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TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Terrorism and Global Security
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Objectives
•
Explain why nuclear, biological, and chemical
weapons threaten global security.
•
Analyze the various terrorist groups and why they
are becoming more and more dangerous.
•
Describe the various ways in which the United
States and other nations have responded to
terrorism.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Terms and People
•
proliferate – rapidly spread
•
terrorism – the use of violence by groups of
extremists to achieve political goals
•
al Qaeda – a fundamentalist Islamic terrorist
organization led by Saudi Arabian Osama bin Laden
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Terms and People (continued)
•
Afghanistan – an Islamic country in Central
Asia; invaded by the Soviet Union in 1979;
later home to the terrorist organization al Qaeda
•
Taliban – Islamic fundamentalist group that
governed Afghanistan for nearly ten years until
ousted by the United States in 2002
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
What kinds of threats to national and
global security do nations face today?
An end to global conflict seemed possible at the
end of the Cold War.
However, threats from terrorism, nuclear
weapons, and other weapons of mass
destruction continue to endanger the world.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT)
exists to stop nuclear weapons from
proliferating, or spreading rapidly.
•
Some nations have not signed it, including India,
Pakistan, and Israel.
•
Some nations’ nuclear energy programs raised
fears that they were really designed to develop
nuclear weapons.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
When the
Soviet Union
collapsed, its
nuclear arsenal
was not secure.
• The United States and
Europe gave aid to
Russia to dismantle its
nuclear weapons.
• However, the nuclear
materials from those
weapons were not
always secure.
• The United States and
Russia held onto their
nuclear stockpiles.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) come
in many different forms.
Nuclear
Weapons such as the atom
bomb
Biological
Germs that can be released
into the air or a water supply
Chemical
Toxins such as nerve gas
Recently, terrorist groups and “rogue states” have
tried to acquire WMDs.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons
are located throughout the world.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
One of the threats
to global security
today is terrorism.
Terrorism is the use
of violence by groups
of extremists to
achieve political goals.
Some terrorist groups are regional, such as the
FARC in Columbia, ETA in Spain, and the Shining
Path in Peru.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Conflict in the Middle East has helped fuel
terrorism.
•
The establishment of the state of Israel angered
Arabs. Several terrorists groups were formed with
the goal of destroying Israel and establishing an
independent Palestinian state.
•
Many Muslims also resented American political,
economic, and cultural influence in the region.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Islamic fundamentalism is a movement that
wants to revive Islamic values and install
governments that follow Islamic law.
• It is a response to secular governments in Muslim
nations, foreign support for Israel, and the presence
of foreign powers in the Middle East.
• Islamic fundamentalists blame Israel and Western
nations for their problems.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Osama bin Laden, a wealthy Saudi, led the
radical fundamentalist group al Qaeda.
He was determined to expel American business,
military, and political influence from Saudi Arabia.
Al Qaeda launched terrorist attacks against two U.S.
embassies in Africa in 1998 and an American naval
vessel in an Arabian port in 2000.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
On September 11, 2001, al Qaeda terrorists
made a deadly strike within the United States.
• They crashed two hijacked airplanes into the
World Trade Center in New York City and
another into the Pentagon in Washington.
• A fourth plane crashed in a field in
Pennsylvania when passengers fought back.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
More than 2,500 people were murdered on
September 11. It was the deadliest
terrorist attack ever on American soil.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
President George W. Bush declared a “war on
terror” after the 2001 attacks.
The United States strengthened its intelligence and
security services, and launched an effort to cut off
terrorist groups’ funding.
Some thought that
antiterrorist
measures violated
civil rights and gave
too much power to
the government.
Others argued
that the threat
of terrorism
justified strong
measures.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
The United States invaded Afghanistan to find and
punish the perpetrators of the attack.
The Taliban in
Afghanistan
refused to meet
U.S. demands to
surrender the
terrorists.
U.S. and
allied forces
invaded
Afghanistan
in 2001 and
overthrew
the Taliban.
They helped
the country
hold elections
and lifted
harsh Taliban
laws.
U.S. troops remained in Afghanistan into 2012.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
The war in Afghanistan spilled over into
neighboring Pakistan.
• The government of Pakistan agreed to support
the United States in the war on terror.
• At the same time, western Pakistan became a
haven for terrorist groups.
• In 2011, U.S. Navy Seals raided a compound
in Pakistan, where they found and killed al
Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
In 2003, the United States invaded Iraq.
• President Bush cited reports that said that Iraq
was producing WMDs, and suggested that Iraq
was involved in the 2001 attacks on the United
States.
• The invasion toppled Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein,
but no WMDs were found.
• Americans bitterly debated the war.
• President Barack Obama withdrew almost all U.S.
troops from Iraq in 2011, ending the Iraq War.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Nuclear programs in authoritarian nations
threatened global security.
•
Iran announced plans to develop nuclear power
plants in the early 2000s. By 2012, Americans
were debating whether to take military action
against Iran.
•
North Korea withdrew from the Nuclear
Nonproliferation Treaty in 2003. The death of
North Korea’s longtime dictator in 2011 created
uncertainty.