Download Interpret a Prescription Order

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Harm reduction wikipedia, lookup

Special needs dentistry wikipedia, lookup

Adherence (medicine) wikipedia, lookup

Pharmacogenomics wikipedia, lookup

Electronic prescribing wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Interpret a Prescription Order
(Dari)
EO 003.03
AFAMS
‫‪Purpose of Lesson‬‬
‫)‪(Dari‬‬
‫در پركتس های فارمسی ترجمه و پروسس نسخه‬
‫مهم ميباشند‪ .‬اين تقاضای مهارتها و فهم‬
‫برای روی نويسی كردن نسخه ها را مينمايد‪.‬‬
‫غلطی ها در ترجمه نسخه به اساس خوب آن‬
‫تضمين كننده صحت ميباشد‪ .‬در اين درس‬
‫معلومات را ترجمه نموده برای نسخه و‬
‫تداوی كه در جريان اين دوره كه در اين‬
‫كورس مياموزند را بياموزند‪ .‬شاگردان نيز‬
‫بايد تهيه يك نسخه را برای توزيع دوا بدانند‪.‬‬
‫‪AFAMS‬‬
‫‪Proper interpretation and processing of‬‬
‫‪prescription is important in pharmacy‬‬
‫‪practice.‬‬
‫‪It requires skills and knowledge in‬‬
‫‪order to transcribe the prescription‬‬
‫‪order correctly and properly. Errors in‬‬
‫‪interpreting a prescription order may‬‬
‫‪compromise patient safety and overall‬‬
‫‪health.‬‬
Purpose of Lesson
(Dari)
In this lesson, the students will
interpret information on the
prescription or medication order using
skills learned during the course.
Insert Dari
The students will also learn how to
prepare the prescription for dispensing
to the patients.
This topic will be taught using a lecture
format and students will be given a
chance to practice these skills during
an in-class assignment as well as
during a skills lab.
AFAMS
Overview of Lesson
(Dari)
(1) Brand, generic and chemical
names of medications.
Insert Dari
(2) Routes of administration
(3) Various Formulations
(4) SIG codes
(5) Perform basic pharmaceutical
calculations
AFAMS
Names of Medications
(Insert Dari)
AFAMS
Generic Name
(Insert Dari)
Generic Name refers
to a name applied to a
unique medication
chemical entity.
Also referred to as the
non-proprietary name
of the drug.
‫نام جنريک‬Generic
Name
‫نام كيمياوي بينظير يك دوا‬
‫يعني اين يك نام‬.‫ميباشد‬
‫غير اختصاصي براي يك‬
.‫دوا ميباشد‬
AFAMS
Brand Name or trade name is a
name trademarked by a
pharmaceutical manufacturer for
their version of a given drug
product.
Brand Name
(Insert Dari)
‫نام تجارتی‬
Brand Name or trade name
‫عبارت از اسم است كه از طرف شركت‬
‫توليد كننده باالی يک دوا گذاشته‬
.‫ميشود‬
AFAMS
Chemical Name
(Insert Dari)
Chemistry based name of the
active ingredient contained in
the medication.
Insert Dari
AFAMS
Routes of Administration
(Insert Dari)
Insert Dari
Insert Dari
Insert Dari
Insert Dari
Insert Dari
Insert Dari
Insert Dari
AFAMS
Definition:
A route of administration is the path by which
a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is
brought into contact with the body.
(Insert Dari)
AFAMS
Routes of administration can be
divided into:
•
Topical: Drugs are applied directly
to the skin or mucous membranes,
mainly for local action.
•
Oral: used for systemic a whole
body effect, substance is given via
the digestive tract.
•
Parenteral: A drug administered
parenterally is one injected via a
hollow needle into the body at
various sites and to varying depth.
•
Rectal: Drugs given through the
rectum by suppositories or enema.
•
Inhalation: The lungs provide an
excellent surface for absorption
when the drug is delivered in
gaseous, aerosol or ultrafine solid
particle form.
Insert Dari
AFAMS
Topical Route
(Insert Dari)
Skin
Dermal – acts at the site of application.
Trans-dermal - absorption of drug
through skin.
Mucosal Membranes
•
eye drops (onto the conjunctiva)
•
ear drops
•
intranasal route (into the nose)
AFAMS
Oral Route
(Insert Dari)
Enters the body through the
mouth.
Insert Dari
It is intended for total body
effect resulting from drug
absorption through the
gastrointestinal tract.
AFAMS
Oral Route
(Insert Dari)
• Advantages:
Convenient - portable, no pain,
easy to take.
Cheap - no need to sterilize,
compact, multi-dose bottles,
automated machines
produce tablets in large
quantities.
Variety - tablets, capsules,
suspensions, liquids.
AFAMS
Oral Route
(Insert Dari)
Disadvantages:
Sometimes inefficient certain drugs are not very well
absorbed into the bloodstream.
First-pass effect - drugs
absorbed orally are transported
to the general circulation via
the liver. Drugs are then
extensively metabolized in the
liver reducing the amount of
active drug circulating in the
body.
AFAMS
Oral Route
(Insert Dari)
Disadvantages:
Food - Food and G-I motility
can affect drug absorption.
Often patient instructions
include a direction to take with
food or take on an empty
stomach.
Not suitable for unconscious
patient - Patient must be able
to swallow solid dosage forms.
Liquids may be given by tube.
AFAMS
Buccal/Sublingual route
(Insert Dari)
Some drugs are taken as smaller
tablets which are held in the
mouth (buccal tablet) or under
the tongue (sublingual tablet).
Advantages
Avoid hepatic first pass - The liver
is by-passed thus there is no loss
of drug by first pass effect for
buccal administration.
Rapid absorption - Because of the
good blood supply to the area,
absorption is usually quite
rapid.
AFAMS
Parenteral route
(Insert Dari)
Insert Dari
Insert Dari
Insert Dari
Insert Dari
Insert Dari
Insert Dari
Insert Dari
AFAMS
Parenteral route
(Insert Dari)
Intravascular (IV, IA):
Placing a drug directly into blood
stream.
• Intravenous (into a vein)
• Intraarterial (into an artery).
Advantages
• precise, accurate and quicker
onset.
Disadvantages
• risk of embolism (blood clot).
• high concentrations attained
rapidly leading to greater risk of
adverse effects.
AFAMS
Parenteral route
(Insert Dari)
Intramuscular :
into the skeletal muscle.
Advantages
• suitable for injection of
drugs formulated for rapid
action and drug formulated
for sustained release.
Disadvantages
• Pain at injection sites for
certain drugs.
AFAMS
Parenteral route
(Insert Dari)
Subcutaneous (under the skin),
e.g. insulin.
Intradermal, (into the skin itself)
is used for skin testing some
allergens.
Intrathecal (into the spinal canal)
is most commonly used for
spinal anesthesia .
AFAMS
Rectal route
(Insert Dari)
Most commonly by suppository
or enema.
Advantages
By-pass liver - Some of the
veins draining the rectum
lead directly to the general
circulation, thus by-passing
the liver. Reduced first-pass
effect.
Useful - This route may be
most useful for patients
unable to take drugs orally
(unconscious patients) or
with younger children.
- if patient is nauseous or
vomiting
AFAMS
Rectal route
(Insert Dari)
Disadvantages
Erratic absorption Absorption is often
incomplete and erratic.
Not well accepted by
patients.
AFAMS
Inhalation route
(Insert Dari)
Used for gaseous agents and aerosols.
Advantages
• Large surface area
• thin membranes separate alveoli
from circulation
• high blood flow
As result of that a rapid onset of
action due to rapid access to
circulation.
AFAMS
Inhalation route
(Insert Dari)
Disadvantages
Most addictive route of
administration because it
hits the brain so quickly.
Difficulties in regulating the
exact amount of dosage.
Sometimes patients have
difficulties in giving
themselves a drug by
inhaler.
AFAMS
Formulations
(Insert Dari)
AFAMS
•
•
•
•
Oral dosage forms
Topical dosage forms
Parenteral dosage forms
Miscellaneous dosage forms
AFAMS
Oral dosage forms: Tablet
(Insert Dari)
A tablet is a hard, compressed
medication in round, oval or
square shape.
A coating may be applied
to:
1- hide the taste of the
tablet's components.
2- make the tablet smoother
and easier to swallow .
3- make it more resistant to
the environment.
4- extend its shelf life.
AFAMS
Oral Dosage Form : Buccal and sublingual tablet
(Insert Dari)
Sublingual and buccal
medications are
administered by placing
them in the mouth, either
under the tongue
(sublingual) or between the
gum and the cheek (buccal).
The medications dissolve
rapidly and are absorbed
through the mucous
membranes of the mouth,
where they enter into the
bloodstream.
AFAMS
Oral Dosage Form: Effervescent tablet
(Insert Dari)
Effervescent tablets are
uncoated tablets that are
intended to be dissolved
in water before use.
AFAMS
Oral Dosage Form: Chewable tablet
These are tablets that are
chewed prior to swallowing.
-
They are designed for
administration to children
or adults who cannot
swallow other oral dosage
forms.
AFAMS
Oral Dosage Form: Capsule
(Insert Dari)
A capsule is a medication in a
gelatin container.
Advantage: mask the
unpleasant taste of its contents.
The two main types of capsules
are:
hard-shelled capsules, which
are normally used for dry,
powdered ingredients,
Hard gelatin capsule
(Insert Dari)
soft-shelled capsules, primarily
used for oils and for active
ingredients that are dissolved or
suspended in oil.
Soft gelatin capsule
(Insert Dari)
AFAMS
Oral Dosage Form :Lozenge
It is a solid preparation
consisting of sugar and gum.
It is used to medicate the mouth
and throat for the slow
administration of indigestion or
cough remedies.
AFAMS
Oral Dosage Form: Powder
(Insert Dari)
There are two kinds of powder
intended for internal use.
Bulk Powders are multidose
preparations consisting of solid,
loose, dry particles of varying
degrees of fineness. They
contain one or more active
ingredients and if necessary,
coloring matter and flavoring
substances (i.e. fibre
preparations, antacids).
Divided Powders are singledose presentations of powder
(for example, a small sachet)
that are intended to be issued to
the patient as such, to be taken
in or with water.
AFAMS
Oral Dosage Forms : Liquid preparations
(Insert Dari)
Oral solution:
Oral solutions are clear liquid
preparations for oral use
containing one or more active
ingredients dissolved in a
suitable vehicle.
Oral emulsion:
Oral emulsions are oil-in-water
dispersions, either or both may
contain dissolved solids.
Oral suspension:
Oral suspensions are liquid
preparations for oral use
containing one or more active
ingredients suspended in a
suitable vehicle. They may
show a sediment which is
readily dispersed on shaking to
give a uniform suspension.
AFAMS
Oral Dosage Forms : Liquid preparations
(Insert Dari)
Syrup:
It is a concentrated aqueous
solution of a sugar, usually
sucrose. Flavored syrups are a
convenient form of masking
disagreeable tastes.
Elixir:
It is pleasantly flavored clear
liquid oral preparation of potent
or nauseous drugs. May contain
a high proportion of ethanol or
sugar together with
antimicrobial preservatives
which allows for better stability
of the preparation.
AFAMS
Oral Dosage Forms : Liquid preparations
(Insert Dari)
Gargles:
They are aqueous solutions
used in the prevention or
treatment of throat infections.
• Patients gargle the medication
for a few seconds and then spit
it back out.
Mouthwashes:
These are similar to gargles but
are used for oral hygiene and to
treat infections of the mouth.
• Patient are generally directed
to swish the solution around in
their mouth for 60 seconds and
either spit back out or swallow
the liquid.
AFAMS
Oral dosage forms: How to Take
(Insert Dari)
Oral dosage forms are
administered by mouth and
swallowed whole (not chewed)
unless directed otherwise.
Usually taken with a glass of
water.
Formulations not swallowed
whole:
-Chewable tablets
Formulations that may not be
swallowed (i.e. spit back out)
-Gargles
-Mouthwash
AFAMS
Topical dosage forms: Ointments
(Insert Dari)
Ointments are semi-solid, greasy
preparations for application to the
skin, rectum or nasal mucosa.
Ointments may be used as
emollients (protectives or
moisturizers) or to apply
suspended or dissolved
medications to the skin.
AFAMS
Topical dosage forms: Creams
(Insert Dari)
Creams are semi-solid
emulsions, that is mixtures of
oil and water.
They are divided into two
types:
oil-in-water (O/W) creams:
which are composed of small
droplets of oil dispersed in a
continuous aqueous phase.
Oil-in-water creams are less
greasy and more easily washed
off using water.
water-in-oil (W/O) creams:
which are composed of small
droplets of water dispersed in a
continuous oily phase. These
creams are more difficult to
handle but tend to be more
moisturizing.
AFAMS
Topical dosage forms: Gels
(Insert Dari)
A gel is a solid, jelly-like material
that can have properties ranging
from soft and weak to hard and
tough.
AFAMS
Topical dosage forms: Lotions
(Insert Dari)
These are fluid preparations for
external application without
friction.
They are usually dabbed on the
skin and then rubbed into the
skin
AFAMS
Topical dosage forms: Patches
(Insert Dari)
A transdermal patch is a
medicated adhesive patch
that is placed on the skin to
deliver a specific dose of
medication through the skin
and into the bloodstream.
An advantage of a
transdermal drug delivery
route over other types such
as oral, topical, etc is that it
provides a controlled
release of the medication
into the patient.
AFAMS
Topical dosage forms : Aerosol Spray
(Insert Dari)
Several different types of
pharmaceutical product may
be packaged in pressurized
dispensers, known as
aerosols.
May be used as surface
disinfectants, wound or burn
dressing, relieve irritation of
bites.
AFAMS
Topical dosage forms : How to use
(Insert Dari)
Applied directly to the
affected area.
Prescription instructions will
describe how often and if
the preparation should be
applied liberally (large
quantity) and sparingly
(smaller quantity).
Important that patients wash
their hands before and after
application.
AFAMS
Rectal dosage forms: Suppositories
(Insert Dari)
It is a small solid medicated
mass, usually cone-shaped ,that
is inserted either into the
rectum (rectal suppository),
where it melts at body
temperature .
AFAMS
Rectal dosage forms: Enema
(Insert Dari)
An enema is the procedure
of introducing liquids into
the rectum and colon via
the anus.
Evacuant enema: used as a
bowel stimulant to treat
constipation.
See product monograph for
specific instructions on how
to use.
AFAMS
Parenteral dosage forms: Injections
(Insert Dari)
An injection is an
infusion method of
putting liquid into the
body, usually with a
hollow needle and a
syringe which is
pierced through the
skin to a sufficient
depth for the material
to be forced into the
body.
Liquids for injections
are generally kept in
vials or ampules.
Some vials will contain
powder to be
reconstituted (sterile
water added) prior to
administration.
AFAMS
Parenteral dosage forms: Intravenous Injection
(Insert Dari)
It is a liquid administered
directly into the
bloodstream via a vein.
It is advantageous when a
rapid onset of action is
needed.
Can be done using only a
needle.
For extended periods of
administration an IV
administration set can be
used.
AFAMS
Parenteral dosage forms: Intramuscular Injection
(Insert Dari)
It is the injection of a
substance directly into a
muscle.
Many vaccines are
administered
intramuscularly.
Depending on the
chemical properties of the
drug, the medication may
either be absorbed fairly
quickly or more gradually.
AFAMS
Parenteral dosage forms: Subcutaneous Injection
(Insert Dari)
Subcutaneous injections
are given by injecting a
fluid into the subcutaneous
layer, which is the layer of
skin directly below the
dermis and epidermis.
Vaccines and insulin can
be administered this way.
AFAMS
How to self-administer a subcutaneous injection
(Insert Dari)
Most commonly: insulin
Very important that the patient using a clean needle each time
they inject insulin.
Insert Dari
AFAMS
Inhaled dosage forms: Inhalers
(Insert Dari)
Inhalers are solutions,
suspensions or emulsion of drugs
in a mixture held under pressure
in an aerosol dispenser.
A dose of the medication is
released from the container
through a spring-loaded valve
The patient then inhales the
released drug through a
mouthpiece.
AFAMS
Inhaled dosage forms: Inhalers
(Insert Dari)
In some types, the valve is
actuated by finger pressure, in
other types the valve is actuated
by the patient breathing in
through the mouthpiece.
It is commonly used to treat
asthma and other respiratory
problems.
AFAMS
How to use an inhaler
(Insert Dari)
AFAMS
AFAMS
AFAMS
Inhaled dosage forms: Nebules and Nebulizer
(Insert Dari)
A nebulizer is a device used to
administer medication to people
in forms of a liquid mist to the
airways.
A nebule is the liquid contained
in a vial that is intended for use
with a nebulizer.
The neublizer pumps air or
oxygen through a liquid
medicine to turn it into a vapor,
which is then inhaled by the
patient.
AFAMS
Inhaled dosage forms
(Insert Dari)
As a general rule, doctors
generally prefer to prescribe
inhalers for their patients,
because:
1-These are cheaper
2- more portable
3- carry less risk of side effects.
Nebulizers, for that reason, are
usually reserved only for serious
cases of respiratory disease, or
severe attacks.
AFAMS
Ophthalmic dosage forms: Eye Drops and Ointment
(Insert Dari)
Eye drops are saline-containing
drops used as a vehicle to
administer medication in the
eye.
Eye drops sometimes do not
have medications in them and
are only lubricating and tearreplacing solutions.
Ophthalmic ointment & gel:
These are sterile semi-solid
Preparations intended for
application
To the conjunctiva or eyelid
margin.
AFAMS
How to use eye drops
(Insert Dari)
AFAMS
AFAMS
AFAMS
How to use eye ointments/gels
(Insert Dari)
AFAMS
AFAMS
AFAMS
Otic dosage forms: Ear Drops
(Insert Dari)
Ear drops are solutions,
suspensions or emulsions of
drugs that are instilled into
the ear with a dropper.
It is used to treat or prevent ear
infections, especially
infections of the outer ear
and ear canal.
AFAMS
How to properly instill ear drops
(Insert Dari)
AFAMS
AFAMS
AFAMS
Nasal dosage forms: Drops and Sprays
(Insert Dari)
Drugs in solution may be
instilled into the nose from a
dropper or from a plastic
squeeze bottle.
The drug may have a local
effect, e.g. antihistamine,
decongestant.
Alternatively the drug may be
absorbed through the nasal
mucosa to exert a systemic
effect.
AFAMS
How to use a nasal spray
(Insert Dari)
AFAMS
AFAMS
AFAMS
SIG Codes
(Insert Dari)
AFAMS
‫‪SIG Codes : Medical Abbreviations used in prescribing‬‬
‫ختصارات طبی كه در نسخه ها استعمال ميشوند‬
‫معموالً‪ ،‬اصطالحات اختصارای طبی و‬
‫اندازه گيری در زبان التين ميباشد ‪.‬‬
‫اصطالحات التينی توسط پرسونل طبی‬
‫در سرتاسر جهان قابل فهم ميباشد‪ ،‬از‬
‫نگاه تاريخی اين لسان توسط عرضه‬
‫کننده گان صحت در نوشتن نسخه‬
‫استفاده ميشود‪ .‬اصطالحات و‬
‫اختصارات برای جدول های دوز بندی‪،‬‬
‫طريقه های تطبيق‪ ،‬مقدار ها و اعراض‬
‫و همچنان برای ارائه ديگر معلومات‬
‫استفاده ميشود‪ .‬فهميدن معنی اصطالح و‬
‫اختصار بمنظور خود داری از‬
‫سراسيمگی و ترجمه غلط مهم ميباشد‪.‬‬
‫وقتيکه در شک ميباشيد‪ ،‬بهتر است که‬
‫صحت بودن نسخه را همراه با داکتر‬
‫تائيد نمائيد تا اينکه اطمينان حاصل شود‬
‫که ادويه درست به مريض درست‬
‫توزيع شده است‪.‬‬
‫‪AFAMS‬‬
‫‪Commonly, medical and‬‬
‫‪measurement abbreviations are in‬‬
‫‪Latin terms.‬‬
‫‪Latin terms are universally‬‬
‫‪understood by healthcare personnel‬‬
‫‪and the language is historically used‬‬
‫‪by health providers in writing‬‬
‫‪prescriptions.‬‬
‫‪Terms and abbreviations are used to‬‬
‫‪express dosing schedules, routes of‬‬
‫‪administration, quantities and‬‬
‫‪symptoms, as well as other‬‬
‫‪information.‬‬
‫‪It is important to understand the term‬‬
‫‪definition and abbreviation in order‬‬
‫‪to avoid confusion and interpretation‬‬
‫‪error.‬‬
AFAMS
AFAMS
AFAMS
AFAMS
Roman Numerals
(Insert Dari)
Still commonly used when writing
quantities on prescriptions.
Numbers 1 to 10 can be expressed in
Roman numerals as follows:
I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X.
Symbols are placed from left to right in
order of value, starting with the largest.
• the numeral I can be placed before V
and X to make 4 units (IV) and 9 units
(IX) respectively
• X can be placed before L and C to
make 40 (XL) and 90 (XC) respectively
• C can be placed before D and M to
make 400 (CD) and 900 (CM)
according to the same pattern
AFAMS
Roman Numerals
(Insert Dari)
An example using the rules on the
previous slide would be 1904:
this is composed of 1 (one thousand), 9
(nine hundreds), 0 (zero tens), and 4
(four units).
To write the Roman numeral, each of
the non-zero digits should be treated
separately.
Thus 1,000 = M, 900 = CM, and 4 = IV.
Therefore, 1904 is MCMIV.
AFAMS
AFAMS
Units of Measurement
(Insert Dari)
AFAMS
Common Metric Units: Weight
Basic Unit
Equivalent
1 gram (g)
1000 milligrams (mg)
1 milligram (mg)
1 kilogram (kg)
1000 micrograms (mcg),
one thousandth of a gram (g)
1000 grams (g)
AFAMS
Common Metric Units: Length
Basic Unit
Equivalent
1 meter (m)
100 centimeters (cm)
1 centimeter (cm)
0.01 m
10 millimeters (mm)
0.001 m
1 millimeter (mm)
1000 micrometers
or microns (mcm)
AFAMS
Common Metric Units: Volume
Basic Unit
Equivalent
1 liter (L)
1000 milliliters (mL)
1 milliliter (mL)
0.001 L
1000 microliters (mcL)
AFAMS
Calculation Issues
(Insert Dari)
It is extremely important that
decimals be written properly.
An error of a single decimal
place is an error by a factor of
10.
AFAMS
Common Metric Conversions
Conversion
Instruction
Example
kilograms (kg) to
grams (g)
multiply by 1000 (move decimal
point three places to the right)
6.25 kg = 6250 g
grams (g) to
milligrams (mg)
multiply by 1000 (move decimal
point three places to the right)
3.56 g = 3560 mg
milligrams (mg) to
grams (g)
multiply by 0.001 (move decimal
point three places to the left)
120 mg = 0.120 g
AFAMS
Common Metric Conversions
Conversion
Instruction
Example
liters (L) to
milliliters (mL)
multiply by 1000 (move
decimal point three places to the 2.5 L = 2500 mL
right)
milliliters (mL) to
liters (L)
multiply by 0.001 (move
decimal point three places to the 238 mL = 0.238 L
left)
AFAMS
Household Measure: Volume
Measurement Unit
Equivalent within System
1 tsp (teaspoonful)
Metric Equivalent
5 mL
1 tbsp (tablespoonful)
3 tsp
15 mL
1 fl oz (fluid ounce)
2 tbsp
30 mL (29.57 mL)*
1 cup
8 fl oz
240 mL
1 pt (pint)
2 cups
480 mL*
1 qt (quart)
2 pt
960 mL
1 gal (gallon)
4 qt
3840 mL
AFAMS
Household Measure: Weight
Measurement Unit
1 oz (ounce)
1 lb (pound)
2.2 lb
Equivalent within System
16 oz
Metric Equivalent
30 g
454 g
1 kg
AFAMS
In-class Assignment
(Insert Dari)
You will have 5 minutes to complete each question before
the instructor discusses the answers with the class. There
are 5 questions in total.
Insert Dari
AFAMS
1. Match the following Sig Code with it’s meaning
(Insert Dari)
A)
B)
C)
D)
Bid
PRN
UD
O.D.
1)
2)
3)
4)
As needed
As directed
Twice a day
Into the right eye
AFAMS
1. Answer: Match the following Sig Code with it’s meaning
(Insert Dari)
A)
B)
C)
D)
Bid (3) twice a day
PRN(1) as needed
UD (2) as directed
O.D. (4) into the right eye
AFAMS
2. Interpret the following prescription
(Insert Dari)
Blink Fresh gtts
i – ii gtts O.D. qid prn
AFAMS
2. Answer: Interpret the following Sig code.
(Insert Dari)
Blink Fresh gtts
i – ii gtts O.D. qid prn
Mitte: 1 bottle
Answer: Instill 1 to 2 drops in
the right four times a day as
needed.
(Insert Dari)
AFAMS
3. Fill in the blanks
(Insert Dari)
A)
B)
C)
D)
IX = ______
_____= 25
_____= 54
XIV= ______
AFAMS
3. Answer: Fill in the blanks
(Insert Dari)
A)
B)
C)
D)
IX = __9__
__XXV__ = 25
__L IV___= 54
XIV = __24_
AFAMS
4. Write the abbreviation for the following terms.
(Insert Dari)
A)
B)
C)
D)
Three times a day
Into the left eye
Apply to the affected area
At bedtime.
AFAMS
4. Answer: Write the abbreviation for the following terms.
(Insert Dari)
A)
B)
C)
D)
Three times a day – tid
Into the left eye – O.S.
Apply to the affected area - AAA
At bedtime - qhs
AFAMS
5. Right the correct term for the following Sig codes
(Insert Dari)
A)
B)
C)
D)
sc
caps
ung
iv
AFAMS
5. Right the correct term for the following Sig codes
(Insert Dari)
A)
B)
C)
D)
sc - subcutaneous
caps -capsule
ung - ointment
iv - intravenously
AFAMS
Pharmacy Calculations
(Insert Dari)
AFAMS
Prescription Quantity Calculations
(Insert Dari)
It is very important that the
amount of medication to be
dispensed is calculated correctly
based on the prescription.
This ensures that the patient
receives the right treatment for
the appropriate amount of time.
AFAMS
Sample Prescription Calculation #1
(Insert Dari)
Amoxicillin Capsule 500mg
Sig: 1 cap tid x 10 days
What is the quantity to be
dispensed?
AFAMS
Sample Prescription Calculation #1
(Insert Dari)
Amoxicillin Capsule 500mg
Sig: 1 cap tid x 10 days
What is the quantity to be
dispensed?
Calculation: 1 capsule multiplied by
3 times daily = 3 x 10 days = 30
Answer: 30 capsules of amoxicillin
500mg
‫چه مقدار بايد توزيع شود؟‬
3 x =‫ كپسول ضرب در سه وقت در روز‬1 :‫محاسبه‬
30=‫ روز‬10
‫ ملي گرام‬500 ‫ كپسوا اموكسسلين‬30:‫جواب‬
AFAMS
Sample Prescription Calculation #2
(Insert Dari)
Dextromethorphan 5mg/ml syrup
Sig:1 tsp q8h prn x 5 days
What is the quantity to be
dispensed?
AFAMS
Sample Prescription Calculation #2
(Insert Dari)
Dextromethorphan 5mg/ml syrup
Sig:1 tsp q8h prn x 5 days
What is the quantity to be
dispensed?
Calculation: 1 tsp = 5 mls x every 8 hours in one
day (3) when needed x 5 days
Answer: 75mls of Dextromethorpan 5mg/ml
syrup to be dispensed
‫چه مقدار بايد توزيع شود؟‬
‫ ملی ليتر ضرب‬5 = ‫ قاشق چای خوری‬1 :‫محاسبه‬
‫) در صورت ضرورت‬3( ‫ ساعت در يك روز‬8 ‫در‬
‫ روز‬5
Dextromethorpan ‫ ملي ليتر شربت‬75 :‫جواب‬
‫بايد توزيع شود‬5mg/ml
AFAMS
In-class Assignment
(Insert Dari)
You will have 30 min to complete the following 5
problems. After 30 min the instructor will review
the answers with the class.
Insert Dari
AFAMS
Problem #1
(Insert Dari)
Atenolol 50mg tablet
Sig:1 tab po od x 3 months
What is the quantity to be
dispensed?
AFAMS
Problem #1
(Insert Dari)
Atenolol 50mg tablet
Sig:1 tab po od x 3 months
What is the quantity to be
dispensed?
Calculation: 1 tablet to be taken once
daily x 90 days (3 months) = 90
Answer: 90 tablets of Atenolol
50mg to be dispensed
‫چه مقدار بايد توزيع شوند؟‬
‫ روز‬90 x ‫ تابليت در يك روز‬1 :‫محاسبه‬
‫ ملي گرامه‬50 Atenolol ‫ تابليت‬90 :‫جواب‬
‫بايد توزيع شود‬
AFAMS
Problem #2
(Insert Dari)
Humulin N 1000U / 10 ml vial
Sig: Inject 35U qam and 40U qpm
x 1 month
What is the quantity to be
dispensed?
AFAMS
Problem #2
(Insert Dari)
Humulin N 1000U / 10 ml vial
Sig: Inject 35U qam and 40U qpm
x 1 month
What is the quantity to be
dispensed?
Calculation: 35U + 40U = 75 U of
insulin per day x 30 days = 2250U per
month
2250U/ 1000U per vial = 2.25 vial
Answer: 3 vials of Humulin N to be
dispensed since we cannot dispense a
partial insulin vial.
‫چه مقدار بايد تجويز شود؟‬
‫ يونت انسولين در روز و به مدت‬75:‫محاسبه‬
2.25 ‫ يونت در يك ماه يا‬2250= ‫ روز‬30
‫ويال‬
‫ بايد توزيع شود‬Humulin N ‫ ويال‬3 :‫جواب‬
‫بخاطريکه نمی توان يک جز از ويال انسولين‬
.‫را توزيع نمود‬
AFAMS
Problem #3
(Insert Dari)
Morphine Sulfate 5mg
Sig: i tab po q8h x 10 days
What quantity is to be
dispensed?
AFAMS
Problem #3
(Insert Dari)
Morphine Sulfate 5mg
Sig: i tab po q8h x 10 days
What quantity is to be
dispensed?
Tablet every 8 hours = 3 tabs per day
3 tabs per day x 10 days = 30 tablets
AFAMS
Problem #4
(Insert Dari)
Azithromycin 250 mg
Sig: ii tab STAT and then i
tab od for 4/7.
What quantity is to be
dispensed?
AFAMS
Problem #4
(Insert Dari)
Azithromycin 250 mg
Sig: ii tab STAT and then i
tab od for 4/7.
What quantity is to be
dispensed?
2 tablets now = 2 tablets
1 tablet once a day for 4 days = 4 tablets
2+4= 6 tablets
AFAMS
Problem #5
(Insert Dari)
cephalexin 500mg
Sig: i cap qid x 7 days
What quantity is to be
dispensed?
AFAMS
Problem #5
(Insert Dari)
cephalexin 500mg
Sig: i cap qid x 7 days
What quantity is to be
dispensed?
1 capsule 4 times a day= 4 capsules/day
4 capsules/day x 7 days = 28 capsules
AFAMS
Labeling
(Insert Dari)
AFAMS
Labeling a Prescription Medication
(Insert Dari)
This will be covered in much
more detail in EO 003.04.
However, an example will be
shown now in order to facilitate
the upcoming skills lab for this
lesson.
In the skills lab you will receive
a prescription and from that
prescription you must create a
label.
This will require you to:
(1) Interpret the Sig code
(2) Calculate the quantity of
medication required.
AFAMS
AFAMS
Questions?
(Insert Dari)
AFAMS