RELIGION was the glue that bound Egypt together ● Created a common understanding ● Shared values that are essential to the growth of a civilization. What do we value as a civilization - spiritually and socially Osiris Isis Horus During the New Kingdom, these temples honored a Trinity of gods ● based on the mythical family of OSIRIS, ISIS and HORUS. ● Osiris and Isis were married ○ Horus was their child - even though Isis was a virgin Even though Osiris, Isis and Horus were very important, hundreds of other gods and goddesses were worshipped in Ancient Egypt The ancient Egyptians believed in the RESURRECTION OF THE BODY and life everlasting life - Why? •The sun fell into the western horizon each evening and was reborn the next morning in the east. • New life sprouted from grains planted in the earth • the moon waxed and waned. 1. PYRAMID TEXTS – Writings that were intended to help the pharaohs travel through the afterworld • Told him to use ramps, climb ladders, walk up stairs and fly to heaven • They were written on the inner passages of the pharaoh's burial chamber. • The Pyramid Texts are considered the oldest body of religious writings in the world! 2. COFFIN TEXTS helped the deceased find their way in the afterworld. • Used by common people • Inscribed inside the coffins of Middle Kingdom high officials • They consist of over 1,000 spells • Osiris’s afterlife was a wicked place • Threatening beings, traps and snares • The spells helped people survive the afterlife 3. BOOK OF THE DEAD contains spells to assist the deceased on their voyage to eternity • The spells were written on strips of linen that were wrapped around the mummies and on papyrus paper • The idea of the balance made its way into Books of the Dead • Step 1: Swear you did not commit any sin Osiris Isis Horus During the New Kingdom the Egyptians honored a Trinity of gods ● based on the mythical family of OSIRIS, ISIS and HORUS. ● Osiris and Isis were married ○ Horus was their child - even though Isis was a virgin Step 1: Journey through the Afterlife The journey to the afterworld was considered full of danger. A mummified body traveled on a solar bark to battle through … ● serpents armed with long knives ● fire-spitting dragons ● reptiles with five heads. ● Lakes made of fire 42 Negative Confessions (Papyrus of Ani) I have not committed sin. I have not committed robbery with violence. I have not stolen. I have not slain men and women. I have not uttered lies. I have not committed adultery, I have not lain with men. I have not attacked any man. I am not a man of deceit. I have not stolen cultivated land. I have slandered [no man]. I have not been angry without just cause. I have not debauched the wife of any man. I have not polluted myself. I have terrorized none. I have not transgressed [the Law]. I have not shut my ears to the words of truth. I have not blasphemed. I am not a man of violence. I have not acted (or judged) with undue haste. I have not cursed (or blasphemed) God. I have not acted with evil rage. Step 2: Swearing innocence Osiris Maat Ammit Step 3: JUDGMENT OF THE DEAD - The deceased were taken before OSIRIS and their hearts were weighed on a scale, against a feather representing MA’AT - the goddess of truth and justice. If your heart weighed less than the feather you passed through to the afterlife ● You go to paradise in the field of reeds and attain everlasting life "May I walk every day unceasing on the banks of my water, may my soul rest on the branches of the trees which I have planted, may I refresh myself in the shadow of my sycamore." Those who were judged as wicked were tossed to Ammit "the swallower." • who was portrayed as having the rear of a hippopotamus, the body of a lion, and the head of a crocodile. Around 450 B.C., the Greek historian HERODOTUS documented the art of MUMMIFICATION. As much of the brain as it is possible is extracted through the nostrils with an iron hook, and what the hook cannot reach is dissolved with drugs. Next, the flank is slit open . . . and the entire contents of the abdomen removed. The cavity is then thoroughly cleansed and washed out . . . Then it is filled with pure crushed myrrh, cassia, and all other aromatic substances, except frankincense. [The incision] is sewn up, and then the body is placed in natron, covered entirely for 70 days, never longer. When this period . . . is ended, the body is washed and then wrapped from the head to the feet in linen which has been cut into strips and smeared on the underside with gum which is commonly used by the Egyptians in the place of glue. -- Herodotus •NATRON - The main ingredient used in the mummification process. • A compound of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate (salt and baking soda), The body was filled with Nile mud, sawdust, lichen and cloth scraps to make it more flexible. Small COOKING ONIONS or linen pads were sometimes used to replace the eyes. the HEART was left in the body because it was considered the center of intelligence 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. MATERIALS USED IN MUMMIFICATION: Linen 6. Natron Sawdust 7. Onion Lichen 8. Nile mud Beeswax 9. Linen pads Resin 10. Frankincense MUMMIFICATION TOOLS: The ancient embalmers used very few tools. The basic tool kit included a •KNIFE to make the abdominal incision, • hooked bronze RODS to extract brain matter, • a wooden ADZE-like tool to remove internal organs • a FUNNEL to pour resins into the cranial cavity through the nose.