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Do All Roads Lead to Rome?
Circle Graph
Bar Graph
Where Do Maps Fit into Geography?
Location Place Interaction Movement Region
Line Graph
Shows relationships between two
sets of information
When all points are made, a line is
drawn connecting the points
Quick idea of trends or directions
Legend or Key is used to use
symbols to represent something
Defines the relationship between
distance on the map and
corresponding distance on the earth.
Units of measure on bottom of the
History of Maps
Earliest Babylonians 2300 BC cut into
clay tiles
China developed maps on silk around
the 2nd Century BC
Anaximander made the first map to
represent the known world 6th
Century BC—circular form and
showed lands around Aegean Sea
History of Geography
Considered by many as the
“Father of Geography”
Developed a system of latitude
and longitude
First to calculate the
circumference of the Earth
Map with latitude and longitude
developed in 200 BC
Maps are representations
of an area of the Earth or
Atlas is a collection of
maps bound together
Sextant invented in 1730
by John Hadley and
Thomas Godfrey: using a
telescope, horizon and sun
or another celestial body,
the sextant measures the
angle between the horizon
and the celestial body-Helps to determine
Compass points to
magnetic north pole
Oldest map 2700 BC from Sumerians
on clay tablets
Oldest map drawn to scale by Greek
geographer Anaximander in 6th
Century B.C.E., placed Greece in the
Ptolemy’s Map
From Alexandria
Published around AD 150
Earliest map to use mathematically
accurate forms of conic projection
History of Maps
After Rome fell, Europe did not
produce maps
Arabian geographer, al-Idrisi made a
map of the world in 1154
15th Century Paolo de Pozzo
Toscanelli among first scholars to
state that ships could reach Asia by
sailing west from Europe
History of Maps
During 16th Century, Flemish
geographer Gerardus Mercator
devised a projection for his map of
the world used by navigators
Published 3 volumes of maps,
collected data and refined map
making methods
Early Maps
Told about
topography of a
country or area in
relation to the
navigator’s country
Topographical Maps
General Locations and political
Land and cultural features
Topographical Map
Relief Map
Gives a 3-D view of geographic
Used by Engineers and Military
Cylindrical Projection
Paper cylinder around a globe
Shape of continents near the middle
are most accurate
Regions near the poles are stretched
out of proportion
Azimuthal Projection
Piece of paper over a globe at one
Useful in viewing polar regions
because they are in the center of the
Distortion increases as longitudinal
lines move toward the Equator
Conic Projection
Cone over globe
Map free of distortion in the middle
latitude regions
Goode Projection
1923 by J. Paul Goode, a geographer
and cartographer from the University
of Chicago
Earth drawn in irregular joined parts
Minimal distortion of land masses
Used for thematic maps
Robinson Projection
Orthophanic Projection
Transfers information from a round globe
to a flat surface
Elliptical in shape and shows world on a
single plane
Poles are lines instead of points
Designed in 1963 by Arthur H. Robinson of
University of Wisconsin
Minimizes distortion, especially near
This is the most widely used today.
Modern Mapping
Satellites capture images of the
Earth’s weather patterns,
growth of cities, health of
plants, and buildings and roads
Review Questions
What is Cartography?
What are three types of projections and what are they used for?
What is the significance of the topographical thematic type of
map for the military?
What are 5 characteristics of all maps? What do they have on
What is climate and why is it important to understand?
Know 5 U. S. states and their capitals for the weekly quiz
(from the 13 you have already learned)