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Unit 6 Middle East Vocabulary Word Definition Golan Heights A hilly plateau overlooking the Jordan River and the Sea of Galilee. Strategic location that has been the site of many conflicts. Supplies Israel with 1/3 of its water. One of the most important rivers of Southwest Asia (Middle East). Supported several ancient river valley civilizations. Flows through Turkey, Iraq, and Syria A river that runs near the Tigris. One of the important rivers of Southwest Asia (Middle East). Supported several ancient river valley civilizations. Flows through Turkey, Iraq, and Syria. A river that serves as the natural boundary between Israel and Jordan, flows into the Dead Sea Tigris Euphrates Jordan River Dead Sea A landlocked salt lake between Israel and Jordan that is so salty that almost nothing can live in its waters. It is the lowest place on the exposed crust of the Earth. Rub al-Kali Also known as the Empty Quarter. One of the largest sandy deserts in the world. Located on the Arabian peninsula Oasis A place where water from an aquifer has reached the desert. It supports vegetation and wildlife Salt Flat Flat land made of chemical salts that remain after winds evaporate moisture in the soil Desalinization Fossil Water The removal of salt from ocean water Water pumped from underground aquifers Crude Oil Refinery OPEC Petroleum that has not yet been processed A place where crude oil is converted into useful products The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. A group established in 1960 by oil producing nations to coordinate policies on selling petroleum products. The holiest city of Islam, located in Saudi Arabia, where people make full pilgrimage Journey or search for moral or spiritual significance. Typically, it is a journey to a shrine or location of importance to a person’s beliefs or faith. Mecca Pilgrimage Islam A monotheistic religion based on the teachings of the prophet Muhammad Muhammad Five Pillars of Islam The founder and prophet of Islam, who lived part of his life in the city of Mecca Represented in the Qur’an (Islam’s holy book). It is a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith. 1. Islamic Creed 2. Daily Prayers 3. Tithes 4. Fasting during the month of Ramadan 5. Pilgrimage to Mecca The Islamic place of worship, where Muslims pray facing towards the holy city of Mecca Mosque Fasting The act of willingly abstaining (not doing) from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. Judaism One of the oldest monotheistic religions and claims a history spanning more than 3,000 years. Its text, traditions, and values strongly influenced later religions including Christianity and Islam. Many aspects of Judaism also directly or indirectly influence secular law. Unit 6 Middle East Vocabulary Western Wall/ Wailing Wall For Jews, it is the holiest site in Jerusalem. It is the only remaining portion of the Second Temple, built in 538 BCE and was destroyed in 70 AD by the Romans Dome of the Rock A shrine in Jerusalem, which houses the spot where Muslims believe Muhammad rose into heaven and where Jews believe Abraham prepared to sacrifice his soon Isaac to God A movement that began in the 19th century to create and support a Jewish homeland in Palestine Zionism Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) Mesopotamia Sunni Shi’ite Intifada Taliban Stateless Nation Palestinians West Bank Gaza Strip Arab Spring A group formed in the 1960s to regain the Arab land in Israel for Palestinian Arabs A region in the Middle East between the Tigris and the Euphrates, which was the location of some of the earliest civilizations in the world. Part of the fertile crescent. One of the two main branches of Islam, compromising about 83% of all Muslims, including those in Turkey, Iraq, and Afghanistan. One of the two main branches of Islam including most Iranians, and some populations of Iraq and Afghanistan (minority group) Often used as a popular term for resistance to oppression, uprising, rebellion, etc. A strict Muslim group in Afghanistan that imposed rigid rules on society, including prescribed clothing styles, restrictions on the appearance of women in public, and regulations on television, music, and videos. A nation of people that does not have a territory to legally occupy. For example: Palestine A displaced group of Arabs who lived or still live in the area formerly called Palestine and now called Israel. In Israel, a strip of land on the west side of the Jordan River. Originally controlled by Jordan, and is now a part of the land set aside for Arab Palestinians A territory along the Mediterranean Sea just northeast of the Sinai peninsula. This is part of the land set aside for Palestinians, and is argued over between Palestinians and Israelis Saddam Hussein A revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests occurring in the Arab world in 2012. Many protests have broken out in Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Yemen, Eqypt, and Libya. President of Iraq from 1979-2003. Widely condemned for his brutality as a dictator. In March 2003, a coalition of countries led by the US and the UK invaded Iraq to depose Saddam after being accused od possessing weapons of mass destruction. Golda Meir David Ben-Gurion Prime Minister of Israel from 1969-1974. Known as the Iron Lady of Israeli politics. Main founder and the first Prime Minister of Israel. Passion for Zionism. Muammar el Quaddafi Hosni Mubarek Ruler (dictator) of Libya from 1969-2011. Assassinated in 2011. Former Egyptian president (dictator) from 1981-2011. Was ousted during Arab Spring in 2011.