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```Causal Data Mining
Richard Scheines
Dept. of Philosophy, Machine Learning, &
Human-Computer Interaction
Carnegie Mellon
1. Predictive Data Mining
Finding predictive relationships in data
– What feature of student behavior predicts learning
– Who will default on credit cards
– Who will get an “A” in your course
– Which HS students will do well at CMU
– Do students cluster by “learning style”
Causal Data Mining
Finding causal relationships in data
– What feature of student behavior causes learning
– What will happen when we make everyone take a
– What will happen when we program our tutor to
intervene to give hints after an error
Predictive Data Mining
X1
X2
X3
. .
Xk
Y
1
1.7
28
M
. . 2.4
1
2
2.0
11
F
. . 1.1
0
3
1.9
17
F
. . 1.1
1
.
.
.
.
. . .
.
.
.
.
.
. . .
.
N
2.8
12
M
. . 1.8
0
Data Mining Search
Predictive Model
Y = f(X1, X2, …Xk)
Predictive Data Mining
Model Classes
1.
Simple Regression
2.
Locally Weighted Regression
3.
Logistic Regression
Predictive Model
4.
Neural Nets
Y = f(X1, X2, …Xk)
5.
Vector Support Machines
6.
Decision Trees
7.
Bayes Net
8.
Naïve Bayes Classifier
9.
Independent Components
Data Mining Search
10. Clustering
11. Etc.
Predictive Data Mining
Data Mining Search
Predictive Model under Constraints
Y = f(X1, X2, …Xk),
Predictive Data Mining
Data Mining Search
Predictive Model under Constraints
Y = f(X1, X2, …Xk),
Or
Probability Model under Constraints:
P(Y | X1, X2, …, Xk), where P  Gaussian, with mean 0
Predictive Data Mining
Decision Tree Search
P(Hosp.) = .78
Pos
>57
>1.4
X-Ray
Neg
.
Age
Lab2
 1.4
Lab2
 1.8
P(Hosp.) = .10
P(Hosp.) = .66
>1.8
 57
P(Hosp.) = .59
Lab1
>2.3
P(Hosp.) = .75
 2.3
P(Hosp.) = .05
Predictive Data Mining
≠
Causal Data Mining
Conditioning is not the same as intervening
P(Y | X1, X2, …, Xk)

P(Y | X1set, X2, …, Xk)
Teeth Slides
Causal Discovery
Statistical Data  Causal Structure
Data
Equivalence Class of
Causal Graphs
X1
X1
X1
X2
X2
X2
X3
Causal Markov Axiom
(D-separation)
X3
X3
Statistical
Inference
Discovery Algorithm
Independence
Relations
X1
Background Knowledge
- X2 before X3
- no unmeasured common causes
X3 | X2
Full Semester Online Course in
Causal & Statistical Reasoning
Full Semester Online Course in
Causal & Statistical Reasoning
• Course is tooled to record certain events:
 Logins, page requests, print requests, quiz attempts, quiz
scores, voluntary exercises attempted, etc.
• Each event was associated with attributes:
 Time
 student-id
 Session-id
Printing and Voluntary Comprehension Checks: 2002
--> 2003
2002
2003
-.41
voluntary
questions
print
.75
.302
pre
quiz
print
-.16
voluntary
questions
-.08
pre
.353
.41
.323
.25
final
final
```
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