Download Introduction to Shipping - The Shipping Federation of Canada

Document related concepts

History of research ships wikipedia , lookup

Sea captain wikipedia , lookup

Oil Pollution Act of 1990 wikipedia , lookup

Marine pollution wikipedia , lookup

Cruise ship pollution in the United States wikipedia , lookup

Regulation of ship pollution in the United States wikipedia , lookup

Environmental impact of shipping wikipedia , lookup

Introduction to Shipping
Lecture 10
Environmental Sustainability of Shipping
Shipping’s Main
Environmental Footprints
Ballast water
Oil spills
Marine wastes (operational discharges)
– Garbage (including cargo residues)
– Sewage (black & grey water)
– Oily residues from engine room (bilge water &
Air emissions
– SOx, NOx, PMs
– CO2
Main Environmental Footprint
Regulatory Regime
International Regime:
MARPOL 73/78 (umbrella convention):
– Six Annexes addressing different sources of
operational pollution; can be ratified individually
- Annex I - Oil
- Annex II – Liquid Noxious Substances
- Annex III – Packaged Cargo
- Annex IV – Sewage
- Annex V – Garbage
- Annex VI – Air pollution
Subject-specific conventions:
– on ballast water, oil spill preparedness and response, etc.
Regulatory Regime
Source: Uson Marine’s website
Regulatory Regime
Canadian Regime:
Vessel Pollution & Dangerous Chemical Regulations
– Adopted under the Canada Shipping Act
Address discharges from ships (Part 2):
 Oil (Division 1)
 Noxious liquid substances & dangerous chemicals
(Division 2)
Marine pollutants (Division 3)
Sewage (Division 4)
Garbage (Division 5) (including cargo residues)
Air (Division 6)
Greywater (Division 9)
Management of Ballast Water
Ballast Water
1. What is the issue?:
BW is water carried by ships to ensure
stability, trim and structural integrity
– Essential for un-laden ships, loading/unloading
Shipping transfers between 3 to 5 billion
tonnes of BW internationally each year
(IMO data)
– Excluding BW volume transferred domestically
Ballast Water
Source: Globallast Partnerships (IMO)
Ballast Water
Discharge of BW & sediments can lead to
transfer of organisms from one marine
ecosystem into another
– Organisms small enough to pass through the ship’s
BW pumps
Bacteria , other microbes, small invertebrates and eggs, cysts,
larvae, etc
– Over 7000 different species can potentially be carried
in ship’s BW tanks (IMO data)
Vast majority won’t survive the journey…
BUT, when factors are favorable, damages to host
ecosystems are significant (ecologically & economically)
Ballast Water
European Zebra Mussel believed to have
been introduced in Great Lakes through BW
– Impacts:
Believed to be responsible for extinction of many native
species in the GL
Threat to human health: Zebra mussels take in hazardous
compounds such as PCBs – and enter our food chain
through fish and waterfowl that eat the mussels
Block pipelines, clogging water intakes of municipal water
supplies and hydro companies , etc
– Estimated costs:
Over $5 billion for industries, businesses and communities
Ballast Water
International Regime:
– In 1991, IMO adopted first set of Guidelines for the
control and management of ships’ ballast water
Promoted mid-ocean ballast exchange (subject to safety of
– In 2004, IMO adopted the Ballast Water Management
Convention – requires:
BW exchange (“temporary options”)
– Limits: safety concerns, salinity tolerance, sediments, etc
Onboard BW treatment to be phased in; would be required
for all vessels by 2016; and
Ship‐specific BW management plan, record book and
international BW management certificate
Ballast Water
Ballast Water
International Regime - Challenges:
– Availability of BW treatment technology and
feasibility of retrofitting vessels
In 2004, expectations were that BW treatment technology
would be ready by 2009; not the case
In summer 2013, only a limited number of vessels had been
fitted with onboard BW treatment technologies ; In fall 2013,
IMO adopted a resolution to delay implementation
– Period of retrofitting for the world fleet will now be between 2017-2021
(instead of the original timeframe of 2016-2019)
Types of BW treatment technologies:
– Chemical treatment, heating, filtration, ultraviolet light, chlorination, etc.
– There are about 40 BW treatment system approved to date
Ballast Water
International Regime - Challenges:
– Convention not yet in force:
Although number of ratifications required (30) has
been exceeded (36), necessary percentage of the
world fleet (35%) has yet to be reached
US has not yet ratified the Convention…
– Issues with states developing their own
local/regional requirements
Ballast Water
Canadian Context:
– In 1989, Canadian guidelines for voluntary BW
exchange for vessels entering the Great Lakes:
Precursor to the IMO guidelines…
Expanded in 2000 to apply nationally
– Legal requirements ( 2006 and 2011) **
Ocean going vessels entering Canadian waters must:
– Conduct mandatory mid-ocean BW exchange and/or
– Treat BW to IMO standards; and/or
– Retain BW onboard
Inspection: salinity (30 ppm) of BW measured with a
** Ballast Water Control and Management Regulations (under the CSA 2001)
Ballast Water
Canadian Context:
– Exclusion for coastal navigation:
Not applicable if ships operate solely between
certain ports on the west coast and east coast
– Eg: Vessels trading between ports North of Cape Cod up
to Newfoundland
Canadian fleet (including lakers in the Great
– Canada ratified BW Convention in 2010
Ongoing review of Canadian regulations
One scenario: extending requirement to domestic
Oil Spills
Oil Spills
Two main sources of oil spills (accidental):
– Vessels using oil /bunker as fuel for
– Tankers carrying oil as cargo
*** Operational discharges of oily waste will be addressed later
Oil Spills
Oil spills from tankers have decreased significantly, while oil trade
has increased…
Source” Intertanko, Jeddah, 31 May 2010
Oil Spills
International Regime:
– International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from
Ships (MARPOL 73/78) – Annex 1
Phasing out of single-hull tankers
Requirements for vessels to carry a shipboard oil pollution plan, etc
– International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness,
Response and Cooperation (OPRC 90)
Countries that have ratified the Convention must establish measures to deal
with oil pollution in their waters, either nationally or regionally
Ships required to carry a shipboard oil pollution emergency plan; report any
oil spill incidents to coastal authorities;
Requirements for stockpiling adequate equipment for combating oil spills,
holding exercises and training, etc.
Oil Spills
International Regime:
– Civil Liability Conventions (CLC) – Ensure adequate compensation
to cover oil pollution damage resulting from maritime casualties
involving oil
CLC for Oil Pollution imposes strict (no fault) liability on shipowner for pollution
damage from tankers; however, NOT absolute liability – i.e. Convention and its
Protocol set financial liability for any one incident (unless shipowner is at fault) shipowners must have insurance/security to demonstrate ability to meet financial
liability (1992 CLC Certificate)
International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund complements CLC Convention &
Protocol by establishing international fund with additional compensation for victims of
pollution damage when CLC compensation is inadequate or unobtainable; burden is
shared between shipowners and cargo interests
CLC for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage addresses liability for pollution damages
resulting from bunkers of ships other than tankers; provides for compulsory insurance
This civil liability regime implemented in Canada through Marine Liability Act
Oil Spills
Canadian Regime - Ship’s source oil pollution
prevention, preparedness and response regime:
– Regulatory agencies
Transport Canada (TC), Canadian Coast Guard and
Environment Canada
– Since 2010 only double hulled foreign flagged tankers
calling in Canadian waters
– All non-Canadian flag tankers inspected by TC
Marine Safety on their first call to Canada in each
calendar year
Ensure that tankers operate at norms
Oil Spills
Canadian Regime:
– Oil Spill response organizations (ROs) certified by TC
under the Canada Shipping Act to respond to oil spills
Regional framework: 4 ROs to cover Canadian waters
– All ships in waters under Canadian jurisdiction (South of
60N) must have:
– An oil pollution emergency plan on board; and
– A contract with a TC certified oil spill RO that can respond
to an oil spill anywhere the ship will travel in Canada
– Ships pay an annual fee to ROs to maintain the level of
preparedness to respond to a spill (private services as
opposed to governmental services)
Oil Spills
Oil Spills
Ongoing review of Canada's Marine Oil Spill
Preparedness and Response Regime – Designed to:
– Review structure/effectiveness of the response regime
(public/private partnership)
– Assess adequacy of liability and compensation regime
– Review tanker safety issues
– Assess needs in Arctic waters (North of 60N)
– Assess how to address increased risks of chemical spills in
Canadian waters (including LNG)
Timeframe: First report due Nov 2013 (existing regime), second
report due Sept. 2014 (Arctic & HNS/LNG response regime)
Review panel has heard from 100+ stakehlders so far (see TC website)
Marine Waste
Environmental footprint of ship’s garbage (estimates)
– 70% immediately sinks to bottom of ocean
– 15% washed up on the shore
– 15% floats on or just under ocean’s surface(garbage islands)
How long for an object to dissolve at sea?
Painted wood:13 yrs
Tin can:100 yrs
Aluminum cans: 200-500 yrs
Plastic bottles: 450 yrs
Source: Hellenic Marine Environment Protection Association
Obligations on vessels:
–MARPOL 73/78 - Annex V (revised in Jan 2013)
Food waste, cargo residues, cleaning agents, plastic domestic
oil, incinerator ashes, etc
–Total prohibition on disposal of plastic
–Total prohibition of discharge of waste in special areas
See map (next slide)
–Restrictions on discharge of garbage (other than plastic)
in coastal waters
Cargo residues:
– Residual cargo that remains on board (in
bilges, pipes or cargo tanks) after unloading
– These residues end up in the washing waters
that are used to clean cargo holds before their
next loading
– Now considered as “garbage” under revised
Annex V of MARPOL 73/73
Cargo residues and cargo hold washing waters that
are not “harmful to the marine environment” (HME)
can be discharged under certain conditions:
– Outside of special areas: if at least 12 nautical miles from
nearest land AND while ship is en route
– Within special areas: applies ONLY to washing water, ship
must be in transit between ports without adequate
reception facilities, ship must be12 nm from shore and en
Cargo residues (sweepings) must be bagged & discharged ashore
Responsibility of shipper to classify cargo residues
as HME (or not):
– Harmonized classification by Jan 2015
– But in the mean time, challenges from shipowners and
Discharge recorded in the ship’s garbage record
Transitional regime for cargo residues that are
“Harmful to the Marine Environment” (HME):
– Until Dec. 31, 2015, can be discharged IF
NO adequate reception facilities at receiving terminal or
next port call (as per info from port authorities); and
Discharge is done outside of Special Areas AND as far
as practical from nearest land, but no less than 12nm
Amount is minimized (i.e., solid bulk cargo residues
swept, bagged and discharged ashore, etc) and
discharge recorded in ship’s garbage record book
What happens if cargoes residues – washing waters
cannot be discharged?
– Must be discharged ashore prior to leaving berth or be stored in
a ship’s tank during passage
– Economic costs (time at berth at port, shore disposal costs
and/or loading less cargo)
Recommended procedures for shipowners to “navigate”
these new requirements:
– Liaise with charterers, shippers and ports of discharge to
determine whether cargo is classified as HME prior to loading
and, if it is, to ensure suitable reception facilities are available
– Ensure that charterparty will state who pays for these additional
costs and who will be liable (if cargo residue not appropriately
disposed of)
Simplified overview of the discharge provisions of the revised
MARPOL Annex V which entered into force on 1 January 2013
DISCLAIMER: Additional requirements may apply.
This simplified overview is for information or reference purposes only and is not meant as a substitute
for the comprehensive provisions in the revised MARPOL Annex V (resolution MEPC.201(62)) or the
2012 Guidelines for the Implementation of MARPOL Annex V (resolution MEPC.219(63)).
Type of garbage
Ships outside special areas
Ships within special areas
Offshore platforms
and all ships within 500 m
of such platforms
Food waste
comminuted or ground
Discharge permitted
≥3 nm from the nearest land
and en route
Discharge permitted
≥12 nm from the nearest
land and en route
Discharge permitted
≥12 nm from the nearest land
Food waste not
comminuted or ground
Discharge permitted
≥12 nm from the nearest land
and en route
Discharge prohibited
Discharge prohibited
Discharge prohibited
Discharge prohibited
Cargo residues1 not
contained in wash water
Cargo residues1
contained in wash water
Discharge permitted
≥12 nm from the nearest land
and en route
Discharge only permitted
in specific circumstances
Discharge prohibited
and ≥12 nm from the nearest
land and en route
Discharge only permitted
in specific circumstances
Discharge prohibited
and ≥12 nm from the nearest
land and en route
Cleaning agents and
additives1 contained in
cargo hold wash water
Discharge permitted
Cleaning agents and
additives1 contained in
deck and external
surfaces wash water
Discharge permitted
Discharge prohibited
Carcasses of animals
carried on board as
cargo and which died
during the voyage
Discharge permitted
as far from the nearest land
as possible and en route
Discharge prohibited
Discharge prohibited
All other garbage
including plastics,
domestic wastes,
cooking oil, incinerator
ashes, operational
wastes and fishing gear
Discharge prohibited
Discharge prohibited
Discharge prohibited
Mixed garbage
When garbage is mixed with or contaminated by other substances prohibited from discharge
or having different discharge requirements, the more stringent requirements shall apply
These substances must not be harmful to the marine environment.
According to regulation 6.1.2 of MARPOL Annex V, the discharge shall only be allowed if: (a) both the port of
departure and the next port of destination are within the special area and the ship will not transit outside the
special area between these ports (regulation; and (b) if no adequate reception facilities are available
at those ports (regulation
Garbage management on board vessels:
– Incinerators (for paper, packaging material, food
waste, glass, etc)
Incinerator ashes discharged ashore or in accordance with
Annex V
– Grinder (for food), compacters (for cans), crushers
(for glass)
To minimize volume
- BMPs to reduce wastes at
the source and promote
discharge ashore (including
Canadian Context:
Transport Canada has not yet updated its legislation to
reflect the revised Annex V of MARPOL 73/78
In the meantime, existing Canadian requirements found in
Division 5 of the Vessel Pollution and Dangerous
Chemical Regulations
 General prohibition on disposal of garbage in internal waters,
fishing zones and arctic waters
 Some exceptions - including (s. 101)
 Garbage, when vessels more than 12nm from nearest land (except plastic
and dunnage)
 Garbage that has gone through a comminuter or grinder, so long as the
vessel is more than 3nm from shore
 Cargo residues under certain conditions (sections 101 and 102)
Shore reception facilities
MARPOL 73/78 - Annex V
– State party to Annex V MARPOL shall ensure that ports
under their jurisdiction provide “adequate” reception
facilities to ships
– What does “adequate” mean?
Not causing “undue delay” to ships and meeting their needs
– 24/24hrs & 7/7 days?
– Economically accessible?
Currently, waste reception facilities NOT available at
all ports
– Black Water: Wastewater containing faecal matter
and urine as well as medical facility waters
– Grey water: Water generated from domestic activities
such as dishwashing, laundry and bathing
– Discharge of raw sewage in ocean and coastal
sheltered water can create health hazards and
damage to receiving ecosystems (eutrophication,
visual pollution, etc)
International Regime:
Annex IV of MARPOL 73/78 (Sewage):
– Only regulates black water; does not apply to gray water
– Prohibits discharge of sewage (black water) into sea:
Unless ship has an approved sewage treatment plant in
operation; or
The ship has an approved sewage comminuting and
disinfecting system AND ship is 3 nm from nearest land
– Sewage not comminuted and desinfected must be kept in
holding tanks and discharged ≥ 12nm from the nearest land
Canadian Regime:
Canada has not ratified Annex IV
Legislative framework under division 4 of the Vessel
Pollution and Dangerous Chemical Regulations:
– Ships must have approved marine sanitation system (or toilet
with holding tanks)
– Prohibition against discharging untreated sewage in Canadian
inland waters and coastal waters within 12nm;
Specific requirements for discharge of treated sewage (limits on faecal
– Must ensure that release does not result in deposits of solids or
leave a sheen on the water (subsection 4)
– Specific requirements for passenger vessels (subsection 5)
Oily Residues from Engine Room
Oily residues are a normal by-product of a
ship’s operations and can be generated by:
– Treating bunkers (which ships use as fuel)
– Bilge water that is produced from cleaning a ship’s
machinery spaces:
This water is often contaminated with fuel oils and
lubricating oils and accumulates in bilges (residual
collection tanks) of the engine room
Oily Residues from Engine Room
International Regime:
Annex 1 – MARPOL 73/78
– Prohibits discharge at sea of oily mixtures except
under certain conditions
Ship is not in a special area (see notes)
Ship has an approved oily water separator onboard
Ship is en route AND bilge water that is discharged (after
being processed through the oily water separator) results in
an effluent that has an oil content less than 15 parts per
million (ppm)
– Alternatively, retain in holding tanks until discharged
at shore
Lack of proper reception facilities despite obligation imposed
on port states..
Oily Residues from Engine Room
Canadian regime:
Division 1 of the Vessel Pollution and Dangerous
Chemical Regulations incorporates requirements of
Annex 1 MARPOL;
However, it provides for stricter requirements for
discharges in Canadian inland waters:
– Limited to a 5 ppm limit oily content - as opposed to the
15 ppm (under MARPOL)
– Ships must be equipped with a 5ppm bilge alarm system
– Zero discharge in Arctic waters
Oily Residues from Engine Room
Primary objective should be to reduce oily water
residues through operational procedures
Shipping Federation’s Code of Best Practices for
Managing Oily Water Waste in Ship’s Engine Rooms
Minimize amount of water, condensation, oil, lubricants,
gray water etc., collecting in the engine -room bilges
through rigorous maintenance of machinery and proper
use of receptacles and drip pans;
Clean bilges regularly and remove any solid material
that may reduce the performance of the oily water
separator (OWS); etc
Oily Residues from Engine Room
Illegal operational discharge of oily water off
Canadian coasts
– Chronic pollution? Not unique to Canada:
According to some estimates, 300,000 birds killed off of
Newfoundland's coast every year
Independently of debates on accuracy of above figures,
Canadian measures to prevent these illegal discharges
Aircraft surveillance
Increased enforcement and higher fines
Legislative amendments to Migratory Birds Convention Act,
1994 and Canadian Environmental Protection Act (1999)
Some issues with the legislative means but several shipowners support the objectives
Marine Waste - Overview
Marine Waste - Overview
Air Emissions From Ships
SOx and NOx Emissions
What is the main issue:
– Combustion of ship’s fuel (marine bunkers)
Sulphur Oxides (Sox)
Nitrogen Oxide (Nox)
Particles (fine dust) called particulate matter (PM)
– These gases and particles are harmful to
human health (air quality problems), the
oceans and the atmosphere (acidification,
SOx and NOx Emissions
SOx emissions can be reduced by decreasing
the sulphur content in the fuel supplied to the
vessel; this will also lead to lower PM emissions
– Use of fuel with low sulphur content
Move from heavy oil to distillate/diesel oil which
contains less sulphur; or
– Technological improvements (green technologies)
EG: Use of scrubbers to reduce SOX from exhaust;
certain studies show this can reduce Sox up to 85%
NOx emissions can be reduced by improving
engine (diesel engine) efficiency
SOx and NOx Emissions
International Regime:
Annex VI – MARPOL 73/78
– Imposes limits on emissions of Sox & PMs
from ships
Global SOx cap:
Current: 3.5% (reduced from 4.5% as of Jan 2012)
By 2020: progressively reduced to 0.5%, subject to
Stricter in Emission Control Areas (ECAs)
Current: 1%
Jan 2015 will be further reduced to 0.1%
ECAs: North America is an ECAs
SOx and NOx emissions
Challenges linked to increased SOx limits:
– Availability of low sulphur fuel:
Increased demand for distillate demand; availability on
the market? Extra costs…
Fuel costs already represent ≥ 50% of operating costs
– Alternatives :
Use of Scrubbers
– Challenges: costs (up to $2 million in some cases),
will there be enough space on board, crew training, etc
Use of Liquid Natural Gas as fuel
SOx and NOx Emissions
International Regime:
Annex VI – MARPOL 73/78
– Imposes limits on emissions of NOx
Optimize fuel combustion to reduce NOX emissions
Limits apply to “new vessels only” i.e., built after
Limits in term of grams of NOx per KWT / depends
on the engine’s maximum operating speed (rpm)
Global limits for Tier I and II levels
Stricter limits in ECAs that cover NOx ( Tier III level)
SOx and NOx Emissions
NOx emission limits under MARPOL Annex VI
date on or after
Engine Speed
N= engine rated speed
n<130 rpm
1 January 2000
17.0 grams/KWh
45 x n-0.2 g/Kwh
9.8 g/KWh
1 January 2011
14.4 grams/KWh
44 x n-0.23 g/Kwh
7.7 g/KWh
1 January 2016
3.4 grams/KWh
9 x n-0.2 g/Kwh
2.0 g/KWh
Source: IMO website
SOx and NOx Emissions
Existing emission control areas
Entered into
Baltic Sea
North Sea
Sox, Nox,
Sox, Nox,
North America ECA include most of Canada and US costs
SOx and NOx emissions
ECA in North America
SOx and NOx Emissions
Canadian Approach:
Differentiation between foreign flag (ocean
going) and domestic (Canadian) vessels
– Foreign flag vessels:
ECA limits to also apply when vessels transiting in
Great Lakes & St. Lawrence River
– Domestic vessels
Applied on a fleet averaging basis for vessels
trading solely in the GL & St. Lawrence River
– Note: At this stage, US does not intend to apply
ECA limits to US lakers (although applied to the
rest of their internal waters)
SOx and NOx Emissions
Possible future ECAs
CO2 Emissions
CO2 is the main greenhouse gas
Combustion of marine bunkers produces CO2
Increase of CO2 emissions contributing factor
to global warming
CO2 Emissions
Comparison by sectors
Source: Global emissions of CO2 in 2007 (Second IMO GHG Study 2009)
CO2 Emissions
Ships, the most energy efficient on a tonne-km basis
Source: Shipping, World Trade and the Reduction of CO2 emissions,
International Chamber of Shipping,
CO2 Emissions
International shipping accounts for between
2.7% to 4% of global CO2 emissions while
transporting 90% of international trade
Nevertheless, this percentage may increase by
as much as 200-300 percent by 2050 (from
2007 level) due to expected growth in
international trade
– Demand is the primary driver BUT would not fit with
global objective to reduce CO2 emissions
– How do we ensure sustainability of marine
CO2 Emissions
IMO has identified significant potential for reduction of GHGs / CO2 emissions through technical &
operational measures: Could reduce emissions rate by 25% to 75% below current levels
CO2 Emissions
International Regime:
MARPOL Annex VI (Chapter 4):
– Entered into force on January 1, 2013
– 2 mandatory mechanisms intended to ensure energy
efficiency standard for ships:
Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI)
Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP)
CO2 Emissions
Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) – applies
to new ships
This a performance-based mechanism requiring
specified level of energy efficiency in new ships
(technical measures)
The EEDI index is based on a continuous
improvement approach , i.e., increased requirements
over time
Set in terms of maximum (Grams of CO2 per tonne-nautical
mile (g/t*nm)
CO2 Emissions
Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan
(SSEMP)– applies to all ships
A mechanism for operators to improve the energy
efficiency of their ships
Mostly translates into operational measures to reduce fuel
Several approaches: slow speed, voyage optimization
(reduced port time, best route forecasting), optimization of
engine & hull maintenance, etc.
Involves monitoring energy efficiency performance
and reviewing potential for improvement at regular
intervals (new technologies, practices)
Other Environmental Issues
Ship recycling
Shoreline rrosion caused by the wake of
the ship in narrow passages
– Eg: St. Lawrence
Impacts on marine mammals
Noise (in port)
Dust (loading & discharge operations), etc