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Chapter 36 Animal Behavior Section 1: Evolution of Behavior Section 2: Types of Behavior Section 1 Evolution of Behavior Objectives: •Distinguish between "how" and "why" questions about behavior. •Describe how natural selection shapes behavior. •Compare innate and learned behaviors. •Summarize how behavior is influenced by both heredity and learning. Section 1 Evolution of Behavior What is Behavior? •What is a Behavior? A behavior is an action or a series of actions performed in response to a stimulus. Section 1 Evolution of Behavior Natural Selection and Behavior •Individual Selection Natural selection favors behavioral traits that increase the likelihood of an individual’s survival and reproduction. Section 1 Evolution of Behavior Genetically Influenced Behavior •Demonstrating the Genetic Basis of Behavior Genetically programmed behaviors are called innate behaviors, instincts, or fixed action pattern behaviors, and there is little or no variation in how they are performed. Section 1 Evolution of Behavior Learning and Behavior •Learning Learning is the modification of behavior by experience. •Classical Conditioning Learning may occur by association with an unrelated stimulus (classical conditioning). •Trial-and-Error Learning Learning may also occur by trial-and-error (one type of which is operant conditioning). •Reasoning Reasoning is the ability to think of a possible solution to a problem. Section 1 Evolution of Behavior Genetic and Learned Aspects of Behavior •Origin of Behavior Many behaviors, especially complex behaviors, have both genetic and learned aspects. •Imprinting Learning determines the final shape of many genetically based behaviors, such as imprinting. Section 2 Types of Behavior Objectives: •Discuss six types of animal behavior. •Discuss how animals use signals. •Summarize how sexual selection can influence evolution. Section 2 Types of Behavior Categories of Animal Behavior •Influences on Behavior Animal behaviors fall into several broad categories, which include parental care, courtship behavior, defensive behavior, foraging behavior, migratory behavior, and territorial behavior. Section 2 Types of Behavior Communication •Signals Most animals use signals, often vocal or visual, to communicate with one another. •Primate Communication Primates are unique among animals in using symbols to communicate. •Human Communication The human ability to learn language rapidly during childhood seems to be genetically influenced. Section 2 Types of Behavior Reproductive Behavior •Mate Choice By the mechanism of sexual selection, traits that increase the ability of an individual to attract a mate appear with increased frequency.