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Greek and Roman
Goddesses, and
Roman name Salicia
Queen of the Sea
Controls ocean creatures.
Hid from Poseidon but later
had to marry him. Symbol,
like Poseidon, is the trident.
Terms: Saline
Roman name Venus
Born from sea foam caused by
Uranus’ blood, she is the goddess of
love, beauty and fertility. She has a
magic girdle which makes others fall
in love with the wearer. Married to
Hephaestus, but in love with Adonis.
Responsible for the Trojan War.
Symbols: Doves, sparrows.
Terms: aphrodisiac, Venus
Roman name Apollo / Phoebus
God of sun, light, truth, reason,
prophesy, medicine, the arts, music,
agriculture, and healing. He draws the
sun w/his chariot. Has healing power;
carries gold bow & arrows & appears
golden, like the sun. Twin brother of
Artemis; tamed the muses; killed the
Python at Delphi
Symbols: raven, swan, wolf
Terms: Apollo, appolonian
Roman name Mars
God of war, or more precisely of
warlike frenzy. Shape-shifting and
healing powers. Unpredictable
personality (sometimes ran from
battle). Often pictured w/bloody
spear; young, strong, & handsome; in
love w/Aphrodite
Symbol: vulture
Terms: areocentric, martial, March,
Roman name Diana
Apollo’s twin sister, she is the
goddess of hunting and the moon.
100% accurate shot w/bow &
arrow; healing powers. Appears
silver, like the moon; draws moon
across the sky w/chariot drawn
by silver stags. Chose never to
marry; she helped women in
childbirth, but also was merciless
if angered.
Symbol: hunting hounds
Roman name Minerva
Born full-grown from the head of Zeus,
Athena was the goddess of wisdom, war,
reason, justice, and domestic arts. She
was the patron goddess of Athens & a
better warrior than even Ares. Often
depicted with her helmet & Zeus’ shield.
Took the name Pallas-Athena after
accidentally killing her friend, Pallas, in
Symbols: owl, olive tree
Terms: parthenon (from “parthenos”–
maiden), Athens, athenaeum
Earth carrier, sky
carrier, god of
astronomy. Defeat by
Zeus in battle led to
punishment of
supporting the heavens;
brother of Prometheus.
Terms: Atlas, Atlas
Mountains, Atlantic
Phoenician prince &
hero (mortal); brave,
dependable, good
leader. Brother of
Europa (his sister);
founder of Thebes;
killed dragon, planted
its teeth and soldiers of
Thebe were formed;
created alphabet for the
Roman name Saturn
“Last of the Titans” – killed
his father (Uranus);
overthrown by son (Zeus);
domain was Earth, time & the
ages. Sometimes referred to
as “father time”
Symbols: sickle
Terms: chronology,
chronological, titanic ,
saturnine, saturnalia
Roman name Ceres
Goddess of harvest, earth,
grain, & agriculture. Daughter,
Persephone, was abducted by
Hades. Saddened by
Persephone’s absence (1/2 the
year with Hades), when
Demeter mourns, it is Winter;
Summer is when she is happy
her daughter has returned
w/her; often seen w/a torch to
search for her daughter
Terms: Cereal
Roman name Bacchus
God of wine, drama, poetry,
song, celebration, pleasure, and
theater. Attracted fanatical
followers, esp. women
(maenads); often accompanied
by satyrs in his travels; Grants
followers the power to tear
animals or people limb from
limb, bare-handed
Symbols: chalice, grapes
Terms: dionysian, bacchanal,
Bacchic, bacchant
Nymph who kept Hera
distracted while Zeus
had his affairs; b/c she
offended Hera, she
was condemned to
repeat the last few
words anyone said to
her; fell in love
w/Narcissus but was
Terms: echo
Roman name Cupid
God of love; Youngest of
gods; sometimes shown
as blindfolded; fell in love
w/Psyche when he was
grazed by his own arrow;
Golden-tipped arrows –
cause humans AND gods
to fall in love; lead
Terms: erotic, cupidity
Roman name Moirai or Moerae
The three sisters who
spin, measure, and cut
the thread of life, (i.e.,
the destiny of humans):
Clotho – thread of life;
Lachesis – chance;
Atropos – inevitability
Terms: fate, morose,
morbid, mortality
Roman name Erinyes
Goddesses of vengeance; Three
Sisters: Tisiphone -avenger of
murder; Megaera - the jealous;
and Alecto - constant anger ;
Punishers of all crime;
sometimes called “Daughters of
Night”; usually depicted
w/snakes for hair & blooddripping eyes; They could strike
madness on their victims
Terms: fury, furious, infuriated
Roman name Tellus or Terra
Goddess of the earth (“mother
nature”); Commands the forces
of nature; mystical powers;
Mother of all Titans, giants,
Cyclopes, mountains, seas, first
Symbols: earth
Terms: Geology, geography,
Roman name Pluto
Hades was the God of the dead and
ruler of the Underworld, which was
called Hades after the god. Hades
abducted Persephone, who became
his queen. Owns all precious metals.
Possesses a helmet of invisibility that
can be lent to mortals
Symbols: three-headed dog
(Cerberus) representing past, present
and future OR birth, youth, and old
Terms: plutonian, plutonic, plutonium,
(Roman name Trivia)
Goddess of magic,
sorcery, witchcraft,
dogs, and crossroads.
Earth, heaven, and sea
are her domain.
Possesses many
magical powers
Symbols: torch, key
Terms: trivia, trivial
Roman name Sol
Titan God of the sun, not to
be confused with Apollo,
who was an Olympian ; has
chariot & horses that draw
sun across sky; often
believed to be able to “see
everything” (like Santa!  )
Symbols: sun
Terms: solar,
Roman name Vulcan
Hephaestus was the friendly
god of fire, crafts , pottery,
sculpture, and blacksmiths.
The only immortal who is
ugly and lame. Crafted
weapons, armor, & jewels
for gods. Married Aphrodite
Symbols: fire, axe, hammer
Terms: volcano, volcanic,
Roman name Juno
Jealous goddess and protector of
marriage. She was the wife of Zeus
and Queen of the Olympians.
Known for her jealous temper, she
can inflict madness upon others;
had a rivalry w/Athena &
Aphrodite; supported Greeks in
Trojan War; often very cruel; famed
for her white arms (a sign of
Symbols: peacock
Terms: June
Roman name Mercury
Hermes was the messenger of the
gods, protector of travelers, and
guide of dead souls to the
underworld. Worshipped by
merchants & thieves; “invented”
boxing, & gymnastics. Wears
winged sandals and/or helmet
that provide speedy flight; he is
quick-witted & inventive
Terms: Hermetic, Mercury,
Roman name Vesta
Goddess of the hearth & home
with powerful protective
ability. Sister of Zeus who
gave up her place on Olympus
to Dionysus. Uninterested in
adventure; most loved
Symbols: Often seen with fire,
but did not bother to choose
an emblem for herself
Terms: Vestibule, vestal
Roman name JANUS
(Worshipped only by the Romans)
God of beginnings and
endings. Has two faces
and therefore the
ability to look forward
and behind
simultaneously, often
seen over gates and
Terms: January, Janus-
Roman name Camenae
Goddesses of the arts & sciences
& inspiration, they provide
inspiration and skills to mortals in
the arts and sciences: Calliope,
epic poetry; Cleio, history;
Ourania, astronomy; Thaleia,
comedy; Melpomene, tragedy;
Polyhymnia, religious hymns;
Erato, erotic poetry; Euterpe, lyric
poetry; and Terpsichore, choral
song and dance.
Terms: muse, music, museum,
Concern for his own beauty
hurt anyone who fell in love
w/him b/c of his indifference
& egotism; caused Echo to
fade away to nothing; took
his own life when he realized
he could never love anyone
as much as himself
Terms: narcissistic,
narcissism, narcissus flower
Roman name Victoria
Goddess of victory; granted
triumph to whomever she
chose. Awarded prizes to
winners of contests; sometimes
depicted in a flowing robe
beside Athena. 3 SIBLINGS:
Zelos = rivalry, Kratos =
strength, Bia = force
Terms: victor, victory
Roman name Faunus
God of nature, shepherds,
woods, pastures, poetry,
sensuality, He has a man’s
body w/goat’s legs; sometimes
goat’s horns are seen on him;
plays flute; He is wild & unpredictable—can cause sudden
terror for people
Terms: panic, panpipe, Faun,
Roman name Proserpina (sometimes called Kore)
Queen of the underworld,
married to Hades. Daughter
of Zeus and Demeter, she is
the “goddess of Springtime.”
Could cause plant life to
grow (fertility). Was
abducted by Hades and
forced to eat pomegranate,
causing her to stay in the
underworld (see Demeter)
Symbols: Wreath of flowers
Roman name Neptune
God of the sea, earthquakes and
horses. Zeus’ brother and one of the
supreme gods of Mount Olympus.
Fought w/Zeus against the Titans;
2nd most powerful god. Created first
horse out of sea as gift to humans,
however, does not mix with mortals
much. Known for his vengeance, he
can cause storms, floods, and
Symbols: dolphin, trident are his
Terms: Neptune, neptunium
Roman name Cybele
Mother of the Olympians;
daughter of Uranus and Gaea;
wife and sister of Cronus. Her
name means “flow,” or “ease” and
refers to both water and birth.
Saved her son Zeus from being
swallowed by his father Cronus
by giving Cronus a rock to
swallow instead. Considered a
very peaceful and gentle
Symbols: Swan, oak tree moon
Roman name Jupiter
Zeus was the supreme god of the
Olympians and reigned over all
earth and sky. He was saved by
his mother from being swallowed
by his father & then helped
rescue his siblings. He is very
fond of earth and getting
involved w/humans.
Symbols: thunderbolt, eagle ,
oak tree
Terms: Jupiter, jovial