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Interwar years and the Great Depression
Topic 15
18th Amendment
Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or
transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation
thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage
purposes is hereby prohibited.
Section 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this
article by appropriate legislation.
Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment
to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution,
within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
19th Amendment
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the
United States or by any State on account of sex.
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
1919 Eighteenth Amendment ratified
1920 Nineteenth Amendment ratified
KDKA transmits first commercial radio broadcast
Post-war deflation and depression
1921 Federal Highway Act (Phipps Act)
Johnson Act – immigration quotas (The Emergency Quota Act restricted the
number of immigrants admitted from any country annually to 3% of the number of residents
from that same country living in the United States as of the U.S. Census of 1910)
Sacco and Vanzetti convicted
Sheppard-Towner Act allots federal funds for maternity and paediatric clinics (to states)
(Promotion of the Welfare and Hygiene of Maternity and Infancy Act)
1922 Economic recovery/higher standards of living
Federal government ends railroad shop workers and miners strike
1923 Pres. Harding dies; Cooldige takes office
Ku Klux Klan activity reaches its peak
Government scandals (Teapot Dome) bribery scandal of Harding adm.
1924 Johnson-Reid Act revises immigration quotas to 2%
Coolidge elected president
1927 Sacco and Vanizetti executed
Lindbergh’s flight
The Jazz Singer first sound movie
1928 Stock Market soars
Hoover elected president
1929 October 24 – Black Thursday – Stock market crash; beginning of the Great
Agricultural Marketing Act
1930 Hawley-Smoot Tariff raises rates on imports (raises U.S. tariffs on over 20,000
imported goods to record levels)
1931 Nine African Americans arrested in Scottsboro affair
Hoover declares moratorium on WW I debts and reparations
1932 Reconstruction Finance Corporation established
Roosevelt elected president
Revenue Act (raise of corporate, excise and income taxes)
1933 13 mln Americans unemployed
March – New Deal Policy is launched by Roosevelt
Agricultural Adjustment Act
National Industrial Recovery Act
Banking Act (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation established)
Twentieth and Twenty First Amendments
(moves the beginning and ending of the terms of the president and vice president from March
4 to January 20, and of members of Congress from March 4 to January 3. It also has
provisions that determine what is to be done when there is no president-elect. The Twentieth
Amendment was ratified on January 23, 1933)
(repeals the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution)
1934 Share Our Wealth Society started
Indian Reorganization Act (restores land to Indian tribes)
1935 Emergency Relief Act (authorization of public work programs)
National Labor Relations Act (right to unions)
Social Security Act
Public Utility Holding Company Act
Revenue Act (taxes grow for the wealthy and business)
1936 9 mln unemployed
Business recession
1938 10.4 mln unemployed
Fair Labor Standards Act (minimum pay)
1939 Social Security amendment adds benefits for spouses and widows
September 1 – beginning of World War II
1940 Roosevelt elected (third term)
1941 December 7 – Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor – USA enter the war