Study Guide Worksheet – Chapter 7 Section 7.1 – Weathering True or False 1. ____________ Weathering is the process by which rocks on or near Earth’s surface break down and change. 2. ____________ The removal and transport of weathered materials from one location to another is called erosion. 3. ____________ Weathering must take place before erosion. 4. ____________ The repeated freezing and thawing of water in the cracks of rocks is called frost wedging. 5. ____________ Water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and acids are significant agents of mechanical weathering. Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 6. The process by which outer layers of rock are stripped away is called: a. Chemical weathering c. Exfoliation b. Oxidation d. Frost wedging 7. In which of the following climates would physical weathering most readily occur? a. Wet and warm c. Wet and hot b. Dry and warm d. Dry and cool 8. Which of the following factors does NOT exert pressure on rocks that leads to physical weathering? a. Plant roots c. Freezing water b. Overlying rocks d. Carbonic acid Use the terms below just once to complete the passage. Water Acid precipitation Carbonic acid Carbon dioxide Temperature Mechanical Composition Pressure The process by which rocks and minerals break down into smaller pieces is (1) _________________________________ weathering, also called physical weathering. Two factors that play a significant role in this type of weathering are (2) ___________________________________ and (3) __________________________________. To some extent, the (4) ___________________________________ of rocks determines the effects that chemical weathering will have on them. (5) ___________________________________ is an important agent in chemical weathering because it can dissolve many kinds of minerals. An atmospheric gas that contributes to the chemical weathering process is (6) ______________________________________, which is produced by living organisms. When this gas combines with water, it produces a weak acid called (7) ______________________________________. Another agent of chemical weathering is (8) ________________________________________, which is caused mainly by emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Study Guide Worksheet – Chapter 7 Section 7.1 – Weathering (Continued) 1. What climate conditions promote chemical weathering? 2. What rock type is most easily weathered? Why? 3. How is surface area related to weathering? 4. How does slope affect the rate of weathering? Section 7.2 – Erosion and Deposition For each item, write the letter of the matching item. 1. The final stage of the erosional process in which materials ________ are dropped in another location a. Slope ________ 2. The force that tends to pull all materials downhill b. Ocean waves ________ 3. The steeper the ___, the greater the potential for flowing water to erode earth materials c. Wind ________ 4. Coastal areas undergo erosion by ___ and wind. d. Glaciers ________ 5. Erode by scraping, gouging, and picking up large rocks and debris piles e. Gravity ________ 6. A major erosional agent in areas with limited precipitation and high temperatures f. 7. Deposition Give two examples of how plants and animals move Earth’s surface materials from one place to another as they carry on their life processes. Study Guide Worksheet – Chapter 7 Section 7.3 – Formation of Soil Complete each statement. 1. ______________________________________ is the loose covering of weathered rock particles and decaying organic matter overlying the bedrock of Earth’s surface. 2. Soil that is located above its parent material is known as ______________________________________. 3. Soil that has been moved away from its parent bedrock is called ______________________________________. 4. When heavy machinery digs out soil in the process of building a road, a vertical sequence of layers of soil, called a(n) ______________________________________ , will often be exposed. 5. A distinct layer, or zone, located within a soil profile is known as a(n) ___________________________________. 6. Soils formed at high latitudes and high elevations that have good drainage but no distinct horizons are classified as ______________________________________. 7. A(n) ______________________________________ is any one of various types of soil that can support a forest, grassland, prairie, or other environments. 8. Soil found in areas with less than 25 cm of rainfall that often have a high accumulation of salts are called ______________________________________. 9. Soil forms as a result of ______________________________________ and biological activity that breaks down and changes soil materials over long periods of time. 10. The relative proportions of particles sizes make up a soil’s ______________________________________. 11. Soil ______________________________________ is the measure of how well a soil can support the growth of plants.