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Chapter 36
Animal Behavior
Section 1: Evolution of Behavior
Section 2: Types of Behavior
Section 1
Evolution of Behavior
•Distinguish between "how" and "why" questions
about behavior.
•Describe how natural selection shapes behavior.
•Compare innate and learned behaviors.
•Summarize how behavior is influenced by both
heredity and learning.
Section 1
Evolution of Behavior
What is Behavior?
•What is a Behavior? A behavior is an action or a
series of actions performed in response to a stimulus.
Section 1
Evolution of Behavior
Natural Selection and Behavior
•Individual Selection Natural selection favors
behavioral traits that increase the likelihood of an
individual’s survival and reproduction.
Section 1
Evolution of Behavior
Genetically Influenced Behavior
•Demonstrating the Genetic Basis of Behavior
Genetically programmed behaviors are called innate
behaviors, instincts, or fixed action pattern behaviors,
and there is little or no variation in how they are
Section 1
Evolution of Behavior
Learning and Behavior
•Learning Learning is the modification of behavior
by experience.
•Classical Conditioning Learning may occur by
association with an unrelated stimulus (classical
•Trial-and-Error Learning Learning may also occur
by trial-and-error (one type of which is operant
•Reasoning Reasoning is the ability to think of a
possible solution to a problem.
Section 1
Evolution of Behavior
Genetic and Learned Aspects of Behavior
•Origin of Behavior Many behaviors, especially
complex behaviors, have both genetic and learned
•Imprinting Learning determines the final shape of
many genetically based behaviors, such as
Section 2
Types of Behavior
•Discuss six types of animal behavior.
•Discuss how animals use signals.
•Summarize how sexual selection can influence
Section 2
Types of Behavior
Categories of Animal Behavior
•Influences on Behavior Animal behaviors fall into
several broad categories, which include parental care,
courtship behavior, defensive behavior, foraging
behavior, migratory behavior, and territorial behavior.
Section 2
Types of Behavior
•Signals Most animals use signals, often vocal or
visual, to communicate with one another.
•Primate Communication Primates are unique
among animals in using symbols to communicate.
•Human Communication The human ability to learn
language rapidly during childhood seems to be
genetically influenced.
Section 2
Types of Behavior
Reproductive Behavior
•Mate Choice By the mechanism of sexual selection,
traits that increase the ability of an individual to
attract a mate appear with increased frequency.