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Did Industry Improve Society?
Many factors promoted industrialization,
including cheap labor, new inventions and
technology, and plentiful raw materials.
Railroads rapidly expanded, while
government policies encouraged economic
• What changes in lifestyle do you think occurred because of
• How do you think industrialization changed American politics?
The Rise of Industry
What economic policies allowed industries to expand
after the Civil War?
The Railroads
How did the railroads encourage the settlement of the
Plains and the West?
Big Business
Why did captains of industry such as Andrew
Carnegie expand their businesses through new ways
of organization?
Why did workers form unions?
Big Ideas
Government and Society The United States
government adopted a policy of laissez-faire
economics, allowing business to expand.
The United States Industrializes
Natural resources and a large labor
force allowed the United States to
industrialize rapidly.
Lets Start a Business
 Pick a Business
 What resources do you need
 How to you make it
 Make a flow chart of how you use
the resources
New Inventions
During the late 1800s, inventions such
as the telephone and the lightbulb
spurred economic development.
Telephone past and present
 Pull up the worksheet from Mr. Phillips’ world
Europeans Flood Into America
Immigrants from Europe came to the
United States for many reasons and
entered the country through Ellis
Minnesota Imigration
 Swede Hollow Power Point
 Immigration Power Point
Free Enterprise
Laissez-faire economics promoted
industrialization, but tariffs protected
American companies from competition.
 Laissez-Faire: Hands off
 Entrepreneurs: Take Risk
 Tariffs: taxes on Imports
 Morrill Tariff- passed after civil war by Republican
congress. Greatly increased tariff rates
 Do you think Government policies helped or hindered
industrialization and why
Big Ideas
Science and Technology The growth of railroads
encouraged development of the Plains and Western
Linking the Nation
After the Civil War, the rapid
construction of railroads accelerated
the nation’s industrialization and
linked the country together.
Transcontinental Railway
Pacific Railway Act:1862
-Union Pacific
-Central Pacific
“everything- rails, ties, building
supplies, fuel for locomotives
and trains, supplies for the
men and animals on the entire
work – had to be transported
from the Missouri River”
Robber Barons
The government helped finance
railroad construction by providing land
grants, but this system also led to
Time Zone Writing activity
Robber Barron v. Captains of
 Cornelius Vanderbilt, (The Men Who Built America)
 Credit Mobilier Scandal: 1872
 Investors owned both The Union Pacific and Credit
Mobilier. Signed contracts with themselves.
Gouged the Union Pacific and added miles to track
Same investors controlled both…agreed to pay
When land grants were over, sold shares to congress way
below cost
A letter to a newspaper listing all members of congress
who accepted shares
--Rise of the term Robber Barrons
Big Ideas
Economics and Society Business people such as
Andrew Carnegie developed new ways to expand
The Rise of Big Business
Corporations could produce goods
more efficiently, which allowed the rise
of big business.
Steel Production
 Writing activity
 Document on Mr. Phillips World
Consolidating Industry
Business leaders devised new and
larger forms of business organizations
and new ways to promote their
Remember your Business
 Expand your business
 What do you need ( Assume you have the
 Low costs
 Higher production
 Profit
 Present your ideas
(Chapter 5 section 3)
Big Ideas
Struggles for Rights Unions grew and labor unrest
intensified as workers fought for more rights.
Working in the United States
Low wages, long hours, and difficult
working conditions caused resentment
among workers and led to efforts to
organize unions.
Struggling to Organize
Workers began to form unions to fight
for better wages and working
conditions but had few successes.
New Unions Emerge
The AFL fought for skilled workers;
new unions tried to organize unskilled
Business v. Worker Project
 Details to follow
Causes of Industrialization
• Abundant natural resources
• Cheap immigrant labor force
• High tariffs reduce the import
of foreign goods
• National transportation and
communication networks
Causes of the Growth of Big Business
• Little or no government
• Development of pools,
trusts, holding companies,
• Small businesses could not compete
with economies of scale of larger businesses
• Practices of some big businesses sometimes limited
Effects on the Workplace
• Rural migration and immigration
created large, concentrated
• Low wages, long hours, and
dangerous working conditions
were common in large-scale
• First large unions formed but
had little bargaining power
against larger companies