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CHAPTER
10
Communication:
Around the World in 60 Seconds
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Student Version
PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook
The University of West Alabama
Learning Objectives
1. Analyze cultural differences and the impact on
supervisory communication.
2. Explain the communication process and discuss how
variables such as global cultural diversity and media
richness impact communication.
3. List traits of effective communicators and discuss the
power of affirmations and visualization.
4. Explain techniques for effective listening, including
overcoming barriers to communication.
5. Compare proactive and reactive language.
6. Discuss the importance of modifying the message and
delivery to suit the audience.
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
10–2
Culture Matters When Communicating
in Today’s Global Economy
• The Cultural Imperative
 Communication

The transfer of information and understanding from one
person to another person.
 Culture

A population’s taken-for-granted assumptions, values,
beliefs, and symbols that foster patterned behavior.
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
10–3
Imagine that your organization just hired a new supervisor who is in
the process of moving to the United States from Morocco. He
speaks fluent English, but he has never lived or worked in America.
He will be supervising five women and three men. Brainstorm with
your classmates about the following:
1. Are there any cultural dimensions listed in Table 10.1 that could
potentially be a source of misunderstanding due to cultural
differences? Explain.
2. Based on Table 10.1 and the information above, make a list of
topics you think should be included as part of the new
supervisor’s cultural training.
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
10–4
Other Sources of Cultural Diversity
That Impact Communication
Individualism
versus
Collectivism
Time
Language
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Interpersonal
Space
Religion
10–5
Misunderstandings because of time and individual perceptions of
time have long been a source of conflict. What steps can a
supervisor take to avoid potential misunderstandings related to time
for the following situation?
1. Every employee is required to complete the safety training
course by the end of the year. The course is available online in
three separate modules and there is a test at the end. The
supervisor will be on vacation from December 21 to January 3,
so he wants everyone to complete the training before he
leaves. He has people on his team from various parts of the
world, including South America, the Mediterranean, Mexico,
and the United States. How should he communicate with his
team to be sure everyone understands the deadline?
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
10–6
Misunderstandings because of time and individual perceptions of
time have long been a source of conflict. What steps can a
supervisor take to avoid potential misunderstandings related to time
for the following situation?
2. Leslie is ordering a replacement part for a unique and very
expensive piece of equipment that is used to cut metals for
custom work her company performs. They need the part by
next Tuesday and it is being sent from Latin America, which
means it probably needs to be shipped today or tomorrow at
the latest. The e-mail confirmation she receives indicates that it
will be sent “right away.” How should Leslie respond to this email to be sure the part reaches her company on time?
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
10–7
Components of the Communication
Process
• Encoding
 Is translating internal thought patterns into a language
or code that the intended receiver of the message
should be able to understand.
 Is designed to attract the attention of the receiver.
• Factors in Choosing Symbols for Encoding
 Nature of message




Technical or nontechnical
Emotional or factual
Media
Cultural/language differences
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
10–8
Components of the Communication
Process (cont’d)
• Communication Medium
 Is the form chosen to transmit a message.
 Internal forms:




Face-to-face conversations, meetings, telephone calls
E-mails, instant messaging (IM), blogs
Memos, letters, computer reports, network file sharing
Photographs, bulletin boards, organizational publications
 External forms:


News releases, press conferences
Advertising on television and radio or in magazines, in
newspapers, and on the Internet
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
10–9
Components of the Communication
Process (cont’d)
• Media Richness
 Is the capacity of a given medium to convey
information and promote learning.
 Varies from rich media that high personalized to lean
media which is impersonal.
 Challenges supervisors to match media richness to
the situation.
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
10–10
Complete the following by matching the message with the
communication transmission media you think is most appropriate
for the type of message being sent.
Type of
Message
Choose the
Best Match
Transmission
Media
1. Performance counseling and/or
appraisal.
a. E-mail
2. Plans to lay off 50 employees by
the end of the year.
b. Face-to-face, one-on-one in
person
3. Last-minute change in plans, the
meeting will start at 3:00, not 1:00
as originally scheduled.
c. Face-to-face, group meeting in
person
4. Announcing plans for the
company’s annual holiday party.
d. Company website posting
5. Promotional notice advertising
new product.
e. Phone call
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
10–11
Components of the Communication
Process (cont’d)
• Decoding
 Is translating the packaged message into a format
that the receiver can comprehend.
• Feedback
 Verbal or nonverbal feedback from the receiver to the
sender is required as senders do not know whether
their ideas have been accurately understood.
• Noise
 Is any interference with the normal flow of
understanding from one person to another.
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
10–12
1. Select one of the examples of noise that may interfere with the
sending and receiving of a message. Identify two things you
can do to eliminate this noise or make accommodations to
reduce the interference it may cause.
1.
2.
2. Imagine that one of your sources of noise is frequent
interruptions. What are two steps you can take to reduce this
source of noise?
1.
2.
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
10–13
Improving Organizational
Communications
Making
Communications
More Effective
Take steps to make verbal
and written messages more
understandable
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Minimize system noise by
foreseeing and neutralizing
or accommodating potential
sources of interference
10–14
Communication Strategies
Spray and Pray
Tell and Sell
Communication
Continuum
Underscore and Explore
Identify and Reply
Withhold and Uphold
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
10–15
The Art of Listening
• Barriers to Effective Listening:
 Your relationship to the other person (colleague,
supervisor, employee, friend or enemy).
 The response or information wanted or expected.
 What you assume the other person already knows or
believes.
 How high your need is for the other person’s approval
or respect.
 How knowledgeable or credible you assume the other
person is.
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
10–16
Techniques for Effective Listening
• Focus on the person and the message
• Ask good open-ended questions
• Ask relevant follow-up questions
• Tolerate occasional silences
• Practice self-awareness by listening with
“positive intent.”
• “Read between the lines” to decipher both the
speaker’s words and nonverbal communications.
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
10–17
Proactive Language Versus
Reactive Language
• Proactive Language
 Expresses a “can do” attitude:



Focuses on what can be controlled or at least influenced.
Accepts responsibility for the situation.
Indicates a determination to take action to move forward in
resolving a problem or overcoming an obstacle.
• Reactive language
 Expresses a negative, hopeless attitude:



Focuses on failure and defeat from the start.
Denies responsibility for the present situation.
Becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy of victimization by outside
forces and loss of control over destiny.
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
10–18
Proactive Language Versus Reactive
Language (cont’d)
• Proactive Statements
• Reactive Statements
 Let’s look at our alternatives.
 There’s nothing I can do.
 I can choose a different
 That’s just the way I am.







approach.
I control my own feelings.
I can create an effective
presentation.
I will choose an appropriate
response.
I can make a difference here.
I choose.
I prefer.
I will.
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
 He makes me so mad.
 They won’t allow that.
 I have to do that.
 I can’t.
 I must.
 If only.
10–19
Consider the following scenario and replace the reactive language
with a more proactive response.
1. Mari is a supervisor at the local pet store. She does not have to
work every day, but she is ultimately responsible for staffing.
She is scheduled to have Saturday off to attend a football game
with friends. Around 9:00 A.M., one of her employees calls her
at home to say he is sick and he is not going to be able to go to
work. She calls her friend to say, “I have to go into work today,
so I can’t attend the football game.” What do you think would be
a more proactive response to this situation?
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
10–20
Consider the following scenario and replace the reactive language
with a more proactive response.
2. Kane is the supervisor at an electronic game store. A customer
walks into the store and asks to pick up her game console that
she ordered last week. Kane informs the customer that it has
not arrived yet. The customer expresses her dissatisfaction, to
which Kane responds, “There is nothing I can do.” What do you
think would be a more proactive response to this situation?
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
10–21
Adapting the Message to the Audience
• Factors that Influence
Communication Styles:
 Age
 Gender
 Education level
 Ethnic background
 Geographic location
 Place of origin and
education
 Cultural differences
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
10–22
Adapting the Message… (cont’d)
• Vocabulary and Effective Writing:
 Keep words simple.
 Don’t sacrifice communication
to rules of composition.
 Write concisely.
 Be specific.
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
10–23
Adapting the Message… (cont’d)
• Communicating with Groups:
 Define terms and explain concepts to establish a
baseline of knowledge in the audience.
 Choose simple words presented in a concise
manner.
 Limit message to one or two main points.
 Solicit feedback to be sure everyone understands
before moving to the next topic.
 Slow down and repeat difficult ideas if nonverbal
feedback indicates confusion.
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
10–24
TERMS TO UNDERSTAND
affirmation statements
collectivist cultures
communication
communication medium
culture
decoding
encoding
individualistic cultures
media richness
monochronic time
noise
polychronic time
visualization
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
10–25