Download Mar 2002 Unique Instrumentation Amplifier Precisely Senses Differential Voltages from mV to V

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Mains electricity wikipedia, lookup

History of electric power transmission wikipedia, lookup

Ground (electricity) wikipedia, lookup

Buck converter wikipedia, lookup

Switched-mode power supply wikipedia, lookup

Opto-isolator wikipedia, lookup

Current mirror wikipedia, lookup

Alternating current wikipedia, lookup

Voltage optimisation wikipedia, lookup

Power electronics wikipedia, lookup

Voltage regulator wikipedia, lookup

Schmitt trigger wikipedia, lookup

Resistive opto-isolator wikipedia, lookup

Rectifier wikipedia, lookup

Stray voltage wikipedia, lookup

Surge protector wikipedia, lookup

Current source wikipedia, lookup

Triode wikipedia, lookup

Pulse-width modulation wikipedia, lookup

Variable-frequency drive wikipedia, lookup

Integrating ADC wikipedia, lookup

Ohm's law wikipedia, lookup

Islanding wikipedia, lookup

Power inverter wikipedia, lookup

Electrical ballast wikipedia, lookup

Electrical substation wikipedia, lookup

Three-phase electric power wikipedia, lookup

Transistor wikipedia, lookup

Immunity-aware programming wikipedia, lookup

Wien bridge oscillator wikipedia, lookup

Amplifier wikipedia, lookup

Tube sound wikipedia, lookup

Regenerative circuit wikipedia, lookup

Ground loop (electricity) wikipedia, lookup

Power MOSFET wikipedia, lookup

Two-port network wikipedia, lookup

Analog-to-digital converter wikipedia, lookup

Scattering parameters wikipedia, lookup

Flip-flop (electronics) wikipedia, lookup

Bode plot wikipedia, lookup

Signal-flow graph wikipedia, lookup

Negative feedback wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
DESIGN FEATURES
Unique Instrumentation Amplifier
Precisely Senses Differential Voltages
from µV to V by David Hutchinson and Nello Sevastopoulos
Introduction
The LTC2053 is the industry’s first
instrumentation amplifier to feature
a rail-to-rail input/output and a very
high CMRR (guaranteed Common
Mode Rejection Ratio of 110dB) that
is gain-independent. This allows precision extraction of wide range of
differential DC signals, from microvolts to volts, with common mode
voltages anywhere between the supply rails.
The LTC2053 uses sophisticated
charge balanced techniques to convert a differential input voltage into a
single ended signal. Figure 1 shows
the structure of the device in a simplified block diagram. A set of switches
extract and store the input differential voltage across an internal
sampling capacitor CS. This charge is
then transferred into an internal hold
capacitor, CH. With this operation,
the differential input signal is extracted from the input common mode
voltage and is referenced to the bias
voltage of the REF pin. The signal is
then further amplified by a zero-drift
op amp connected in the non-inverting configuration. The negative input
RG pin of the op amp is brought out
to allow gain programmability and
applications flexibility. Figure 2 shows
how to program the gain (for gain
greater than unity) using an external
resistive divider (R1-R2)—where the
gain is simply 1 + R2/R1. The tolerance of these resistors affects only
the voltage gain accuracy of the circuit; not the CMRR. The LTC2053 is
designed to work from 2.7V to 10V,
single supply, or ±5V, dual supply. It
is packaged in an MS8 surface mount
package to save space, and consumes
only 1mA of supply current when
enabled, and less than 10µA when
disabled by the EN pin.
The Best DC Performance in
The Industry
The LTC2053 uses auto-zeroing techniques to limit the maximum DC offset
to only 10µV with a maximum DC
offset drift of 50nV/°C. It also features a highly accurate 3ppm gain
nonlinearity and 0.001% gain error—
values unmatched by any other
instrumentation amplifier available.
The internal zero drift op amp of the
LTC2053 does not significantly contribute to the overall DC error of the
instrumentation amplifier, so the
110dB or more CMRR is gain-independent. This unique feature allows
the LTC2053 to be used with low
gains and still accommodate a huge
differential signal dynamic range without losing DC precision—it can sense
from several volts down to a few microvolts without requiring any gain
adjustment. Figure 3 shows the DC
offset of a typical device when both
differential inputs are shorted together and then swept from rail to
rail.
The LTC2053 Accommodates
Rail-to-Rail Input Common
Mode Voltages
The input common mode voltage range
of the LTC2053 is from rail-to-rail—it
can amplify DC differential signals
riding on a common mode voltage of
any voltage between the negative to
the positive supply. The maximum
allowable differential input voltage
combined with the DC biasing of the
reference pin is determined by the
input common mode range (V– to V+ –
1.3V) of the internal zero drift op amp.
This can be simply expressed by:
V– ≤ (V+IN – V–IN) + VREF ≤ V+ – 1.3
Where V+IN and V–IN are the voltages of the input pins +IN and –IN
respectively, and VREF is the voltage of
the REF pin.
V+
0
0.1µF
–1
–2
8
2
V
+
3
–IN
CS
+
+IN
OUT
CH
–
2
3
ZERO-DRIFT
OP AMP
+IN
7
LTC2053
8
LTC2053
–3
–
OUT
6
+
5
R2 10k
4
1
7
GAIN = 1+
R2
R1
–4
OFFSET (µV)
–IN
–5
–6
–7
–8
C2 0.1µF
R1
10Ω
–9
–10
–11
–12
REF
5
V–
RG
6
4
Figure 1. Block diagram
0
EN
1
Figure 2. Typical connection for gains
higher than unity where:
VOUT = VREF + (DVIN • Gain)
1
2
3
4
INPUT COMMON MODE VOLTAGE (V)
Figure 3. DC offset vs common mode
input for single 5V supply (gain = 1)
www.BDTIC.com/Linear
Linear Technology Magazine • March 2002
5
7
DESIGN FEATURES
Sensing Supply Currents
VREGULATOR
0.1mΩ
2
–
OUT
100mV/AMP OF
LOAD CURRENT
7
LTC2053
3
ILOAD
LOAD
8
6
+
R2 10k
5
1, 4
GAIN = 1+
10kΩ
10Ω
0.1µF
R1
10Ω
Figure 4. High side power supply current sense
For single supply operation (V– = 0)
the maximum allowable differential
input is from –VREF up to (V+ – 1.3V –
VREF). The total differential input voltage range is therefore V+ – 1.3V.
For instance, if the LTC2053 is
powered with a single 5V supply and
if its reference pin is biased at +2.0V,
the maximum differential input voltage for unity gain connection, V+IN –
V–IN, can range from –2V to 1.7V. The
total input differential voltage range
is V+ – 1.3V = 3.7V.
With higher supply voltage operation, the voltage difference between
either of the inputs, V+IN or V–IN, and
the REF should be limited to 5.5V.
For instance, for rail-to-rail input
operation with ±5V supplies, the REF
pin should be biased at 0V±0.5V. Or,
if V+ is 10V and V– and the REF pin are
at 0V, the inputs should not exceed
5.5V.
V+
V+
3V
Figure 4 shows the LTC2053 sensing
the load current of a voltage regulator
across a 0.1mΩ shunt. Both inputs of
the instrumentation amplifier are near
the positive rail. The gain is 1001, and
for a 5V supply and 5V full scale
output, the LTC2053 output is railto-rail, the device can sense currents
from 100mA (10µV input) all the way
up to 50A (5mV input). In Figure 4,
the 0.1µF across the 10k feedback
resistor provides band limiting. The
rail-to-rail input capability of the
LTC2053 allows this circuit to be
easily adapted to also sense ground
currents.
3V Bridge Amplifier
Figure 5 illustrates the LTC2053 connected as a bridge amplifier. This
straightforward circuit illustrates how
easily this part can be applied. The
supply voltage is a single 3V, the gain
is 1001 and the DC common mode is
half supply. Any AC common mode
voltages up to 500Hz are rejected by
110dB.
Like all rail-to-rail op amps operating with a single supply, the LTC2053
output will not swing to zero volts
when a zero input is presented; it will
swing to within a few millivolts from
ground. Therefore, the reference voltage can be tied to ground, as shown in
Figure 5, provided the bridge is unidirectional and the circuit is not sensing
a zero differential voltage—in which
case the reference voltage would be
biased at a voltage above ground to
accommodate these conditions.
0.1µF
V+
8
–IN
2
–
0.1µF
7
LTC2053
+IN
3
IOUT =
Q1
8
6
+
5
R2 10k
VOUT
4
1
GAIN = 1+
V+
R1
–
VD
+IN
R1
10Ω
R2
–IN
2
7
LTC2053
3
M1
6
+
5
4
LOAD
ILOAD
1
0.1µF
R < 10k
8
2
GAIN = 1+
–
R1
7
LTC2053
3
R2
OUT
6
+
5
R2 10k
1, 4
0.1µF
R1
10Ω
Figure 5. Differential bridge amplifier
The impedance of the bridge should
be equal or less than 10kΩ per leg.
This ensures that any transient current that charges the parasitics of
capacitor CS (which are not shown in
the block diagram) has settled during
the sampling phase of the LTC2053.
Using The RG Pin For More
Than Setting Gain
Because the negative input of the
internal op amp is brought out to the
RG pin, active circuitry can be added
inside the amplifier feedback loop
without affecting the precision of the
part. For instance, Figure 6 shows a
concept for a circuit in which a discrete NPN transistor Q1 boosts the
output current capability of the amplifier.
Figure 7 is, in principle, similar to
Figure 6, but this time an N-channel
transistor provides a current sink
which has a value controlled by the
difference of the two input voltages,
VD = V+IN – V–IN, and by an external
resistor R. The voltage compliance of
the current sink extends from the
value (VD + overdrive of the N-channel
transistor M1) up to the breakdown of
the N-channel transistor.
VD
R
Conclusion
The LTC2053 is the most accurate
DC instrumentation amplifier in the
industry, yet is as easy to use as a
standard op amp.
R
V–
V–
Figure 6. High output drive current
8
Authors can be contacted
at (408) 432-1900
Figure 7. Precision current sink
www.BDTIC.com/Linear
Linear Technology Magazine • March 2002