear, Burr apparently plotted against the United States in some
way in what was then the Southwest. See pages 243-244.
If anything, Burr’s loss of the election as governor of New York State impeded the plans of
the Essex Junto. See pages 243-244.
Burr did not have ties to Tecumseh and the Prophet. See pages 243-244.
d. Burr was indicted for murder, not tried for treason, for killing Hamilton in their duel. See
pages 243-244.
The British attacked the Chesapeake, disabled and boarded it, and seized four men. See
page 246.
The incident involved only one American vessel and not the American navy. See page 246.
The engagement was between a British and an American ship. The French were not
involved. See page 246.
The incident raised troubling questions about the British. See page 246.
Britain seized (“impressed”) formerly British sailors who had become naturalized
American citizens from American ships. See pages 246-247.
Britain did not prevent American goods from entering England; it sought, instead, to prevent
such goods from reaching France. According to the British, neutral ships (including American
ones) could sail to Europe only if they first paid a transit tax in England. See pages 246-247.
b. Britain had no reason to smuggle goods into the United States. For the British economic
policy toward neutral nations, see pages 246-247.
d. Although Britain practiced impressment on the high seas, it did not practice piracy against
American ships. See pages 246-247.
Because there was a complete embargo on trade with Europe, the import of European
manufactured goods ground to a halt. New American textile mills were erected. See page 248.
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Chapter 9: Increasing Conflict and War, 1805-1815
Although western farmers suffered considerably, they did rise in rebellion as farmers had
during Shays’ Rebellion in 1787 and the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794. See pages 247-248.
b. Although the depression badly affected cities in the East and Federalists living there spoke
openly of disobeying federal laws, rioting did not occur. See pages 247-248.
Jefferson followed George Washington’s precedent and did not run for a third term. See
page 247-248.
This became especially true after the Prophet abandoned his earlier message of passive
resistance and began to call for resistance to white expansion. See pages 249-250.
They viewed Prophetstown as a center of Indian resistance to white expansion. See pages
b. It was an Indian settlement, and its leader advocated rejection of white culture. See pages
d. The Prophet advocated a return to Native American culture, including religion. See pages
See page 251.
He promised merely to drop French restrictions on American shipping. See page 251.
b. On the contrary, by taking advantage of Macon’s Bl 2, he could compel America to halt all
shipping with England. See page 251.
d. Napoleon did not employ such a threat. Macon’s Bl 2 in any case had nothing to do with the
Louisiana Purchase. See page 251.
His militancy became obvious at Prophetstown in 1811. See pages 240-241 and 249-250.
Harrison behaved aggressively toward the Indians of the Northwest, who included the
Shawnee. See pages 240-241 and 249-250.
They believed, on the contrary, that Tecumseh was a British agent. See pages 240-241 and
Harrison was an American territorial governor. See pages 240-241 and 249-250.
Because a, b, and c are true, this is the correct choice. See pages 248-249.
Although this statement is true, it is not the correct choice. Western advocates of war with
Britain believed that the British provoked the Indians on the frontier. See pages 248-249.
b. Although this statement is true, it is not the correct choice. Northeastern Federalists did not
favor war with Britain in 1812; they opposed the War Hawks who advocated it. See pages 248249.
10. b.
Although this statement is true, it is not the correct choice. See pages 248-249.
The victory was America’s most successful land battle during the war. See page 258.
He rose to fame as a military hero. See page 258.
The Treaty of Ghent was negotiated in Europe in late 1814; Jackson was fighting in the
d. Jackson was not part of the opposition with which Madison had to deal, which arose
primarily among Federalists in the Northeast.
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Chapter 9: Increasing Conflict and War, 1805-1815
11. d.
Napoleon’s defeat and subsequent exile enabled Britain to send many more troops across
the Atlantic. See page 257.
There was no such result.
France had never bestowed such protection.
The Embargo of 1813, an American measure, devastated the economy, particularly in the
Northeast. See page 256.
12. a.
Andrew Jackson’s victory over the Red Sticks devastated the Creeks in the South. See page
b. If anything, defeating the Indians at Horseshoe Bend meant that they could not assist in the
subsequent British attack on New Orleans. See page 258.
The battle took place in the South, far from New York State. See page 258.
d. Both sides were ready to negotiate by the end of 1813; the Battle of Horseshoe Bend
occurred in March 1814. See page 258.
13. b.
Because this statement is not true, it is the correct choice. The effects of the war did not
include more agricultural exports; all states, agricultural as well as commercial, experienced
economic losses because of the Embargo of 1813. (The expansion of cotton exports is attributable
to the invention of the cotton gin, not to the war.) See pages 258-261.
Because this statement is true, it is not the correct choice. Industry began to grow during the
war. See pages 258-261.
Because this statement is true, it is not the correct choice. Industry grew as a consequence of
the war; the number of factory workers therefore began to increase, rising from 4,000 in 1809 to
as many as 100,000 in 1816. See pages 258-261.
d. Because this statement is true, it is not the correct choice. The turn to industry caused by the
war contributed to economic self-sufficiency. See pages 258-261.
14. b.
Whitney’s invention made raising cotton exceedingly profitable. See page 263.
Under the leadership of Andrew Jackson, American forces defeated the British at the Battle
of New Orleans. See page 263.
The western fur industry expanded because of such men as John Jacob Astor and Auguste
Chouteau. See pages 263.
d. William Henry Harrison could take credit for destroying Tecumseh and his followers. See
pages 240-241.
15. c.
See page 259.
There were no territorial changes as a result of the treaty. See page 259.
For the treaty’s terms, see page 259.
d. The treaty changed none of the things that Americans hoped to achieve as a result of the
war, including impressment. See page 259.
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