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George Gerbner’s Model
1956
George Gerbner’s Model
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Gerbner elaborated on Lasswell’s
model and provided a verbal model
that implies ten basic areas of
research
George Gerbner’s Model
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Verbal Model
1. Someone
Communication/Audience research
2. Perceives an event
Perception research & theory
3. And Reacts
Effectiveness measurement
George Gerbner’s Model
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4. In a situation
Study of physical & social setting
5. Through some means
Investigation of channels, media,
controls over facilities
6. To make available materials
Administration, distribution, freedom of
access to materials
George Gerbner’s Model
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7. In some form
Structure, organization, style, pattern
8. And context
Study of communication setting,
sequence
9. Conveying content
Content analysis, study of meaning
George Gerbner’s Model
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10. Of some consequence
Study of over all changes
These ten represent shifts in emphasis
only
Gerbner also provided a pictorial
model
George Gerbner’s Model
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Gerbner’s model attempt’s to produce
a general purpose model of
communication in which the
communication act is seen as
transmission of messages
It is seen as an advance on earlier
models in two ways:
It relates the message with reality and
brings into focus the questions of
perception and meaning
George Gerbner’s Model
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Further it sees the communication
process as two alternative dimensions:
Perceptual and receptive
The communicating or means of
control dimension
George Gerbner’s Model
M
event
Selection context
availability
E
percept
Means and control
(or communicating dimension)
Perpetual dimension
Access to channels
media control
E
M2
SE,
from content
Selection context
availability
SE,
percept of
statement
about event
George Gerbner’s Model
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In this model:
E is an event in external reality as perceived
by M. M selects E according to his
perceptions of the event, the process
involves interaction and negotiation in a
context
The horizontal is the perceptual dimension
George Gerbner’s Model
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In the vertical dimension we give meaning to
whatever we perceive
It is then converted into a signal about E –
SE1
This is called a message – that matches the
external stimuli with internal patterns of
thought and arrives at a perception of the
event SE
We can then say we can find meaning in the
message
George Gerbner’s Model
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The third stage like the first is
horizontal again
M2 looks at SE1 the statement about
the event and through similar process
of interaction and negotiation between
the receiver and the message M2
brings to SE1 a set of needs and
expectations derived from his/her
culture
George Gerbner’s Model
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And this creates a new meaning of the
event through the perception of the
message which becomes SE2
Gerbner brings into focus a complex
process that takes place when an
event is perceived and then converted
into a message or report and then
conveyed to other individuals or
groups in the form of a message or
report