Download III. Reading - Херсонський національний технічний університет

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Human-Computer Interaction Institute wikipedia, lookup

AI winter wikipedia, lookup

Intelligence explosion wikipedia, lookup

Wearable computer wikipedia, lookup

Artificial intelligence in video games wikipedia, lookup

Wizard of Oz experiment wikipedia, lookup

Computer vision wikipedia, lookup

Ethics of artificial intelligence wikipedia, lookup

Existential risk from artificial general intelligence wikipedia, lookup

Human–computer interaction wikipedia, lookup

Computer Go wikipedia, lookup

Philosophy of artificial intelligence wikipedia, lookup

History of artificial intelligence wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ І НАУКИ УКРАЇНИ
ХЕРСОНСЬКИЙ НАЦІОНАЛЬНИЙ ТЕХНІЧНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ
Кафедра іноземних мов
Рег. № 57/310 – 17.03.09
МЕТОДИЧНІ РЕКОМЕНДАЦІЇ
до практичних занять
з дисципліни
Іноземна мова (англійська)
для студентів
2 курсу (III-IV семестр)
напрямів підготовки
6.030502 Економічна кібернетика
6.050103 Програмна інженерія
6.050102 Комп’ютерна інженерія
6.050201 Системна інженерія
6.050202 Автоматизація та комп’ютерноінтегровані технології
галузей знань
0305 Економіка та підприємництво
0501 Інформатика та обчислювальна техніка
0502 Автоматика та управління
факультету
кібернетики
Херсон – 2009
Методичні рекомендації до практичних занять з дисципліни іноземна мова
(англійська) для студентів напрямів підготовки 6.030502, 6.050103, 6.050102,
6.050201, 6.050202 галузей знань 0305, 0501, 0502 факультету кібернетики.
Укладач: Фоменко Н.С., кількість сторінок 42.
Рецензент: канд. філол. наук., доц. Возненко Н.В.
Затверджено
на засіданні кафедри іноземних мов
протокол № _7_ від __2.03.09____
Зав. кафедри ____________
Відповідальний за випуск канд. філол. наук., доц. Фоменко Н.С.
2
Вступ
Методичні рекомендації до практичних занять призначені для навчання
студентів напрямів підготовки 6.030502, 6.050103, 6.050102, 6.050201, 6.050202
галузей знань 0305, 0501, 0502 факультету кібернетики читанню текстів з фаху на
англійській мові та розумінню їх для вилучення необхідної інформації та
проведення бесіди зі спеціальності студента.
Методичні рекомендації містять 3 теми: „The Development of Computer
„Personal
System”,
Computer”,
“The
5-th
Generation
Computer.
Artificial
Intelligence”. Кожний урок (unit) містить такі розділи: Language, Reading,
Comprehension, Oral Practice. Тексти МР підібрані з сучасної технічної
оригінальної літератури на англійській мові та Інтернету, що викликає у студентів
інтерес до вивчення текстового матеріалу. Тексти призначені для формування
навиків та вмінь різних видів читання: вивчаючого, ознайомлюючого, оглядового
та пошукового, що забезпечується розробленою системою методичних прийомів,
які реалізуються у вправах. Тексти уроків також використовуються як основа для
навчання
усному
мовленню
у
обговоренні,
переказі,
монологічному
висловлюванню із застосуванням денотатних схем текстів, а також у розмовах,
іграх. Крім того у розділі “Oral Practice” є проблемні завдання, типу: доведіть,
прокоментуйте, поясніть, що носять творчий характер та сприяють розвитку вмінь
усного мовлення.
Методичні рекомендації розроблені у відповідності до програми з
іноземних мов для немовних спеціальностей.
3
UNIT I
The Development of Computer System
I. Warming up
Exercise 1. Answer the following questions.
1. What is a computer? Computers are now widespread, aren’t they?
2. Did you learn about computers through science fiction, movies?
3. How old were you when you learnt about a computer?
4. Do you have a computer at home? What are the reasons for buying home computers?
5. Do you like playing on the computer?
6. What are your favourite games: videogames or intellectual games?
7. How often do you work with the computer?
8. Does good knowledge of English help to operate the computer better?
9. Do you think you’ll be good for a computer job? Why?
II. Vocabulary
Exercise 2. Repeat the words and word-combinations after the speaker.
processor
processing
device – пристрій
storage device – пристрій пам’яті
periferals - перифирійні пристрої
to feed (fed, fed) - вводити (дані)
to feed data = to put data (into)
keyboard
to bring out (brought, brought) – виводити (дані)
to control – керувати
core memory – пристрій запам’ятовування на магнітних сердечниках, оперативна
пам’ять
magnetic core memory
4
liquid mercury delay lines – лінії затримки на рідкій ртуті
to perform = to do
reliability – надійність
reliable – надійний
ten times faster – в десять разів швидше
integrated circuits – інтегральні схеми
high capacity integrated circuits – інтегральні схеми великої ємкості
LSI – Large Scale Integration – інтеграція високого рівня
VLSI – Very Large Scale Integration – інтеграція дуже високого рівня
SLSI - Super Large Scale Integration - інтеграція надвисокого рівня
chip – кристал
a single chip
high speed memory - швидкодіюча (швидкісна) пам’ять
optical fibers – оптичні волокна
videodisks
artificial intelligence (AI) – штучний інтелект
to incorporate – поєднувати, включати
to improve – покращувати
powerful – потужний
compact
expensive – дорогий
inexpensive – недорогий, дешевий
cheap = inexpensive
III. Reading
Exercise 3. Read the text “The Development of Computer Systems”.
The 1st-generation computer systems started in 1950. They used vacuum tubes for
calculation, control and sometimes for memory as well. 1 st-generation machines used
several other devices for memory, for example, liquid mercury delay lines or magnetic
5
drums. Computers could perform thousand of calculations per second. (BESM-1,
Minsk-1, IBM 650 are examples).
The 2nd-generation systems began in 1960 and used transistors in place of vacuum
tubes. Core memory was introduced. Size was reduced and reliability was improved
significantly in the 2nd-generation systems. Computers can perform work ten times
faster than their predecessors. The reason for this extra speed was the use of transistors
instead of vacuum tubes. (BESM-4, BESM-6, Minsk-32, IBM 1401 are examples).
The 3rd-generation computers began in 1965. They used integrated circuits, which
incorporated hundreds of transistors on a single silicon chip. In the late 1960 integrated
circuits were used for high-speed memory, providing some competition for magnetic
core memory. At present integrated-circuit memory has largely replaced magnetic core
memory. These computers could do a million calculations per second. They are smaller
and more reliable. (ES-1033, NAIRI-3, IBM-360, IBM-370 are examples).
The 4th- generation started in the mid 1970s. Memory and logic were built of
chips which contain large numbers of electronic components. The integrated circuits
were reduced in size, as many as 1000 tiny circuits now fit onto a single chip. The
computers are based on LSI circuits. The 4th-generation computers are 50 times faster
than third-generation computers and can perform approximately 1000000 instructions
per second.
(ES-1065, NAIRI-4, ELECTRONIKA-60, ISKRA-1256 are examples).
The 5th- generation appeared in the mid 1990s. They are based on VLSI and SLSI
technologies. Optical fibers, videodisks and artificial intelligence are incorporated into
them.
Current computers are hundred times smaller than those of the first generation. A
single chip is far more powerful. They are compact, inexpensive, high-speed. They have
high-capacity integrated circuit. (Celeron, Duron, Pentium 4, 5, Athlon 64 FX-51 are
examples).
6
IV. Language
Exercise 4. Match the English words and word-combinations from column A with
their Ukrainian equivalents from column B.
A
B
expensive
інтегральні схеми великої ємкості
core memory
виконувати
to perform
штучний інтелект
to improve
магнітні барабани
liquid mercury delay lines
кристал, чип
magnetic drums
потужний
chip
лінії затримки на рідкій ртуті
artificial intelligence
пристрій запам’ятовування на
магнітних сердечниках
powerful
покращувати
high capacity integrated circuits
дорогий
Exercise 5.Match the Ukrainian words and word-combinations from column A
with their English equivalents from column B.
A
B
пристрій запам’ятовування
optical fibers
інтегральна схема
videodisks
надійний
vacuum tubes
вакуумні трубки
to perform
штучний інтелект
fast
оптичні волокна
to incorporate
відео диски
storage device
виконувати
reliable
покращувати
integrated circuit
швидкий
inexpensive
включати, поєднувати
artificial intelligence
7
недорогий
to improve
запроваджувати
to replace
один кремнієвий кристал
high speed memory
замінювати
to introduce
швидкодіюча пам’ять
single silicon chip
Exercise 6. Answer the following questions using the comparative and superlative
degrees of the adjective.
Questions
Full answers
A:
1. Which is larger: the 1st generation
The first generation computers are larger
computers or the 2nd generation
than the 2nd generation computers.
computers?
(The first generation computers are larger).
2. Which is faster: the 5th generation
computers or the 4th generation
computer?
3. Which integrated circuit is smaller: the
4th generation computers or the 3rd
generation computers?
4. Which is smaller: the current computer
or the 1st generation computer?
5. Which capacity is higher: Pentium 4 or
Electronika – 60?
B:
1. Which is more expensive: the 1st
The 1st generation computer is more
generation computer or the 3rd
expensive than the 3rd generation
generation computer?
computer.
2. Which is more powerful: the 5th
(The 1st generation computer is more
generation computer or the 4th
expensive).
generation computer?
8
3. Which is more inexpensive: the 2nd
generation computer or the 5th
generation computer?
4. Which is more reliable: the 4th
generation computer or the 3rd
generation computer?
C:
1. Which is the most expensive: Minsk –
Minsk-1 is the most expensive.
1 or Minsk –32?
2. Which is the most reliable: Athlon 64
or Es-1065?
3. Which is the most powerful: Celeron
or NAIRI–3?
Exercise 7. Make up sentences using the substitution table. Use the tense forms in
the Indefinite tense in Active and Passive Voice.
The 1st generation computers
was reduced
integrated circuits in 1950
The 2nd generation computers became reliable
thousand of
in 1960
Core memory
performed
calculations per
in 1965
Size
is / are more reliable
second
in 1990
Chip
is more powerful
on LSI circuits
The 3rd generation computers
used
on SLSI circuits
Integrated circuits
was / were introduced
The 5th generation computers
are powerful
Reliability
started
The 4th generation computers
was improved
Transistors
was / were based
9
V. Comprehension
Exercise 8. Agree or disagree with the following statements.
Use phrases: I don’t agree with you; No, it is not so; I am afraid you are wrong; I
agree with you; You are right.
1. The first generation computer system started in 1950.
2. Vacuum tubes were used only for calculation.
3. BESM-4, BESM-6, IBM 1401 are computers of the 3rd generation.
4. Core memory was introduced into the 2nd generation computers.
5. The computers of the 4th generation are based on VLSI technologies.
6. AI was incorporated into the 5th generation.
Exercise 9. Answer the following questions.
1. What devices were used in the 1st generation computers?
2. When did the 2nd generation started?
3. Was core memory introduced into the 2nd generation computers or the 3rd generation
computers?
4. In what generation of computer system were integrated circuits used?
5. What circuits did the computers of the 5th generation use?
6. Optical fibers, videodisks and AI are incorporated into the 5th generation computers,
aren’t they?
VI. Practice
Exercise 10. Fill in the table and speak on the topic “The development of
computer systems”.
Generation
Times
Model
Characteristics
Nouns,
Adjectives
1st generation
2nd generation
3rd generation
4th generation
5th generation
10
Verbs
VII. Reading and Comprehension
Exercise 11. Read the text ” Networks ” for 8 ' minutes.
NETWORKS
Computers can communicate with other computers through a series of
connections and associated hardware called a network. The advantage of a network is
that data can be exchanged rapidly, and software and hardware resources, such as harddisk space or printers, can be shared.
One type of network, a local area network (LAN), consists of several PCs or
workstations connected to a special computer called the server. The server stores and
manages programs and data. A server often contains all of a networked group’s data and
enables LAN workstations to set up without storage capabilities to reduce cost.
Mainframe computers and supercomputers commonly are networked. They may
be connected to PCs, workstations, or terminals that have no computational abilities of
their own. These ”dumb” terminals are used only to enter data into, or receive output
from, the central computer.
Wide area networks ( WANs ) are networks that span large geographical areas.
Computers can connect to these networks to use facilities in another city or country. For
example, a person in Los Angeles can browse through the computerized archives of the
Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. The largest WAN is the Internet, a global
consortium of networks linked by common communication programs. The internet is a
mammoth of data, programs, and utilities. It was created mostly by American computer
scientist Vinton Cerf in 1973 as part of the United States Department of Defence
Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).In 1984 the development of Internet
technology was turned over to private, government, and scientific agencies. The World
Wide Web is a system of information resources accessed primarily through the Internet.
Users can obtain a variety of information in the form of the text, graphics,
sounds, or animations. These data are extensively cross-indexed, enabling users to
browse ( transfer from one information site to another) via buttons, highlighted text, or
sophisticated searching known as search engines.
11
Exercise 12. Answer the following questions.
1. What is a network?
2. What is the advantage of a network?
3. What is the organization of a local area network (LAN )?
4. What is a server?
5. What are server’s functions?
6. Do you agree that mainframe computers and supercomputers are networked?
Prove it.
7. What is the largest WAN (wide area networks)?
8. What is the Internet?
9. Whom was it created?
10. What is the World Wide Web?
11. What information can a user obtain?
12
UNIT II
Personal Computer
I. Warming up.
Exercise 1. Answer the following questions.
1. What is a computer? Computers are now widespread, aren’t they?
2. Did you learn about computers through science fiction, movies?
3. How old were you when you learnt about a computer?
4. Do you have a computer at home? What are the reasons for buying home computers?
5. Do you like playing on the computer?
6. How often do you work with the computer?
7. Does good knowledge of English help to operate the computer better?
8. Who uses computers today?
II. Vocabulary.
cumbersome — громіздкий
entrepreneur [ эntrэprэnэ: ] — підприємець
to forsee — передбачати
Silicon Valley
California
computer company = computer-related company
to locate — розташовувати
technological capital of the world
to attract risk-takers — залучати ризикованих людей
opportunity — можливість
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) — Масачусетський Технологічний
інститут
to co-invent — винайти разом з кимось
contribution — внесок
wealth — багатство
microprocessor chip
13
fame — слава
prestigious university education
background — освіта
college drop-outs — виключені з коледжу
to collaborate — співпрацювати
to introduce — вводити
to utilize — застосовувати
a typewriter-sized computer — комп’ютер розміром з друкарську машинку
technological wizard — маг, чародій
to divise — винайти
trim — гарно вбраний
user-friendly — дружній до користувача
to donate — дарувати
peripherals — переферійні (устаткування) обладнання
to design memory extenders — конструювати розширювачі пам’яті
insertable boards — плати, що вставляються
to use different keyboards — використовувати різноманітні клавіатури
to stop practicing medicine — припинити займатися медициною
to emerge — виникати
to run business — керувати бізнесом
to enroll — заносити до списку, вступати.
III. Reading
Exercise 2. Read and translate the text” The Early Years”.
THE EARLY YEARS
Until the late 1970s, the computer was viewed as a massive machine that was useful
to big business and government but not to the general public. Computers were too
cumbersome and expensive for private use. As technology advanced, this was changed
by a distinctive group of engineers and entrepreneurs who rushed to improve the
designs of then current technology and to find ways to make the computer attractive to
14
people. Although these innovators of computer technology were very different from
each other, they had a common enthusiasm for technical innovation and the capacity to
foresee the potential of computers.
Much of this activity was centered in the Silicon Valley in northern California
where the first computer- related company had located in 1955. That company attracted
thousands of related businesses, and the area became known as technological capital of
the world. The Silicon Valley attracted many risk-takers and gave them an opportunity.
Robert Noyce was a risk-taker who was successful both as an engineer and as a
entrepreneur. The son of an Iowa minister, he was informal, genuine, and methodical. A
graduate of the The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), he started working
with for one of the first computer-related businesses in 1955.
As an engineer, he co-invented the integrated circuit, which was the basis for later
computer design. This integrated circuit was less than an eighth of an inch square but
had the same power as a transistor unit that was over the 15 inches square or a vacuum
tube unit that was 6.5 feet square. As a businessman, Noyce co-founded Intel, one of the
most successful companies in the Silicon Valley and the first company to introduce the
microprocessor. The microprocessor chip became the heart of the computer. It made
possible the invention of the personal computer and eventually led to the birth of
thousands of new businesses. Noyce’s contributions to the development of the
integrated circuit and the microprocessor earned him both wealth and fame before his
death in 1990. In fact, many people consider his role to be one of the most significant in
the Silicon Valley story.
The two men who first introduced the personal computer (PC) to the marketplace
had backgrounds unlike Robert Noyce’s. They had neither prestigious university
education nor experience in big business. Twenty-year-old Steven Jobs and Stephen
Wozniak were college drop-outs. They collaborated on their first project as computer
hobbiests in a local computer club. Built in the garage of Jobs’s parents, this first
personal computer utilized the technology of Noyce’s integrated circuit. It was
typewriter-sized, as powerful as a much larger computer, and inexpensive to build.
15
Jobs and Wozniak brought different abilities to their venture: Wozniak was the
technological wizard, and Jobs was the entrepreneur. Wozniak designed the first model,
and Jobs devised its applications and attracted interest from investors and buyers.
Wozniak once admitted that without Jobs he would never have considered selling the
computer or known how to do it.
From the very beginning, Apple Computer had been sensitive to the needs of a
general public. Jobs insisted that the computers be light, trim, and made in muted
colors. He also insisted that the language used with the computers be “user-friendly”
and that the operation be simple enough for the average person to learn in a few
minutes. Jobs also introduced the idea of donating Apple Computers to thousands of
California schools, thereby indirectly introducing his product into the homes of millions
of students. Their second model, the Apple II, was the state-of-art PC in home and small
business computers from 1977 to 1982.
Martin Alpert, the founder of Tecmar, Inc., was one of the first people to forsee the
need in PC. He later became one of the most successful creators of personal computer
peripherals. For example, he designed memory extenders that enabled the computer to
store more information, and insertable boards that allowed people to use different
keyboards while sharing the same printer. After 1981, Tecmar produced an average of
one new product per week.
Alpert had neither the technical training of Noyce nor the computer clubs of Jobs
and Wozniak. His parents were German refugees who worked in a factory and a bakery
to pay for his college education. They insisted that he study medicine even though his
interest was in electronics. Throughout medical school he studied electronics
passionately but privately. His first electronics products were medical instruments that
he built in his living room. His wife recognized the potential of his projects before he
did, and enrolled in a graduate program in business management so she could run his
electronics business successfully. Their annual sales reached $ 1 million, and they had
15 engineers working in their living room before they moved to a larger building in
1981. It wasn’t until 1983 that Alpert stopped practicing medicine and gave his full
attention to Tecmar. By 1984 Tecmar was valued at $ 150 million.
16
Computer technology has opened a variety of opportunities for people who are
creative risk-takers. Rarely in history have so many people been so motivated to create.
Many of them have been rewarded greatly with fame and fortune, and the world has
benefited from this frenzy of innovation.
IV. Vocabulary
Ex. 3. Match the words from column A with words in column B.
A
B
1. entrepreneur
a) ризиковані люди
2. risk- taker
b) мікросхема мікропроцесора
3. microprocessor chip
c) вага
4. to introduce
d) розмір
5. integrated circuit
e) колір
6. to change
f) операційна система
7. size
g) зовнішні пристрої
8. weight
h) вставлені плати
9. colour
i) гарно вбраний
10. operating system
j) інтегральна схема
11. peripherals
k) запроваджувати
12. insertable boards
l) змінювати
13. trim
m) підприємець
14. to attract
n) винаходити
15. to devise
o) привернути увагу
Ex. 4. Give the English equivalents of the following Ukrainian words and wordcombinations:
технологічна столиця світу, винайти спільно, престижна університетська освіта,
освіта, співпрацювати, застосовувати, комп’ютер розміром з друкарську машинку,
дарувати, розширювачі пам’яті, громіздкий, передбачити, виникати, керувати.
17
Ex. 5. Finish sentences using the words and word- combinations given below.
1. The first computer-related company was located in…
2. R.Noyce was an engineer, he coinvented…
3. Intel was the first company to introduce…
4. Microprocessor made possible the invention of…
5. Steven Jobs and Stephen Wozniak introduced… to the market place.
6. Jobs also introduced the idea of… Apple Computers to California schools.
7. Martin Alpert became one of the creators of PC…
8. Insertable boards allowed people to use different…
peripherals, the personal computer, Silicon Valley, microprocessor, the integrated
circuit, donating, keyboards.
V. Comprehension
Ex. 6. Answer the following questions.
1. Why were computers not useful to general public until the late 1970s?
2. Who decided to improve the designs of computers?
3. When and where did the first computer company start to work?
4. Why did the Silicon Valley become the technological capital of the world?
5. What was Robert Noyce?
6. What was R.Noyce background? Where did he study?
7. When and where did R.Noyce start to work?
8. Why did people consider his role to be one of the most significant in the Silicon
Valley story?
9. Who first introduced PC to marketplace?
10. What do you know about Steven Jobs and Stephen Wozniak?
11. S.Jobs and S.Wozniak brought diffrent abilities to their venture, didn’t they?
Comment on it.
12. What did S.Jobs propose to change computers?
13. What was the second model, the Apple?
18
14. What was Martin Alpert?
15. What did M. Alpert do?
16. What has computer technology opened for people?
17. How have people been rewarded?
VI. Oral Practice
Ex. 7. Speak on the Early History of PC using the table.
Times
Company
Inventor
1955
Intel
R. Noyce
Inventions / Developments
introduced integrated circuit,
microprocessor
1970-1977
Apple
S. Wozniak
Computer
S. Jobs
1981
IBM
invented the first PC Apple I and Apple II
changed size, weight, colour
improved model of PC and operating
system
1981
Tecmar
M. Alpert
created peripherals (memory extenders,
insertable boards)
VII. Group work
Ex. 8. Discuss the following points.
1. The Silicon Valley is the technological capital of the world.
2. Robert Noyce’s contribution to the technology of PC.
3. Stephen Wozniak and Steven Jobs are inventors of the first PC.
4. Martin Alpert is the first creator of the PC peripherals.
5. IBM and Apple computer companies are world known companies in personal
computer industry.
VIII. Vocabulary
Ex. 9. Repeat the words and word-combinations after the speaker.
PC characteristics
microprocessor
19
silicon chip – кристал (мікросхема) з кремнію
less powerful components – компоненти меншої потужності
to use floppy disks – використовувати гнучкі диски
online storage – неавтономне збереження даних в ЗУ
offline storage – автономне збереження даних окремо від комп’ютера
input media – носій для вхідних даних
output media – носій для вихідних даних
general-purpose – універсальний; загального призначення
stand-alone – автономний
to plug in – підключати; приєднувати
leisure activities – дозвілля
PC in the Home
to check account management – перевірити ведення обліків
budgeting – складання бюджету
personal finance
telephone answering and dialing – автовідповідач, набір номера телефону
calendar management – ведення календаря
investment analysis – аналіз інвестиції
maintenance of address and mailing lists – зберігання адрес та пошти
Word Processing
word processing – обробка тексту
application software – прикладні программи
to delete sentences – видаляти речення
to move around paragraphs – переставляти абзаци
to replace words – переставляти слова
PC for Professionals
desktop use – настільне використання
financial advisor – финансовий консультант
stock broker – брокер фондової біржі
20
tax consultant – консультант з податків
lawyer – юрист
income tax – податок на прибуток
statistical analysis – статистичний аналіз
graphics
computer modeling – комп’ютерне моделювання
scheduling – складання розкладу
accountant – бухгалтер
accounting – бух облік
stock market forecasting – біржеві прогнози
PC for Education
computer - managed instructions (CMI) – машинне навчання
computer – assisted instructions (CAI) – комп’ютерні команди; машинне навчання
simulation of real – world situations – моделювання реально-життєвих ситуацій
computer literaсy – комп’ютерна грамотність
typing – друкування
programming languages – мови програмування
painting – живопис
art school – художня школа
to mix paints – змішувати фарби
rudiments of composition – основи композиції
grading – оцінювання; класифікація
Ex. 10. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian and do back
translation.
1. What are the main spheres of PC
application?
1. Які основні області використання
ПК?
2. Where are computers used?
2. Де використовується комп’ютер?
3. PC are used in home, for leisure, in
3. ПК використовується вдома, для
business and education.
розваг, в офісі та освіті.
21
4. What is a word processing program?
4. Що таке програма обробки текстів?
5. What are application programs?
5. Що таке прикладні програми?
6. On the display you can see what you
6. На дисплеї можна побачити, що ви
have typed.
7. Where are letters and documentation
надрукували.
7. Де зберігаються листи і документи?
stored?
8. Is it necessary for a person to be an
8. Обов’язково бути інженером або
engineer or a programmer to play
програмістом, щоб грати в комп’ютерні
computer games.
ігри?
9. Home applications of PCs include
9. Використання ПК дома включає в
checking budgeting, planning, investment себе перевірку складання бюджету,
analysis.
планування, аналіз інвестицій.
10. Application software is called a word
10. Прикладні програми називають
processing program.
програмами обробки тексту.
11. Application software enables you to
11. Прикладні програми дозволяють
correct mistakes or modify any document. виправити помилки і змінити любий
документ.
12. What other changes in the typed text
12. Які ще зміни у надрукованому
can you make?
тексті можна зробити?
13. Application programs also include
13. Прикладні програми також
accounting statistical analysis, stock
включають бухоблік, статистичний
market forecasting and computer
аналіз, біржеві прогнози, комп’ютерне
modeling.
моделювання.
14. Computer-managed instruction (CMI) 14. Програма машинного навчання
software is used to assist the instructor in
використовується, щоб допомогти
management of classroom activities.
викладачу в управлінні класною
22
работою.
15. Application programs are used to
15. Прикладні програми
teach children rudiments of composition.
використовуються для навчання дітей
основам композиції.
IX. Reading and Speaking
Ex. 11. Read the text “Personal Computers: Characteristics and Application”
without a dictionary.
PERSONAL COMPUTERS: CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATION
Characteristics of PC
Personal computers are supposed to appear in the late 1970s.
What is a personal computer? How can this device be characterized?
- First, a personal computer being microprocessor-based, its central processing
unit, called a microprocessor unit, or MPU, is concentrated on a single silicon
chip.
- Second, a PC has a memory and word size that are smaller than those of
minicomputers and large computers. Typical word sizes are 8 or 16 bits, and main
memories range in size from 16 K to 512 K.
- Third, a personal computer uses smaller, less expensive, and less powerful input,
output and storage components than do large computer systems.
- A PC employs floppy disks as the principal online and offline storage devices and
also as input and output media.
- Finally, a PC is a general-purpose, stand-alone system that can begin to work
when plugged in and be moved from place to place.
Probably the most distinguishing feature of a personal computer is that it is used
by an individual, usually in an interactive mode. Regardless of the purpose for which it
is used, either for leisure activities in the home or for business applications in the office,
we can consider it to be a personal computer.
23
Personal computers have a lot of applications, however, there are some major
categories of applications: home and hobby, word processing, professional, educational,
small business and engineering and scientific.
Home and hobby. Personal computers enjoy great popularity among
experimenters and hobbyists. They are an exciting hobby. All hobbyists need not be
engineers or programmers. There are many games that use the full capabilities of a
computer to provide many hours of exciting leisure-time adventure.
The list of other home and hobby applications of PCs is almost endless,
including: checking account management, budgeting, personal finance, planning,
investment analysis, telephone answering and dialing, home security, home
environment and climate control, appliance control, calendar management, maintenance
of address and mailing lists and what not.
Word processing. At home or at work, application software, called a word
processing program, enables you to correct or modify any document in any manner you
wish before printing it. Using the CRT monitor as a display screen, you are able to view
what you have typed to correct mistakes in spelling or grammar, add or delete
sentences, move paragraphs around, and replace words. The letter or document can be
stored on a diskette for future use.
Professional. The category of professional includes persons making extensive use
of word processing, whose occupations are particularly suited to the desk-top use of
PCs. Examples of other occupations are accountants, financial advisors, stock brokers,
tax consultants, lawyers, architects, engineers, educators and all levels of managers.
Application programs that are popular with persons in these occupations include
accounting, income tax preparation, statistical analysis, graphics, stock market
forecasting and computer modeling. The electronic worksheet is, by far, the computer
modeling program most widely used by professionals. It can be used for scheduling,
planning, and the examination of “what if” situations.
Educational. Personal computers are having and will continue to have a profound
influence upon the classroom, affecting both the learner and the teacher.
Microcomputers are making their way into classrooms to an ever-increasing extent,
24
giving impetus to the design of programmed learning materials that can meet the
demands of student and teacher.
Two important types of uses for professional computers in education are
computer-managed instruction (CMI), and computer-assisted instruction (CAI). CMI
software is used to assist the instructor in the management of all classroom-related
activities, such as record keeping, work assignments, testing, and grading. Applications
of CAI include mathematics, reading, typing, computer literacy, programming
languages, and simulations of realworld situations. The appropriate programs are
applied for teaching painting. Artists and engineers have worked out special programs
for art schools. The computer acquaints the beginners with technique of mixing paints
and obtaining required shades. With the help of game methods children are taught
rudiments of composition. Courses for teaching languages are also computerized. The
programs have advantages that make them popular for teaching widely spoken
languages, such as Spanish, English, German and French.
Ex. 12. Make up dialogues on the situations:
1. Main characteristics of PC.
2. Application in the home and hobbies.
3. PC for professionals.
4. Application programs for education.
X. Listening and Comprehension.
Ex. 13. Listen to the text “PC and Microcomputer”. Cross out sentences given
below which don’t correspond to the contents of the text.
PC AND MICROCOMPUTER
The personal computer can serve as a work station for the individual today.
Moreover, as it has become financially feasible to provide a computer for the individual
worker, so also technical developments have made the interface between man and
machine increasingly “friendly”, so that a wide array of computer functions are now
accessible to people with no technical background.
25
A personal computer is a small computer based on a microprocessor; it is a
microcomputer. Not all computers, however, are personal computers. A microcomputer
can be dedicated to a single task such as controlling a machine tool or metering the
injection of fuel into an automobile engine; it can be a word processor, a video game or
a “pocket computer” that is not quite a computer. A personal computer is something
different: a stand-alone computer that puts a wide array of capabilities at the disposal of
an individual.
The first generation of true personal computers, which came on the market
between 1977 and 1981, had eight-bit microprocessors; later introduced systems had 16bits ones. Now 32-bit microprocessor chips are available, and soon they will be
included in complete computer systems.
1. Performance of a wide array of computer functions.
2. Accessibility of PC for not professionals.
3. A microprocessor-based PC.
4. The operation of a microprocessor.
5. Comparison of a microcomputer and a PC.
6. Microprocessor’s capacity.
7. Microcomputer software.
8. The cost of a microcomputer.
XI. Reading and Translation.
Exercise 14. Read and Translate the text “Mini PC”.
Mini PCs
Recent
improvements
in
large-scale
integration
and
power-semiconductor
technology have yielded compact PCs that can be used economically for controlling
simple machines and processes. A number of companies are now producing the socalled mini PCs.
26
Mini PCs generally are classified as those that can economically replace as few as
four relays. They provide timer and counter functions as well as relay logic, and
typically are small enough to fit comfortably in a 19-in.rack. Most minis have less then
32 I/0s are ports, but some are expandable to drive up to 400 I/0s devices. The I/0s are
usually digital, but analog I/0 are available. These make possible control of pressure,
temperature, flow and other analog functions.
Some mini PCs are self contained, with the processor and a means for mounting
numerous I/0 modules. Thus, modular mini’s are readily expandible. Some selfcontained units are expandible, some are not.
Mini PCs often cost more than relays they replace, but installed cost of a mini is
generally comparable to and sometimes less than a corresponding relay panel. The
reason is that the mounting and wiring of a PC is much simpler than the mounting and
wiring of corresponding relays. And the PC often occupies less space.
PCs, moreover, perform some functions that are not typically provided by relays but
associated drum controllers, counters, specialty timers, and other complex-function
panel components.
Many mini PCs are capable of controlling remote printers or of communicating with
other PCs or a host computer. These capabilities make possible data collection and
coordination with associated machines.
Most minis are preprogrammed to be self checking. Processors, I/0s, and
programming devices are routinely checked for faulty operation. LEDs on the front of
the PCs identify problem areas. In addition PCs can be programmed to diagnose and
identify faults in limit switches, transducers, relays, motor startes, and similar peripheral
components. These diagnostic capabilities reduce maintenance and down-time costs.
XII. Discussion Points.
Exercise 15.
1. What have yielded compact PCs?
2. Characteristics of mini PCs. Compare them with relays.
3. Diagnostic capabilities of mini PCs.
27
UNIT III
The 5-th Generation Computer. Artificial Intelligence.
I. Vocabulary
Exercise 1. Repeat words and word-combinations after the speaker.
artificial intelligence — штучний інтелект
scientific trend — науковий напрям
mathematician — математик
linguist — лінгвіст
psychologist — психолог
engineer — інженер
essence of the trend — суть напрямку
intensification
man’s creative activities — творча діяльність людини
intensification of man’s creative activities
machine intelligence — машинний інтелект
AI is machine intelligence
human intelligence
machines with sensory capabilities — машини з сенсорними можливостями
knowledge based system — експертні системи
knowledge based systems are expert systems
medical diagnoses
algorithm
heuristic technique — евристичні методи
economists, engineers, biologists, chemists
to penetrate — проникати
experience — досвід
robotics
28
II. Reading.
Exercise 2. Read and translate the text”
Artificial
Intelligence” into
Ukrainian/Russian.
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
"Artificial intelligence" is a metaphor ic figure of speech designating an entire
scientific trend which includes mathematicians, linguists.psychologists,engineers, and
many other specialists. The essence (cyть) of this trend is the intensification of man's
creative activities with the aid of computers.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is machine intelligence. It refers to applications of the
computer which, in operation, resembles human intelligence. There are different
categories of uses which all fell into the AI area. For example, robots or machines with
sensory capabilities which detect and recognize sounds, pictures, etc., are one category.
Another category is knowledge based systems, which contain a base of knowledge
about a subject and can assist us in solving problems. Knowledge based systems being
developed from the experience of human experts are called expert systems and can
perform such tasks as medical diagnoses. AI will encompass (охватывать) many areas
that have not been easily solved using traditional hardware and software.
AI will be incorporated into the 5 th- generation computer systems. Then the
average computer system should not require users to remember a lot of complex codes
or commands. Rather, the user should ask: "Can you help me with this type of
problem?" The master control program or operating system will be able to direct the
user to the appropriate expert system through questions and answers.
AI programming is not magical; it does however imply a change in rules and
methods for the traditional application programmer. Normal application programs
follow a fixed algorithm: if this — do that. Given a set of input conditions, the output
can be precisely determined. AI requires program design with more imagination New
methods of program organization and construction must be developed. AI programs
may require the use of heuristic techniques, which are exploratory in nature and use trial
and error methods. AI programs are often programmed in the LISP programming
language, which allows the program designer to concentrate on the problem-solving
29
logic more effectively than common languages like BASIC and COBOL. It is
impossible in principle to develop an artificial intelligence as it is sometimes understood
literally (буквально), because the human brain is a very sophisticated system composed
of tens of billions of interconnected cells. Each cell is extremely complex in itself A
rather probable hypothesis says that an individual cell processes the signals penetrating
it like a computer. Therefore, even the most sophisticated machine we may imagine
cannot even be compared to the brain Man created the machine to fulfill his own
requirements. A machine cannot have either human feelings, desires or emotions. Can
anyone imagine a machine in love with someone? And what about the experience a
person receives during his life in society through dealing all the time with purely human
problems? A machine, in general, cannot think, either logically or figuratively.
But nevertheless (тем не менее), the research trend of artificial intelligence will
acquire ever greater importance as time goes by, because the programming and
technical means of artificial intelligence will ensure us of the opportunity to associate
directly with the machine without the aid of a huge crowd of engineers, economists,
biologists, chemists, and many other specialists. The question of AI acquires special
importance for economic
planning and management. In conditions when production is becoming automated,
management must become automated as well.
One of the trends in AI now being intensively developed is to design so-called
thinking robots, capable of a certain amount of independent activities.
The model of a creative processes in computers gave birth to the term "artificial
intelligence". But that doesn't mean that the computers possess it. The "intelligence" has
been packed in it by an expert who developed the programme for solving some practical
creative problem. Man differs from the machine in that he does not simply fulfill the
programs stored in his memory, but also develops them himself, depending on the goals
facing him.
30
III. Vocabulary
Exercise 3. Give English equivalents of the following words and wordcombinations.
Штучний інтелект; машинний інтелект; інтенсифікація творчої діяльності
людини; сенсорна здібність; машини з сенсорною здібністю; впізнавати/
сприймати; экспертні системи; складна система; взаємопов’язані клітини;
проникати; вимагати; вимога; роботи, що думають; проектувати роботів, що
думають; творчі завдання; вирішувати творчі завдання; логіка вирішення
проблеми; зосередитись на логиці; вирішення проблеми; автоматизувати;
виробництво
автоматизовано;
экономічне
планування
та
управління;
програмувати; програми Ш.І. програмують на мові LISP, запам’ятати коди та
команди.
IV. Oral Practice
Exercise 4. Agree or disagree with the statements:
Use expressions: You are right, I agree with you, I’m afraid you are wrong, I can’t
agree with you.
1. AI is a scientific trend
2. The area of application of AI is small.
Exercise 5. Prove that:
1. Knowledge based systems are expert systems.
2. To program AI in LISP is effective.
3. AI techniques have some advantages.
Exercise 6. Compare:
1. Man and a machine with AI
2. Two categories of AI uses
Exercise 7. Comment on:
1. AI acquires special importance in economy.
2. Human brain is a sophisticated system.
31
Exercise 8. Explain:
Computer doesn’t possess Intelligence.
Exercise 9. Use the following words and word-combinations in your own sentences:
1. It is interesting to note that …, I don’t think …, In my opinion…, as far as I
know…,
2. First of all…, to begin with …
3. Besides, in addition, furthermore,.
4. First(ly)…, second(ly)…, third(ly)…
5. But on the one hand…, on the other hand …, at the same time …, nevertheless.
6. In conclusion, in short, on the whole.
Exercise 10. Speak on the topic “The 5th generation computers”. Use the chart and
Ex. 9.
The 5th generation computers
Artificial Intelligence
Scientific trend, machine intelligence
Two categories
of uses
Robots, machines
sensory capabilities,
to detect,
to recognize,
sound, pictures
Programming
LISP
to concentrate,
problem-solving logic,
BASIC, COBOL
Man and machine
human brain,
sophisticated systems,
cells, to process signals,
like a computer,
feelings, desires, emotions,
to think, to love
Knowledge based
systems
to develop,
human experts,
expert systems
Perspectives of development
to associate directly with a machine,
without specialists, economic planning,
management, to automate, thinking robots
computer-aided design.
32
Application
robotics,
computers,
engineering,
economy,
medicine
V. Language
Exercise 11. Name:
a) the application areas of AI
use: “is used”, “is applied”, “is employed”
E.g. AI is used in teaching
іграх
логічному виводі
Ш.І. використовується
в
розумінні природніх мов
формувані планів
створенні семантичних мереж
b) the purpose of using AI
E.g. AI is used for making programmes
моделювання поведінки людини
автоматизиванного навчання
Програми
Ш.І.
знаходження методу рішення задачи
використовуються для
рішення інтелектуальних задач
c) the purpose of using AI. Mind the example.
E.g. The purpose is to prove theorem.
to find methods for solving problem
to use AI for modeling man’s behaviour
The purpose is
to use AI for solving intellectual problems
to make programmes
Exercise 12. Give the English equivalents of the following words and wordcombinations.
33
Задачі сприйняття, великий об’єм обчислень, значно більший об’єм
обчислень, в процессі зорового та слухового сприйняття, на рівні підсвідомості,
важко
моделювати,
найбільш
успішний,
при
вирішенні
(застосуванні)
моделювання.
VI. Oral Practice.
Exercise 13. Render the text “Штучний інтелект” into English. Use the words
and word- combinations given below.
Штучний інтелект — це дисципліна, яка вивчає можливості створення
програм для вирішення завдань. Ці завдання вимагають певних інтелектуальних
зусиль при виконанні їх людиною. Зазвичай до сфери Ш.І. відносять завдання
сприйняття (наприклад, зорового та слухового). Завдання сприйняття вимагають
більшого об’єму обчислень. Ці обчислення виконуються в процесі зорового,
слухового та інших видів сприйняття на рівні підсвідомості і тому їх важко
моделювати. Мета полягає у знаходженні метода вирішення завдання і найбільш
ефективного способу його виконання.
Прикладами областей використання Ш.І. є : ігри, логічний висновок
(inference), навчання, розуміння природних мов, формування планів, доведення
теорем (theorem proving), візуальне сприйняття.
Застосування Ш.І. виявляється більш успішним при вирішенні інтелектуальних
завдань (наприклад, процес участі у грі або при доведенні теореми), ніж завдань
сприйняття (recognition).
Іноді програми Ш.І. використовуються для моделювання поведінки людини
(computational psychology), а іноді для технічних використань (автоматизоване
навчання — computer-assisted learning, експертні системи — expert systems). Але у
більшості випадків мета полягає просто в знаходженні методу вирішення завдань.
Обчислюючи методи та принципи Ш.І. знаходять застосування у завданнях
обробки списків (list processing) діалогової взаємодії (interactive), створення
семантичних мереж (semantic networks).
34
game – гра
inference – висновок
logical inference – логічний висновок
teaching – навчання
natural language – природні мови
to make plans – формувати плани
to participate – приймати участь
theorem proving- доведення теорем
intellectual problems – інтелектуальні завдання
computational psychology – поведінка людини
computer-assisted learning – автоматизоване навчання
interactive – діалогова взаємодія
intellectual efforts – інтелектуальні зусилля
aural/ visual recognition – слухове/зорове сприйняття
on the level of subconsciousness – на рівні підсвідомості
to model – моделювати
VII. Reading and Comprehension
Exercise 14. Read the texts “Enter the intelligent computer”, “Computer with
intelligence” to get the main ideas.
ENTER THE INTELLIGENT COMPUTER
A Japanese electronics firm claims to have made a big advance in the world
race to develop a fifth-generation computer.
Fifth-generation computers will be able to think, and the company has developed
the first artificial intelligence in a computer with practical applications.
The company says its computer is capable of designing its own super-large-scale
integrated circuits. Such circuits could be designed in the past with the help of
minicomputer but no computer had been able to do the work on its own.
The new artificial intelligence, for which a new computer language has been
developed, can also be employed in many areas of computer-aided design.
35
Computer with intelligence
To counter Japan which flooded the market with articles of high technology, the
Commission of European Communities (CEC) – executive body of the European
Economic Community – made a decision of great importance. It decided upon
developing a super-computer of its own. A team of designers were instructed to work
out a program for a computer with human intelligence. The computer was supposed to
be able to learn sciences, see and recognize objects and generate its own statements. The
new design was intended to counterbalance Japanese attempts at creating computers
possessing the functions of the human brain. The Japanese project is calculated for a 10year period.
About 23 million dollars were to be allocated on the making of a new WestEuropean computer. The chief application for the new technology would be found in
robotics.
VIII. Reading and Discussion
Exercise 16. Read the text “The Mind Machines ” and check it if you understand
it. Choose the most suitable heading from the list below for each numbered part of
the text. The first one has been done for you.
A A horrifying history.
B Bloodthirsty.
C Is bigger better?
D Make your brain work.
E How much do we know?
F The battle of the sexes.
G The super computer.
THE MIND MACHINE?
(0 — E)
Although intelligence has been studied, and the brain has been studied, there is little
understanding of how the brain works to produce intelligence. This has something to do
36
with the fact that the brain contains around 100 billion cells (about the number of stars
in the Milky Way).
(1 —
)
One of the continuing myths about the relationship between intelligence and the
brain is that the brains of very clever people are somehow physically different from
those of ordinary people. At the beginning of the century an American scientist called
the E.A. Spitzka produced a list of the weights of the brains of important, well-known
men. The heaviest brain on the list was that of Turgenev, the Russian novelist, at 200g.
However, the brain of another great genius, Walt Whitman, weighed only 1282g.
(2— )
There are no significant differences between the intelligence levels of males and
females. However, girls under seven score a little higher than boys in IQ tests and the
highest IQ recorded is that of Marylin vos Savant at 230. However, men and women do
differ in the way they think. Generally, women are more skilled verbally and men do
better on visual-spatial tasks.
Interestingly, the fibres which join the two halves of the brain have been found to
be larger in women than in men. This supports the theory that women can change from
"practical" to "emotional" thinking more quickly than men.
(3— )
People with mental problems have often been treated extremely badly. Two
hundred years ago, the mentally ill were swung around in revolving chairs, or holes
were drilled in their skulls to release evil spirits. From the 1930s, the mentally ill were
subjected to electric shock therapy and lobotomy — the removal part of their brain. In
the 1960s and 70s, thousands of people were given drugs to cope with anxiety and then
became addicted to them.
(4— )
The brain needs ten times as much blood as other organs of the body, as it can't store
glucose for later use. This is different to muscles and other organs and although the
adult brain makes up only two per cent of the body weight, its oxygen consumption is
twenty per cent of the body 's total.
37
(5— )
There are similarities between brains and computers. Computers can do complicated
calculations at incredible speeds. But they work in a fixed way, because they can't make
memory associations. If we need a screwdriver and there isn't one, we will think
laterally and use a knife or coin instead. Computers can't do this. In fact, it is claimed
that when it comes to seeing, moving and reacting to stimuli, no computer can complete
with even the brain power of a fly.
(6— )
Most of our mental processes are deeply formed habits. Challenging your brain to
do things differently helps it develop. Try changing routines as often as you can: take a
bus instead of going by car, sit in a different chair. An extreme but useful exercise is to
read something upside down — you can actually feel your brain at work.
Exercise more. Good health and fitness levels give you overall improved energy
which leads to better concentration.
Cooking is a good all-round mental exercise. It needs mathematical, organisational
and scientific skills as well as challenging memory and creative ability. Use recipes at
first and then learn to guess amounts, combinations, reactions of ingredients and timing.
Do puzzles and play games. Teach yourself to work out codes and expand your
vocabulary at the same time.
Notes:
bloodthirsty — кровожерливий
weight — вага
mate — чоловік
under 7 — до 7 років
score — лічба, рахунок
skilled verbally — вправний в спілкуванні, в бесіді
visual- spatial — візуально-просторовий
fibre — тканина
to support — підтверджувати
38
screwdriver — викрутка
to compete — змагатися
fly — муха
upside down — вверх дном
to challenge — вимагати, примусити, визивати.
Exercise 17. Say whether the statements are true or false.
1. Everybody knows well how the brain works.
2. The brains of very clever people are physically different from those of ordinary
people.
3. There are differences between the intelligence levels of males and females.
4. There are no similarities between brains and computers.
5.Our mental processes are deeply formed habits.
IX. Discussion Points
1. The brain of well-known men is larger than that of ordinary people.
2. The intelligence levels of males and females.
3. Computers and human brains.
4. How to develop brains.
Use the following expressions:
1. I’d like to start… — Я б хотів розпочати з…
2. I want to call your attention to… — Хочу звернути вашу увагу...
3. I have forgotten to say that… — Я забув сказати, що...
4. You (we, I ) haven’t discussed… — Ви (ми, я) не сказали про...
5. I have a remark — Хочу зазначити ...
6. I agree with you — Я згоден з вами
7. You are wrong — Ви не праві
8. I don’t understand — Я не розумію
9. In my opinion — На мою думку
10. It’s interesting to know — Цікаво знати
11. In conclusion, in short, on the whole — На завершення
39
X. Reading and Comprehension
Exercise 18. Read and translate the text “Emotional Intelligence” for 5' minutes.
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
It turns out that a scientist can see the future by watching four-year-olds with a
sweet. The researcher invites the children into a plain room. You can have this sweet
right now, he says. But if you wait while I go out for a few minutes, you can have two
sweets when I get back. And then he leaves.
Some children grab the treat the moment he’s out the door. Some last a few
minutes before they give in. But others are determined to wait. They cover their eyes,
they put their heads down, they sing to themselves, they try to play games or even fall
asleep. When the researcher returns, he gives these children their sweets. And then,
science waits for them to grow up.
By the time the children reach high school, something remarkable has
happened. A survey of the children’s parents and teachers found that those who as fouryear-olds were strong-minded enough to hold out for the second sweet generally grew
up to be better adjusted, more popular, adventurous, confident and dependable teenagers
. The children who gave in to temptation early on were more likely to be lonely, easily
frustrated and stubborn.
When we think of brilliance, we see Einstein − deep-eyed, wooly-haired, a
thinking machine. High achievers, we imagine, were born for greatness. But then you
have to wonder why, over time, natural talent seems to flower in some, yet disappear in
others. This is where the sweets come in. The ability to defer gratification is a master
skill, a triumph of the reasoning brain over the impulsive one. It is a sign, in short, of
emotional intelligence. And it doesn’t show up on an IQ test.
In his book Emotional Intelligence, Daniel Goleman argues that brain power as
measured by IQ actually matters less than qualities of mind like understanding one’s
own feelings, empathy − being sensitive to other people’s feelings − and the ability to
manage your own emotions. EQ is not the opposite of IQ. What researchers are trying to
understand is how they complement each other. Among the ingredients for success,
researchers now generally agree that IQ counts for about twenty per cent: the rest
40
depends on everything from luck, to social class... and emotional intelligence. In the
business world, according to personnel executives, IQ gets you a job, but EQ gets you
promotions.
Exercise 19. Read the text again and choose the best summary of each paragraph.
Paragraph 1
a The experiment started with each child eating a sweet.
b In the experiment, the children were not allowed to eat their sweets
straightaway.
c In the experiment, the children were promised an extra sweet if they were
patient.
Paragraph 2
a Most of the children decided to eat their sweet straightaway.
b The researchers were most interested in the children who found ways of passing
the time in order to get an extra sweet.
c Once the researchers had left, many of the children forgot about the sweets.
Paragraph 3
a Success in IQ tests usually means that people are successful in life.
b You have to be as brilliant as Einstein to be success in life.
c The scientists found that the children who were more patient were happier
as teenagers.
Paragraph 4/5
a IQ is still considered the most important factor for success at work.
b According to Daniel Goleman, emotional intelligence is more important than
IQ for success in the long-term.
c People with a high IQ tend not to be very emotionally intelligent.
41
Список рекомендованої літератури
1. Смирнова Т.В. English for Computer Science Students: Учебное пособие. –
М.: Флинта: Науки, 2003 – 128с.
2. Матросова Т.А. Computer World. Учебное пособие для студентов дневного
отделения. ФИСТ. Ульяновск, ГТУ, 2007.
3. John Marks. Computers and Information Technology. Third Edition. Great
Britain, 2007.
42
43