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Sustaining Biodiversity: The
Species Approach
G. Tyler Miller’s
Living in the Environment
14th Edition
Chapter 12
Key Concepts
 Human effects on extinction rates
 Understanding biodiversity and extinction
 How human activities endanger wildlife
 Preventing extinction
 Reconciliation ecology
Species Extinction
Local extinction
Ecological extinction
Biological extinction
Endangered and Threatened Species
Endangered species
Threatened (vulnerable) species
Northern spotted
owl (threatened)
Gray wolf
Florida panther
© 2004 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning
turaco (Africa)
From Fig. 12-3 p. 227
Extinction Rates
 Background (natural) rate of extinction
 Mass
 Extinction
Fig. 5-9 p. 96
Characteristics of Extinction
Prone Species
Fig. 12-4 p. 228
Problems Estimating Extinction Rates
Extinction not easily documented over time
Many species remain unidentified
Little is known about most identified species
Estimating Extinction Rates
Species-area relationships
Population viability analysis (PVA)
Minimum viable population (MVP)
Minimum dynamic area (MDA)
Causes of Depletion of Wild Species
Human population growth
Increasing per capita resource use
Endangered centers of biodiversity
Environmental destruction
Spread of opportunistic species
Causes of Premature Extinction of
Wild Species
Fig. 12-6 p. 231
Importance of Wild Species
Rebuilding biodiversity is slow
Instrumental value
Genetic information
Ecological value
Intrinsic value
Habitat Loss and Degradation
Greatest threat to species
Habitat destruction
Invasive species
Population (humans) growth
Fig. 12-12 p. 238
Threats from Nonnative Species
Roles of nonnative species
(p. 235)
See Case Study
p. 237
Fig. 12-12 p. 238
Other Extinction Threats
Hunting and Poaching
Predators and Pest Control
Exotic Pets and Decorative Plants
Climate Change and Pollution
Protecting Wild Species: The
Research and Legal Approaches
 International Treaties: CITES and CBD
 U.S. National Laws: Lacey Act
Endangered Species Act
 Habitat recovery plans
Endangered Species Act
Private versus public poverty rights
Win-win compromises
Weaken or strengthen the Act?
Protecting Wild Species: The
Sanctuary Approach
 Wildlife refuges and protected areas
 Gene banks, botanical gardens, and farms
 Zoos and Aquariums
Reconciliation Ecology
 Establishing and maintaining new habitats
 Being good neighbors to wildlife
 Reward voluntary conservation efforts
See Case Study p. 248
Conservation: What Can I Do?
Fig. 12-16 p. 249
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