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CSCI 1101 Intro to
6. Local Area
ACS160 - Chapter 7
Local Area Networks
A computer network is a collection of
computers and other devices that
communicate to share data, hardware and
Local area network (LAN) - a network located
in a limited area.
 found
in most businesses
Wide area network (WAN) - a network that
covers a large geographical area
ACS160 - Chapter 7
Benefits of Networking
A local area network makes a stand-alone
computer a workstation on a network.
The workstation provides you with:
 your
computer’s local resources
hard drive, software
 printer
 access
to network resources
 storage space
 other printers
ACS160 - Chapter 7
Typical Network Resources
Network nodes
include workstations
printers, and
ACS160 - Chapter 7
Gaining Access to Networks
You typically cannot use network resources
until you log into the network.
 provide
user ID and password
User account
 provides
access to network
 accumulates information about network use
 tracks when you log in and out
Page 309
ACS160 - Chapter 7
Password Considerations
Use these tips to
select a secure
ACS160 - Chapter 7
What is drive mapping?
Workstation gains access to the server
when the server hard drive is “mapped” to a
drive letter.
Drive mapping - network term for assigning
a drive letter to a network server disk drive.
 many
use the letter F
Window’s Neighborhood Network is a utility
that helps you see your workstation’s
network drive mapping.
ACS160 - Chapter 7
Executing programs on a Network
When you start a program that is stored on a LAN, the
program is copied to your workstation’s RAM, then
runs normally.
With proper licensing, many users on the same
network can use the same program simultaneously,
also known as sharing.
Sharing is effective because:
less disk storage space required
easier to update software
less expensive
ACS160 - Chapter 7
Where to store data files
Advantages to storing data files on a server:
 can
access from any computer on network
 other network users can access files
option of restricting access
File locking - precaution that locks an open
file so other users cannot open it at the
same time
ACS160 - Chapter 7
Printer Issues
Default printer printer you most
frequently use
One way to
select a different
printer is to
select a printer
using the
Printers dialog
ACS160 - Chapter 7
How to physically connect to a
A network interface card (NIC) is the key
hardware component for connecting a
computer to a local area network.
 small
circuit board that sends data to and from
workstation to network
Different networks use different NICs.
Popular network types include Ethernet and
Token Ring.
ACS160 - Chapter 7
Network Cabling
Today’s networks use twisted-pair cable
(unshielded twisted pair
 STP (shielded twisted pair)
 looks similar to telephone cable
 has square plastic RJ-45 connector
Twisted-pair cable
ACS160 - Chapter 7
More network cabling options
Another option is coaxial cable
 resembles
cable-TV cable
 round, silver BNC connector
Coaxial cable
ACS160 - Chapter 7
Non-wired network connections
Wireless networks use radio or infrared
signals to transmit data from one network
device to another.
 handy
in environments where wiring is difficult to
historical buildings
 provide
 good for temporary installations
ACS160 - Chapter 7
Making the connection
On most of today’s networks, the cable from a
workstation NIC connects to a network hub, a
device that joins communication lines together.
A hub serves as
a central connection point
for workstation and server
ACS160 - Chapter 7
Where does the actual processing
When connected to a network, the device that
processes your data depends on the types of
 dedicated
 non-dedicated servers
 print servers
 application servers
 host computers
ACS160 - Chapter 7
Client Server issues
Application server - computer that runs a
specific application software package
 also
referred to as client/server architecture
An application server splits processing
between the workstation (client) and the
network (server).
ACS160 - Chapter 7
Typical client/server work issues
An application server
typically runs database
software and performs
database functions as
requested by the
Page 321
ACS160 - Chapter 7
Centralized processing systems
Some networks include a host computer, a
minicomputer or a mainframe with attached
 all
processing takes place on the host
 terminals only display results of processing
 also known as a time-sharing system
 Cyrix processing systems use this model
Terminal emulation software connects a
microcomputer to a host
ACS160 - Chapter 7
How networks communicate
Today’s computers include software necessary
to communicate with a network.
The software handles the communication
between your workstation and the network
ACS160 - Chapter 7
Managing the network process
Network operating system (NOS) software
 manages
network resources
 controls flow of data
 maintains security
 tracks user accounts
Network operating system has two
 network
server software
 network client software
ACS160 - Chapter 7
Network software components
Network server software (installed on file server)
controls file access from the server’s hard disk
manages print queue
tracks user data
Network client software (installed on workstation)
IDs and passwords
gathers login information
handles drive mapping
directs printouts to network printer
ACS160 - Chapter 7
What can I run on a network?
Most software designed for stand-alone
computers can be installed on a network
Some software has built-in networking
features that only appear when software is
installed on network.
 ability
to send a file to another network user
ACS160 - Chapter 7
Network software licensing
Using a single-user license for multiple users
typically violates software’s copyright.
Software publishers offer a network license
that allows use by multiple people on a
ACS160 - Chapter 7
Group-based processing
Groupware is application software that supports
collaborative work by managing:
Workflow software - automates the process of
electronically routing documents from one person to
another in a specified sequence
shared documents
intra-group communications
based on “information-centered model
based on a “process-centered model”
ACS160 - Chapter 7
How e-mail is communicated
E-mail messages
are stored on a
server and
forwarded to you
when you want to
read it.
ACS160 - Chapter 7
How e-mail gets to other systems
A gateway is an electronic link to other e-mail
systems that allows you to send e-mail to
people on other networks.
 transferred
through the gateway
ACS160 - Chapter 7
Managing e-mail effectively
Tips for using e-mail
 read
mail regularly
 delete messages after you read them
 you don’t have to reply to every e-mail
 reply to one person instead of entire group
 think before you send
 don’t write anything confidential
 don’t get sloppy
 use proper netiquette