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Chapter Sixteen
Types of Glaciers
A large body of ice that flows downslope or spreads radially due to gravity. Glaciers cover ~ 10% of land
surface today.
 Types of Glaciers- based on local topography
 Alpine – confined by surrounding bedrock highlands (small)
 Cirque- create and occupy semicircular basins on Mountain sides
 Valley- flow in valleys formally occupied by rivers
 Ice caps- found on Mountain tops
 Piedmont- found at foot of mountains
 Continental Ice Sheets- massive ice that covers much of a continent
Relationship between glaciers and latitude
Formation of glacial ice from snow
Elevation and slop steepness are two factors influencing glacier formation
Types of glaciers
Anatomy of a Glacier
Mechanics of glacial flow
Glacial abrasion and quarrying combine to shape a roche moutonnee.
Deposition of glacial till
Glacial advance and retreat and the deposition of moraines
Geology at a Glance
Medial moraines
Geology at a glance
Effect of the North American icesheets on the Greatlake glaciers
The creation and draining of Glacial Lake Missoula
Formation of terraces from crustal rebound
Terraces rebound – contd.
Formation of terraces from robound
Features of periglacial environment
Beringia detail
Pollen concentration vs depth
Coiling pattern vs climate
Oxygen isotope composition
Climate change during Quaternary
Milankovitch’s theory
Origin of North Atlantic deepwater
Global climatic changes during Cenozoic
Effect of the North American ice sheet
Human activity contributes to global warming
If all the ices were melt tomorrow – W hat happens??
Time needed for fresh snow to become glacial ice
Classification of glaciers
Velocity of glacial flow
Glacial drift
Glacial till & outwash
Moraine, loess, permafrost
Marine record of ancient climatic change – foram
Ice core studies – atmos carbon dioxide, volcanic eruptions, wind intensity, etc.
Little ice ages
Changes in global temperature
Changes in salinity-driven current system